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César Lattes

Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes known as César Lattes, was a Brazilian experimental physicist, one of the discoverers of the pion, a composite subatomic particle made of a quark and an antiquark. Lattes was born to a family of Italian-Jewish immigrants in Paraná Brazil, he did his first studies there and in São Paulo. He went to the University of São Paulo, graduating in 1943, in mathematics and physics, he was part of an initial group of young Brazilian physicists who worked under European teachers such as Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini. Lattes was considered the most brilliant of those and was noted at a young age as a bold researcher, his colleagues, who became important Brazilian scientists, were Oscar Sala, Mário Schenberg, Roberto Salmeron, Marcelo Damy de Souza Santos and Jayme Tiomno. At the age of 25, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Center for Physical Research in Rio de Janeiro. From 1947 to 1948, Lattes launched on his main research line by studying cosmic rays, he visited a weather station on top of the 5,200-meter high Chacaltaya mountain in Bolivia, using photographic plates to register the rays.

Travelling to England with his teacher Occhialini, Lattes went to work at the H. H. Wills Laboratory of the University of Bristol, directed by Cecil Powell. There, he improved on the nuclear emulsion used by Powell by adding more boron to it. In 1947, he made his great experimental discovery with Powell: the pion. Lattes proceeded to write a paper for Nature without bothering to ask for Powell's consent. In the same year, he was responsible for calculating the new particle's mass. A year working with Eugene H. Gardner at UC Berkeley, Lattes was able to detect the artificial production of pions in the lab's cyclotron, by bombarding carbon atoms with alpha particles, he was just 24 years old. In 1949, Lattes returned as a professor and researcher with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the Brazilian Center for Physical Research. After another brief stay in the United States, he returned to Brazil and accepted a position at his alma mater, the Department of Physics of the University of São Paulo.

In 1967, Lattes accepted a position of full professor with the new "Gleb Wataghin" Institute of Physics at the State University of Campinas, which he helped to found. He became the chairman of the Department of Cosmic Rays, High Energies and Leptons. In 1969, he and his group discovered the mass of the so-called fireballs, a phenomenon induced by occurring high-energy collisions, and, detected by means of special lead-chamber nuclear emulsion plates invented by him, placed at the Chacaltaya peak of the Bolivian Andes. Lattes retired in 1986, when he received from the Unicamp the titles of doctor honoris causa and professor emeritus. After retirement he continued to live in a house in the suburban area near to the University's campus, he died of a heart attack on March 2005 in Campinas, São Paulo. Lattes is one of the most distinguished and honored Brazilian physicists, his work was fundamental for the development of atomic physics, he was a great scientific leader of Brazilian Physics and was one of the main personalities behind the creation of the important Brazilian National Research Council.

Due to his contribution in this process, the Brazilian national science data-base, Lattes Platform was named after him. He figures as one of the few Brazilians in Isaac Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, as well as in the Encyclopædia Britannica. Although he was the main researcher and the first author of the historical Nature article describing the pion, Cecil Powell alone was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for "his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"; the reason for this apparent neglect is that the Nobel Committee policy until 1960 was to give the award to the research group head, only. He received the TWAS Prize in 1987. After his death UNICAMP decided to give his name to the central library. "Science should be universal, without a doubt. However, one should not believe unconditionally in this." Gilberto Gil's Grammy-winning 1998 album Quanta includes a song dedicated to Lattes, called "Ciência e Arte".

C. M. G. Lattes. P. S. Occhialini. F. Powell. "Processes involving charged mesons". Nature. 159: 694–697. Bibcode:1947Natur.159..694L. Doi:10.1038/159694a0. C. M. G. Lattes. P. S. Occhialini. F. Powell. "A determination of the ratio of the masses of pi-meson and mu-meson by the method of grain-counting". Proceedings of the Physical Society. 61: 173–183. Bibcode:1948PPS....61..173L. Doi:10.1088/0959-5309/61/2/308. E. Gardner. M. G. Lattes. "Production of mesons by the 184-inch Berkeley cyclotron". Science. 107: 270–271. Bibcode:1948Sci...107..270G. Doi:10.1126/science.107.2776.270. PMID 17844504. C. M. G. Lattes. Q. Orsini. G. Pacca. T. Cruz. Fujimoto. "Observation of high energy nuclear events with emulsion chamber exposed on Mt. Chacaltaya". Il Nuovo Cimento. 28: 2160. Bibcode:1963NCim...28..614L. Doi:10.1007/bf02828877. C. M. G. Lattes. Encyclopædia Britannica. Special Dedication to Cesar Lattes. UNICAMP Archive System, March 2005. To Cesar What Belongs to Lattes. State University of Campinas. Cesar Lattes, a Brief Biography. Brazilian Center of Physical Research.

Photos of César Lattes at Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Lattes Platform

Yani Rosenthal

Yani Benjamin Rosenthal Hidalgo is a businessman and politician. His parents are Miriam Marina Hidalgo de Rosenthal, he has a sister and three brothers. He is married to Claudia Madrid, they have four daughters, Victoria and Alexandra. In 1993 his home suffered damages from a bomb attack. Rosenthal was Director of Diario Tiempo and published a series of articles about military abuses and his home was temporary shelter of a witness of a killing performed by military, so it has been alleged that the military was involved. Rosenthal studied high school at Bilingual School: Escuela Internacional Sampedrana in San Pedro Sula, he is a lawyer graduated from UNAH-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras and has an MBA from INCAE. In 1998 the Honduras Supreme Court of Justice granted him the title of Notary public. Rosenthal began his work as an activist for the Liberal Party at a young age. Rosenthal was an alternate member of the Liberal Party's Central Executive Committee from 2001 to 2005 and a full member as Secretary of International Relations from 2005 to 2009.

When Mel Zelaya took office on January 27, 2006 as Honduras President, Rosenthal was appointed as Minister of the Presidency. Due to his lack of any public service experience, his appointment was criticized in the local media, since it was seen as a result of the political negotiations of his father. Jaime Rosenthal Sr. has backed Yani in the political arena in recent years. After the death of his younger brother Jaime in a gun accident, Yani was seen as the natural successor to his father, his previous experience was limited. He was advisor of San Pedro Sula municipality, he was the coordinator of the presidential campaign of his father Jaime Rosenthal and in 2005 after an internal election within the Liberal Party, he was regional coordinator of Mel Zelaya presidential campaign. In December 2006 Diario La Tribuna carried out a poll among a number of broadcasters, it showed that Rosenthal had the highest favorable opinion of all Ministers of the Mel Zelaya administration. The results have little statistical merit since the broadcaster's population polled was just over 100 and his family owns several broadcasting companies including television and a newspaper which employ many of the polled broadcasters.

On January 24, 2007 CID-Gallup published a public opinion poll. The results indicated. In December 2006 and January 2007 he suffered severe criticism from his own party members, after he announced the results of an evaluation process of all government ministers and other executives of which he was in charge. Rosenthal was the only minister not evaluated. Several well-known members of the Partido Liberal failed the examination and only a few were removed from their posts; this internal dispute extended all the way to the Vice President of Honduras Elvin Santos, who declared publicly that Rosenthal was unfit to evaluate him. Rosenthal headed the process of adjudication of import rights of oil products into the country; this process was adjudicated in 2006 to ConocoPhillips. ChevronTexaco and Shell were left out of the importing business in Honduras, in which they had operated for decades; this process which Rosenthal has led with other officials close to President Zelaya has been under constant criticism from the private sector in Honduras, as well as from the government of the United States.

ConocoPhilips, despite winning the monopoly rights of importing oil in the country, lacks storage facilities. Chevron and Shell have refused to lease to ConnocoPhillips or the Government their respective facilities. After this refusal President Zelaya pushed for an executive mandate to force multinational companies to lease their facilities under a price point set by the government. On January 16, 2007, the US Ambassador in Honduras Charles Ford, expressed publicly his concern derived about the executive mandate to force a lease of oil storage facilities to the government. On January 17, 2007, President Manuel Zelaya's legal advisor Enrique Flores said the government would not take control of the terminal owned by Chevron, but would take control of two oil storage terminals owned by Honduran company DIPPSA, including one in which Exxon Mobil owns a 50% stake. On December 31, 2007, Yani Rosenthal resigned as Minister of the Presidency, he was running to be elected in the internal primary election within the Liberal Party to become the candidate for the 2010 Honduras Presidency, but joined his political movement with another candidate: Roberto Micheleti and on November 30, 2008 his movement lost the internal election.

Independent media in Honduras have been critical of Arcadia's methods, reports appearing in independent newspaper La Tribuna and other news outlets have denounced Arcadia's declarations as false Rosenthal participated in both the primary election in the liberal party in 2008 and the general election in 2009 and was elected congressman for the 2010-2014 period. In March 2010, the newly elected Lobo government sent a package of new taxes to government, which have been opposed and denounced by Rosenthal as onerous to the poorest people in Honduras.. In 2015, Yani Rosenthal along with his cousin Yankel, his father Jaime were indicted under the Kingpin Act for "provide money laundering and other services that support the international narcotics trafficking activities of multiple Central American drug traffickers and their criminal organizations". Both plead guilty. On December 15, 2017, the U. S. Attorney an

Theodemir (Visigoth)

Theodemir or Theudimer was a Visigothic comes prominent in the southeast of Carthaginensis during the last decades of the Visigothic kingdom and for several years after the Moorish conquest. He ruled seven cities in southeastern Spain, mentioned in the Treaty of Orihuela, preserved by the Andalusian historian Ibn Adarí in the thirteenth century: Orihuela, Alicante, Bigastro and Lorca. Sometime during the joint reign of Egica and Wittiza, a Byzantine fleet raided the coasts of southern Iberia and was driven off by Theudimer; the dating of this event is disputed: it may have occurred as part of Leontios' expedition to relieve Carthage, under assault by the Arabs, in 697. What is universally accepted is that it was an isolated incident connected with other military activities and not an attempt to reestablish the province of Spania, lost in the 620s; as E. A. Thompson states, "We know nothing whatever of the context of this strange event."After the defeat of king Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete in 711 or 712, Theudimer resisted the invading Arabs, but he was defeated in pitched battle and made peace with the Muslim emir Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa.

"The text of the treaty he signed has been preserved in at least three separate sources, including a fourteenth-century biographical dictionary, is dated to 5 April 713." The treaty allowed that Christians who submitted to Muslim rule would be spared their lives and allowed to continue living with their families according to their mores and practising their Catholic faith in their churches, but they were required to pay a tribute per capita and to turn over any enemies of the conquerors to the government. The tribute consisted of one dinar, four measures each of wheat, grape juice, vinegar, plus two of honey and oil. Theudimer retained his land and his local authority. Theudimer travelled to Damascus to have his treaty confirmed by the Umayyad Caliph. However, it is unknown how long this treaty lasted in practice, whether it continued until Theudimer's death or after, or was cut short before his death, his prominence in the region is testified by the number of Gothic nobles in the same region who tried to claim descent from him.

The region itself was given the commemorative name Tudmir by the Arabs. Theudimer left a son, described as wealthy by the Chronicle, but whether or not he was his successor is debated by scholars. If he did succeed, he would have done so around 740, but his fate is unknown and the region of Tudmir had lost its independence by the 780s. In the historical novel Amaya o los vascos en el siglo VIII, the characters mention Teodomiro "duke of Aurariola and Baetica, general prevost of the army" as one of those who resist Islamic dominance along with Pelayo of Asturias and García Jiménez of Navarre. Collins, Roger; the Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-631-15923-1. Collins, Roger. E. Michael Gerli. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge. Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-18185-7. Charles Morris, "The Stratagem Of Theodomir", Historical Tales: Spanish, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1898

Haakon the Crazy

Håkon the Crazy was a Norwegian earl and Birkebeiner chieftain during the civil war era in Norway. Håkon Galen was born no than the 1170s and died in 1214, his epithet "the crazy" or "the mad" can be translated as frenzied, furious or frantic and refers to ferociousness in battle. Håkon Galen was the son of Folkvid the Lawspeaker and Cecilia Sigurdsdotter, an illegitimate daughter of king Sigurd Munn. Cecilia had been married off to Folkvid the Lawspeaker in Värmland in Sweden, by her father's enemies after he had been defeated and killed in 1155. In 1177, Sverre took over leadership of the Birkebeiner rebel faction. Sverre claimed to be an illegitimate son of king Sigurd Munn, thus Cecilia's half-brother. Subsequently Cecilia left her husband and returned to Norway taking young Håkon with her. After Sverre succeeded in winning the throne of Norway, Cecilia had her marriage to Folkvid annulled, claiming she had been forced to marry him against her will. Håkon Galen is first mentioned in the Sagas as one of the prominent men among the Birkebeiner fighting for King Sverre in 1193 against a force led by Harald Maddadsson, the Earl of Orkney.

He was supported by two sons-in-law of Erling Skakke, Hallkjell Jonsson and Sigurd Magnusson, the latter an acknowledged son of King Magnus V of Norway and claimant to the throne of Norway. The attacking force was gathered from the islands of Orkney and Shetland, giving rise to the name Island Beards. In the spring of 1194, King Sverre sailed south to confront the attacking force; the two fleets met on April 3rd in the Battle of Florvåg on an island just north of Bergen. Both Hallkjell Jonsson and Sigurd Magnusson died in the conflict; the battle experience of the Birkebeiner veterans proved to be decisive in achieving victory over the Øyskjegger. In January 1204, when King Sverre's son, King Håkon III died, Håkon Galen was made leader of the army, given the title jarl and named steward of the kingdom during the minority of the child Guttorm Sigurdsson; these appointments were made the day after Guttorm became king and Håkon thus became the real leader of the Birkebeiner, as King Guttorm was only 4 years old.

When Guttorm died in August the same year, Håkon was the favored candidate among the Birkebeiner military leaders, the lendmenn, to become the next king. However, at the Thing convened in Nidaros to elect the new king, his candidacy was opposed by the Archdiocese of Nidaros and the farmers of Trøndelag. According to the Bagler sagas, Håkon's Swedish origins were held against him. In the end, Håkon's half-brother, Inge Bårdsson became king. Håkon remained earl and leader of the military, was given half the royal revenues. From 1204 until 1208, Inge and Håkon fought the Bagler rising, under the pretenders Erling Steinvegg and Philippus Simonsson, until the warfare was ended by the settlement of Kvitsøy. By this agreement, Inge and Håkon recognized Bagler rule over the eastern parts of Norway with Philippus ruling as earl, under the nominal overlordship of king Inge, while the Birkebeiner remained in control of the rest of the country. Earl Håkon ruled the western part of Norway, with his power base in Bergen.

The relationship between Håkon and his brother Inge seems to have been tense at times. When it became clear that Philippus was continuing to call himself king, in breach of the Kvitsøy-agreement, Håkon made attempts to have himself declared king as well, but Inge refused to accept this. Instead, an agreement was drawn up by which the brother that survived the other would inherit the other’s lands, while a legitimate son of either would inherit them both. Håkon's legitimate son, Knut Haakonsson, thereby seemed to be in a strong position to become the next king, as Inge only had an illegitimate son. In 1214, earl Håkon was suspected of having had a hand in a rising by the farmers of Trøndelag against king Inge. Open conflict between the two brothers never broke out, however, as Håkon died of natural causes in Bergen just after Christmas of 1214. Inge took over his part of the kingdom. In 1205, Håkon Galen married the Swedish noblewoman Kristina Nilsdotter, whose maternal grandfather was Eric the Saint who reigned as King Eric IX of Sweden.

They had a son Knut Håkonsson. After the death of Håkon, Kristina took their son Knut with her and returned to Västergötland, Sweden where she married Swedish nobleman, Eskil Magnusson. Håkon Galen was buried in the old Bergen Cathedral, demolished in 1531. Today, a memorial marks its site in Bergenhus fortress; the main source of information concerning the life of Håkon Galen is from the Bagler sagas. He is mentioned in Sverris saga and Håkon Håkonsson's saga; the Norwegian civil war era was the period between 1130 and 1240. During this time, a series of civil wars were fought between rival kings and pretenders to the throne of Norway. After the death of King Sigurd the Crusader in 1130, the goal of the warring parties was always to put their man on the throne. In the first decades of the civil wars, alliances shifted, centered on the person of a king or pretender to the throne, but towards the end of the 12th century, two rival parties emerged, known as the Birkebeiner and the Bagler. After these two factions were reconciled in 1217, a more ordered system of centralized government was able to bring an end to such frequent uprisings.

The failed rebellion of duke Skule Bårdsson in 1240 was the final episode of the civil war era. Jónsson, Karl The Saga of King Sverri of Norway translator J. Stephton. ISBN 1-897853-49-1 Koht, Havfdan The Scandinavian Kingdoms until the end of the thirteenth century ( Cambridge: Camb

Andrew Slack

Andrew Gerard Slack is an Australian former state and national representative rugby union player who captained the Wallabies in 19 Test matches in between 1984 and 1987. His 133 appearances for Queensland between 1975 and 1987 stood as the state record until bettered by Mark Connors in 2006, he made 87 total appearances for Australia between 1987, earning 39 Test caps. He scored 10 captained Australia on 34 occasions in total, he was the tour captain for the Wallabies' 1984 tour Grand Slam feat. Andrew Slack attended school at Villanova College, Queensland, he played his club rugby with Brisbane Souths and made his Queensland state debut against a Combined Services side, as a five-eighth at age 19 in 1975 before switching to centre for the rest of his career. Slack debuted for Australia in 1978 in the home series against Wales which the Wallabies won 2-nil under Tony Shaw. Slack is remembered as a key factor in the Wallabies' ascendancy to world class status guiding them to a Bledisloe Cup, a Grand Slam and a World Cup semi-final.

Though a fine player in his own right, Slack's main strengths were his tactical acumen and the ability to get the most out of his teammates. These qualities made him a superb captain when he was given the honour in 1984 and he would lead Australia to 14 victories in 19 matches, his international debut came in Australia's 2–0 victory over Wales in 1978, a series more violent and acrimonious than England's visit three years earlier. Australia were somewhat fortunate to win the second test when a Paul McClean drop goal was awarded despite sailing wide of the posts, but Slack enjoyed the winning feeling all the same. "There was controversy aplenty but after my first series it was two to us and nil to the others!" Wales were in the midst of a period when they were dominating European rugby and this test series win was notable in establishing the Wallabies credentials as a test side. A year he featured in one of Australia's finest hours – a 12–6 victory over New Zealand in Sydney, but missed the following two international seasons.

He returned for the 81/82 tour to the UK where Australia's gifted side lost three out of their four test matches, but Slack was able to register his first two tries against Wales and Scotland respectively. The same year Australia had an unsuccessful defence of the Bledisloe Cup but performed creditably in the 2–1 series loss. In 1984 Slack was given the captaincy of Australia when coach Alan Jones' original choice of Mark Ella was vetoed by the selectors; the decision turned out to be a good one and Slack led the Wallabies to a momentous Grand Slam against the Home Nations on the autumn tour of the UK. The Wallabies were well received everywhere apart from Wales where Slack was spat upon by Llanelli fans when Australia played at Stradey Park. Australia responded in the most effective way possible by pulverising Wales 28–9 in the subsequent test match which included an unprecedented pushover try by Steve Tuynman.'The Slam' was sealed with victory over Scotland at Murrayfield during which Slack confounded critics who said that he couldn't pass the ball by hurling a superb long ball for David Campese to score his first try.

After the game Slack conceded that the emotion overcame him: "I got up to make a speech at happy hour and I've always been one to wear my heart on my sleeve. Yeah, the odd tear flowed."He temporarily retired from the international game in 1985 but returned the year after to lead Australia to an greater achievement than the Grand Slam – a series win on New Zealand soil, which put any doubt to rest over the Wallabies claims to being a world power. That year Australia defeated France in Sydney, a forward performance which Slack rated as better than the victories over New Zealand in 1979 and Wales in 1984. Slack's career ended on a low note when Australia were beaten in the World Cup semi-final against France, his last game came in the 3/4 play-off defeat by Wales. Slack spent three years as a national selector for the Wallabies before he quit that role became the first backline player in 30 years to coach the Queensland Reds when he was appointed to the position in 2003, he only stayed in the position a season before quitting as coach after the unsuccessful season in which the team finished 8th in the Super 12.

In his playing days, rugby was an amateur game and his professional career started out as school teacher but since the end of his rugby career, he has become the current head of Sport at QTQ News in Brisbane and works as a motivational speaker. He is one of five captains to lead his side to a test series win on New Zealand soil, along with Philip J. Nel, Trevor Allan, John Dawes and Philippe Saint-André. In 2010 he was honoured in the sixth set of inductees into the Australian Rugby Union Hall of Fame. Bio at speakers page Bio at Reds Rugby Bio at Sporting Heroes Slack Appointed to Reds coaching position

Hubert Shirley-Smith

Sir Hubert Shirley-Smith, CBE, BSc, MICE was a British civil engineer. Shirley-Smith is most famous for helping to design the Howrah Bridge in Calcutta for the Indian Public Works Department in 1943, he served in the Engineer and Railway Staff Corps, an unpaid, volunteer Territorial Army unit which provides engineering expertise to the British Army and was gazetted as a Major of that corps on 6 October 1953 In 1962 he worked as site agent for the ADC bridge company during construction of the Forth Road Bridge. He served as president of the Institution of Civil Engineers from November 1967 to November 1968, during the 150th anniversary of that institution, was made a Fellow of Imperial College, London in 1966 Shirley-Smith was a consulting engineer and worked for W. V. Zinn & Associates of London from 1969 to 1978. During 1968 Shirley-Smith was president of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering and helped to arrange the first joint-conferences of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Shirley-Smith was honoured with an appointment as a Knight Bachelor on 1 January 1969 in the Queen's New Year Honours, being knighted by the Queen at Buckingham Palace on 7 March 1969. He was appointed a first class engineer member of the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers in 1969. Shirley-Smith was an author and wrote The World's Great Bridges and the Encyclopædia Britannica article on bridges. In 1971 he lived in Orpington in Kent. Shirley-Smith died on 10 February 1981