Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Blender is a free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games. Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, raster graphics editing and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, animating, match moving, motion graphics, video editing and compositing. While current versions feature an integrated game engine, the upcoming 2.8 release will remove it. The Dutch animation studio NeoGeo started to develop Blender as an in-house application and based on the timestamps for the first source files, January 2, 1994 is considered to be Blender's birthday; the version 1.00 was released in January 1995, with the primary author being company co-owner and software developer Ton Roosendaal. The name Blender was inspired by a song by Yello, from the album Baby which NeoGeo used in its showreel; some of the design choices and experiences for Blender were carried over from an earlier software called Traces, that Ton Roosendaal developed for NeoGeo on the Commodore Amiga platform during the 1987–1991 period.
On January 1, 1998, Blender was released publicly online as SGI freeware. NeoGeo was dissolved and its client contracts were taken over by another company. After NeoGeo's dissolution, Ton Roosendaal founded Not a Number Technologies in June 1998 to further develop Blender distributing it as shareware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002; this meant, at the time, discontinuing the development of Blender. In May 2002, Roosendaal started the non-profit Blender Foundation, with the first goal to find a way to continue developing and promoting Blender as a community-based open-source project. On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started a crowdfunding precursor; the campaign aimed for open-sourcing Blender for a one-time payment of €100,000 collected from the community. On September 7, 2002, it was announced that they had collected enough funds and would release the Blender source code. Today, Blender is free and open-source software developed by its community, alongside two full-time and two part-time employees employed by the Blender Institute.
The Blender Foundation reserved the right to use dual licensing, so that, in addition to GPLv2, Blender would have been available under the Blender License that did not require disclosing source code but required payments to the Blender Foundation. However, they never exercised this option and suspended it indefinitely in 2005. Blender is available under "GNU GPLv2 or any later" and was not updated to the GPLv3, as "no evident benefits" were seen. In January -- February 2002 it was clear that NaN would close the doors in March, they put out one more release, 2.25. As a sort-of easter egg, a last personal tag, the artists and developers decided to add a 3D model of a chimpanzee head, it was created by Willem-Paul van Overbruggen, who named it Suzanne after the orangutan in the Kevin Smith film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back. Suzanne is Blender's alternative to more common test models such as the Utah Teapot and the Stanford Bunny. A low-polygon model with only 500 faces, Suzanne is used as a quick and easy way to test material, rigs and lighting setups and is frequently used in joke images.
Suzanne is still included in Blender. The largest Blender contest gives out an award called the Suzanne Award; the following table lists notable developments during Blender's release history. Official releases of Blender for Microsoft Windows, MacOS and Linux, as well as a port for FreeBSD, are available in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Though it is distributed without extensive example scenes found in some other programs, the software contains features that are characteristic of high-end 3D software. Among its capabilities are: Support for a variety of geometric primitives, including polygon meshes, fast subdivision surface modeling, Bezier curves, NURBS surfaces, icospheres, multi-res digital sculpting, outline font, a new n-gon modeling system called B-mesh. Internal render engine with scanline rendering, indirect lighting, ambient occlusion that can export in a wide variety of formats. A pathtracer render engine called Cycles. Cycles supports the Open Shading Language since Blender 2.65.
Integration with a number of external render engines through plugins. Keyframed animation tools including inverse kinematics, hook and lattice-based deformations, shape animations, non-linear animation and vertex weighting. Simulation tools for soft body dynamics including mesh collision detection, LBM fluid dynamics, smoke simulation, Bullet rigid body dynamics, ocean generator with waves. A particle system that includes support for particle-based hair. Modifiers to apply non-destructive effects. Python scripting for tool creation and prototyping, game logic, importing/exporting from other formats, task automation and custom tools. Basic non-linear video/audio editing. A integrated node-based compositor within the rendering pipeline accelerated with OpenCL. Procedural and node-based textures, as well as texture painting, projective painting, vertex painting, weight painting and dynamic painting. Real-time control during physics rendering. Camera and object tracking. Grease Pencil tools for 2D animation within a full 3D pipeline.
The Blender Game Engine was a built-in realtime graphics and logic engine with features such including collision detection, a dynamics engine, programmable logic
Chapecó is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina, in the Southern Region of Brazil. Being a major industrial and educational center, it is a major producer of industrialized food products. Considered a medium city, with a population estimated at 213 279 inhabitants, it is among the four most important cities in the state, it belongs to the Meso-region of Western Santa Catarina and to the Microregion of Chapecó. Distant 550 km from the state capital, Florianópolis, it is Headquarters of the Metropolitan Region of Chapecó, exerts significant influence not only in the Catarinense West but in the Northwest Gaúcho and Southwest of Paraná, from an economic, cultural, or political point of view. Chapecó became known worldwide through its association football club Chapecoense and the aftermath of LaMia Flight 2933 which killed 71, including most of the team's roster and staff. With the titles of "Brazil's agribusiness capital" and "Brazil's business tourism capital", the planned town constructed in the form of a chess grid has universities attracting students from all over Brazil.
The main educational institutions are UFFS, UNOCHAPECÓ, UNOESC and UDESC. Until the 19th century, the area around Chapecó land was under indigenous and Spanish control unoccupied by European people and subject to border issues and armed conflicts. Brazilian control was in fact established as a military colony in 1882, its official status as a municipality was established by state government decree after the Contestado War on August 25, 1917. Its area was given to a private colonization company which began selling land to people coming from the neighboring state of Rio Grande do Sul. Most of its inhabitants are descended from Italian and Polish immigrants; the region has always been the subject of disputes because of its strategic importance as a border region. During the Contestado War, airplanes were used for the first time in the history of America for the purpose of recognition and support for war operations. Colonized by Italian and German immigrants from Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, São Paulo and the coast of Santa Catarina, the city today attracts several inhabitants thanks to its development.
It is one of the cities with the highest number of buildings in Santa Catarina. According to the IBGE, Chapecó has 16% of its population living in apartments, gaining in percentage of cities sush as Joinville, Itajaí and Blumenau; this region of the state is home of some of the largest meat processing and exporting industrial enterprises such as Sadia and Seara Foods. Chapecó is known as a Brazilian agro-industrial capital, specialized in pork and technology involved; the city is headquarters of Aurora Central Cooperative and has a plant of BRF S. A. since 1973. Other major economic sectors are metal mechanics specialized in equipment for slaughterhouses and transportation and packaging, beverages, software development and biotechnology. Civil construction and trade are important source of income. Chapecó is served by Serafin Enoss Bertaso Airport. Football is the great passion of the Chapecoenses; the Chapecoense Football Association, known among its fans as a "Hurricane from the west", Chape and verdão, a team from Santa Catarina, has as its last title the Campeonato Catarinense de Futebol de 2017 - Série A.
Its headquarters is in Arena Condám, with a capacity of over 22,000 people and located in the East Zone of the city. The team had spent three consecutive years in the C Series of the Brazilian Championship, before beginning a rapid rise through the Brazilian football pyramid by reaching the second division in 2013 and entering the Serie A Brasileirão in 2014, where it resides; the team was among the best teams in South America, reaching the quarterfinals of the 2015 Copa Sudamericana and reaching the final of the 2016 Copa Sudamericana. On November 29, 2016, Chapecoense team members and staff boarded LaMia Flight 2933 to play the first leg of the 2016 Copa Sudamericana Finals against Atlético Nacional in Medellín, Colombia; the plane crashed in the mountains a few miles south of the city. Seventy-one of the seventy-seven people on board died, including all of the club's coaching staff and all but three of the players. A wave of commotion abated in the football world in the days and weeks after, playing tribute to the club.
The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chapecó. Federal University of Fronteira Sul Mercoagro - International Meat Processing Fair Aurora Central Cooperative Prefeitura de Chapeco Unochapecó - Universidade Comunitária Regional de Chapecó, local university Unoesc - Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina
Sinop, Mato Grosso
Sinop is a city on the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. The fourth-largest city in the state, its population in 2016 is estimated at more than 132,934 inhabitants, placing Sinop in 229th place in Brazil, it has an area of 3194.339 km ². A Sivam radar has been installed for monitoring the Amazon Basin. Embrapa has a branch in Sinop, the only one in the state of Mato Grosso, it is known as the Capital of a major city of northern Mato Grosso. Sinop is located in the northwest of the Midwest region of Brazil, in the north of Mato Grosso, in the micro-region of Sinop. Located at latitude 11 º 50'53 " South and longitude 55 ° 38'57" West. Geographical data from Sinop: Geological formation: non-folded covers the Phanerozoic and Quaternary basin of the Upper Xingu Relief and altitude: Residual Northern Plateau and Mato Grosso Plateau Parecis. Altitude of 384 meters above the sea level. Hydrography: Amazon Basin. Teles Pires River, a major tributary of the Rio Tapajos. Climate and rainfall: equatorial, with about six months of drought and annual rainfall of 2,500 mm.
Average annual temperature of 24 °C. Area: 3194.339 km ² urban and 9 of 17 km In the early 1970s, a company, Sinop Terras, started the construction of a city in northern Mato Grosso, on a land tract called Gleba Celeste, divided into 5 lots. The construction of Sinop resembles the construction of Brasilia, which occurred over 10 years ago, because it was built quickly (in a few years. Colonization was made by Paraná settlers, but soon, the developing new city attracted Brazilians from all regions of the country from the South and Northeast of Brazil. In 1948 Ênio Pipino and João Pedro Moreira de Carvalho founded Sociedade Imobiliária Noroeste do Paraná, better known as Sinop Terras S / A. In 1954 Pipino goes to the State. In the early 1970s, the north of Mato Grosso was scarcely populated. An area of 645 hectares called Gleba Celeste initiates colonization, situated 500 km from Cuiaba BR-163; the Núcleo de Colonização Celeste belonged to Jorge Martins Phillip and had initial area of 198 000 hectares of land designated for settlement, being acquired in 1971 by Pipino.
The opening of the first streets of Sinop began in May 1972 and the first families of pioneers soon arrived in the city. Until travel to the interior of Paraná Sinop took 7 days, but despite this great difficulty, the migratory flow towards the West that accompanied the indentation of the agricultural frontier in northern Mato Grosso grew increasingly. The project execution took place about 400 men and machines who crossed the Verde River and opened the first bites in the jungle; the date of its foundation ended up being on September 14, 1974 and the acronym SINOP was adopted as the city's name. Development was rapid and the largest number of migrants arrived in 1975; the city was a real construction site, with more than 20 blocks, 1400 km of local roads, experimental fields, community center, infrastructure support to support new residents, Brazilians from all regions of the country. On July 24, 1976, Governor José Garcia Neto signed the Law 3.754/76, rising Sinop to the rank of district of Chapada dos Guimarães.
On December 17, 1979, the Governor Frederico Campos signed Law 4.156/79, which raised Sinop to a municipality. The principal economic activity is the provision of services, with great emphasis to the livestock industry and grains cultivation and timber industry. There are over 10 000 companies located in Sinop, of which 1,401 belong to the industry sector, 3,197 of wholesale and retail, 392 to 5243 services; the city is working on creating projects for the installation of two industrial districts in the municipality, one designed for companies and other for non-polluting pollutants by facilitating the structuring of areas. The agricultural sector is considered its main economic activity for growing grain Sinop has 1,000 industries in the logging industry; the city has prompt attention. The city installed the only Ala Oncology of upstate region, with twenty beds. Federal Police Military Police - 11th Battalion of Military Police Fire Brigade - 4th Fire Department Battalion Military Civil Police Official identification expertise and Mato Grosso technique of Criminal Expert Municipal Guard Traffic.
Sinop has more than 27,000 students enrolled in public and private schools according to the IBGE in 2009. In Sinop there are several high schools; the city is known for being a university town, it has several institutions of higher learning such as: Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT. University of the State of Mato Grosso - UNEMAT. University of Cuiabá - UNIC. Schools of Sinop - FASIPE; the city has 24 schools serving the children's education 12 public schools 12 private schools More than 40 attending primary school 11 public schools 21 public schools 9 private schools And 13 schools for high school 7 public schools 6 private schools There are several in the city schools of foreign languages, some of these: CNA, Fisk and Wizard. The city has major telephony operators and fixed. MW radio stations: Radio MAIS - 550 kHz Radio Celeste - 610 kHzFM radio stations: Hits FM - 87.9 MHz Meridional FM - 98.9 MHzStations and TV relay: GenteTV - RedeTV - channel 02 TV Cidade - SBT - channel 04 TV Centro America - Rede Globo - channel 05 TV
University of Padua
The University of Padua is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy. The University of Padua was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe. Padua is the second-oldest university in the world's fifth-oldest surviving university. In 2010 the university had 65,000 students, in 2016 was ranked "best university" among Italian institutions of higher education with more than 40,000 students, in 2018 best Italian university according to ARWU ranking; the university is conventionally said to have been founded in 1222 when a large group of students and professors left the University of Bologna in search of more academic freedom. The first subjects to be taught were theology; the curriculum expanded and by 1399 the institution had divided in two: a Universitas Iuristarum for civil law and Canon law, a Universitas Artistarum which taught astronomy, philosophy, grammar and rhetoric. There was a Universitas Theologorum, established in 1373 by Urban V.
The student body was divided into groups known as "nations". The nations themselves fell into two groups: the cismontanes for the Italian students the ultramontanes for those who came from beyond the AlpsFrom the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, the university was renowned for its research in the areas of medicine, astronomy and law. During this time, the university adopted the Latin motto: Universa universis patavina libertas; the university had a turbulent history, there was no teaching in 1237–61, 1509–17, 1848–50. The Botanical Garden of Padova, established by the university in 1545, was one of the oldest gardens of its kind in the world, its title for oldest academic garden is in controversy because the Medici created one in Pisa in 1544. In addition to the garden, best visited in the spring and summer, the university manages nine museums, including a History of physics museum; the University began teaching medicine in 1222. It played a leading role in the identification and treatment of diseases and ailments, specializing in autopsies and the inner workings of the body.
Since 1595, Padua's famous anatomical theatre drew artists and scientists studying the human body during public dissections. It is the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe. Anatomist Andreas Vesalius held the chair of Surgery and Anatomy and in 1543 published his anatomical discoveries in De Humani Corporis Fabrica; the book triggered great public interest in dissections and caused many other European cities to establish anatomical theatres. On 25 June 1678, Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, a Venetian noblewoman and mathematician, became the first woman to be awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree; the university became one the universities of the Kingdom of Italy in 1873, since has been one of the most prestigious in the country for its contributions to scientific and scholarly research: in the field of mathematics alone, its professors have included such figures as Gregorio Ricci Curbastro, Giuseppe Veronese, Francesco Severi and Tullio Levi Civita. The last years of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century saw a reversal of the centralisation process that had taken place in the sixteenth: scientific institutes were set up in what became veritable campuses.
The vicissitudes of the Fascist period—political interference, the Race Laws, etc.—had a detrimental effect upon the development of the university, as did the devastation caused by the Second World War and—just a few decades later—the effect of the student protests of 1968-69. However, the Gymnasium Omnium Disciplinarum continued its work uninterrupted, overall the second half of the twentieth century saw a sharp upturn in development—primarily due an interchange of ideas with international institutions of the highest standing. In recent years, the University has been able to meet the problems posed by overcrowded facilities by re-deploying over the Veneto as a whole. In 1990, the Institute of Management Engineering was set up in Vicenza, after which the summer courses at Brixen began once more, in 1995 the Agripolis centre at Legnaro opened. Other sites of re-deployment are at Rovigo, Feltre, Castelfranco Veneto, Conegliano and Asiago. Recent changes in state legislation have opened the way to greater autonomy for Italian universities, in 1995 Padua adopted a new Statute that gave it greater independence.
As the publications of innumerable conferences and congresses show, the modern-day University of Padua plays an important role in scholarly and scientific research at both a European and world level. True to its origins, this is the direction in which the university intends to move in the future, establishing closer links of cooperation and exchange with all the world's major research universities. Notable people who have attended the University of Padua include: In natural sciencesNi
Anthony of Padua
Saint Anthony of Padua, born Fernando Martins de Bulhões - known as Saint Anthony of Lisbon - was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his powerful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was one of the most canonized saints in church history, he was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is the patron saint of lost things. Fernando Martins de Bulhões was born in Portugal. While 15th-century writers state that his parents were Vicente Martins and Teresa Pais Taveira, that his father was the brother of Pedro Martins de Bulhões, the ancestor of the Bulhão or Bulhões family, Niccolò Dal-Gal views this as less certain, his wealthy and noble family arranged. At the age of 15, he entered the community of Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross at the Augustinian Abbey of Saint Vincent on the outskirts of Lisbon.
In 1212, distracted by frequent visits from family and friends, he asked to be transferred to the motherhouse of the congregation, the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra the capital of Portugal. There, the young Fernando studied Latin. After his ordination to the priesthood, Fernando was named guestmaster and placed in charge of hospitality for the abbey. While he was in Coimbra, some Franciscan friars arrived and settled at a small hermitage outside Coimbra dedicated to Saint Anthony of Egypt. Fernando was attracted to the simple, evangelical lifestyle of the friars, whose order had been founded only 11 years prior. News arrived that five Franciscans had been beheaded in Morocco, the first of their order to be killed. King Afonso ransomed their bodies to be buried as martyrs in the Abbey of Santa Cruz. Inspired by their example, Fernando obtained permission from church authorities to leave the Canons Regular to join the new Franciscan order. Upon his admission to the life of the friars, he joined the small hermitage in Olivais, adopting the name Anthony, by which he was to be known.
Anthony set out for Morocco, in fulfillment of his new vocation. However, he fell ill in Morocco and set sail back for Portugal in hope of regaining his health. On the return voyage, the ship was landed in Sicily. From Sicily, he made his way to Tuscany, where he was assigned to a convent of the order, but he met with difficulty on account of his sickly appearance, he was assigned to the rural hermitage of San Paolo near Forlì, Romagna, a choice made after considering his poor health. There, he had recourse to a cell one of the friars had made in a nearby cave, spending time in private prayer and study. One day in 1222, in the town of Forlì, on the occasion of an ordination, a number of visiting Dominican friars were present, some misunderstanding arose over who should preach; the Franciscans expected that one of the Dominicans would occupy the pulpit, for they were renowned for their preaching. In this quandary, the head of the hermitage, who had no one among his own humble friars suitable for the occasion, called upon Anthony, whom he suspected was most qualified, entreated him to speak whatever the Holy Spirit should put into his mouth.
Anthony objected, but was overruled, his sermon created a deep impression. Not only his rich voice and arresting manner, but the entire theme and substance of his discourse and his moving eloquence, held the attention of his hearers. Everyone was impressed with his knowledge of scripture, acquired during his years as an Augustinian friar. At that point, Anthony was sent by Brother Gratian, the local minister provincial, to the Franciscan province of Romagna, based in Bologna, he soon came to the attention of the founder of Francis of Assisi. Francis had held a strong distrust of the place of theological studies in the life of his brotherhood, fearing that it might lead to an abandonment of their commitment to a life of real poverty. In Anthony, however, he found a kindred spirit for his vision, able to provide the teaching needed by young members of the order who might seek ordination. In 1224, he entrusted the pursuit of studies for any of his friars to the care of Anthony; the reason St. Anthony's help is invoked for finding things lost or stolen is traced to an incident that occurred in Bologna.
According to the story, Anthony had a book of psalms, of some importance to him, as it contained the notes and comments he had made to use in teaching his students. A novice who had decided to leave took the psalter with him. Prior to the invention of the printing press, any book was an item of value. Upon noticing it was missing, Anthony prayed it would be returned; the thief was moved to return to the order. The stolen book is said to be preserved in the Franciscan friary in Bologna, he took another post, as a teacher, for instance, at the universities of Montpellier and Toulouse in southern France, but as a preacher Anthony revealed his supreme gift. According to historian Sophronius Clasen, Anthony preached the grandeur of Christianity, his method included symbolical explanation of Scripture. In 1226, after attending the general chapter of his order held at Arles and spreading the word of the lord in the French region of Provence, Anthony returned to Italy and wa
Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua
The Pontifical Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica in Padua, Northern Italy, dedicated to St. Anthony. Although the Basilica is visited as a place of pilgrimage by people from all over the world, it is not the titular cathedral of the city, a title belonging to the Cathedral-Basilica of St. Mary of Padua; the basilica is known locally as "il Santo". It is one of the eight international shrines recognized by the Holy See. Construction of the Basilica began around 1232, just one year after the death of St. Anthony, it was completed in 1310 although several structural modifications took place between the end of the 14th and the mid-15th century. The Saint, according to his will, had been buried in the small church of Santa Maria Mater Domini dating from the late 12th century and near which a convent was founded by him in 1229; this church was incorporated into the present basilica as the Cappella della Madonna Mora. Sant'Antonio is a giant edifice without a precise architectural style.
Over the centuries, it has grown under a variety of different influences as shown by the exterior details. The new basilica was begun as a single-naved church, like that of St Francis of Assisi, with an apsidal chancel, broad transepts and two square nave bays roofed with hemispherical domes like that of San Marco, Venice; the exterior style is a mixing of Romanesque and Byzantine elements, with some Gothic features. In the 13th century, the aisles were added in a more Gothic style, the length of each nave bay being divided into two aisle bays with pointed arches and quadripartite vaults; the eastern apse was extended in the Gothic style, receiving a ribbed vault and nine radiating chapels in the French manner. The Treasury chapel was built in 1691 in the Baroque style by Filippo Parodi, a pupil of Bernini. Externally, the brick facade has a Romanesque central section, extended outwards when the aisles were built, acquiring in the process four deep Gothic recesses and an elegant arcaded balcony which stretches across the broad front of the building.
The facade gable shows little differentiation between the nave and aisle, screening the large buttresses that have the same profile and form a richly sculptural feature when the building is viewed from the side. The domes, like the domes of St. Mark's Basilica, were raised in height externally, giving a Byzantine appearance to the building, while the multitude of small belfries which accompany the domes recall Turkish minarets. Externally, at the main roof line each section of the building is marked by a low gable decorated with blind arcading in brick; these gables combine with the domes, the broad buttresses and the little towers to create a massive sculptural form, both diverse and unified in its conglomeration of features. As a work of architecture the building is effective when viewed from the north west, an extra dimension being added to the facade by the huge plinth and dynamic equestrian monument of the Condottiero Gattamelata by Donatello; the interior of the church contains some of noteworthy artistic value.
The Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, in the right aisle, houses the tomb of the famous condottiero Gattamelata and of his son Giannantonio. The bronze tabernacle is made by Girolamo Campagna; this chapel, with its broad bands of polychrome and carved Gothic details, has had many stages of decoration, the final stage being the creation of an mosaic in the tall rear niche representing the Holy Spirit with rays of golden light descending against a background of intensely blue sky. This work was created by Lodovico Pogliaghi between 1927–36. Relics of St Anthony are to be found in the ornate Baroque Treasury Chapel; the body of the saint, in the Madonna Mora Chapel, from 1350, lain in a separate transept chapel, the Chapel of St Anthony, the interior decoration being attributed to Tullio Lombardo, who provided the sixth and seventh reliefs depicting the miracles of St Anthony. The third relief Saint bringing back to life a man, murdered is a masterpiece by Girolamo Campagna; the late-16th century statues are by Tiziano Aspetti The Basilica contains several important images of the Madonna.
The Madonna Mora is a statue of the Madonna with the Christ Child by the French sculptor Rainaldino di Puy-l'Evéque, dating from 1396. Her name refers to her black hair and olive skin tone, being interpreted as "swarthy"; the Madonna del Pilastro is a mid-14th-century fresco by Stefano da Ferrara, located on the pier adjacent the left aisle. Among other sculptural work is the Easter candelabrum in the apse, finished in 1515 by Andrea Briosco and considered his masterwork; the high altar area features the bronze Madonna with Child and six statues of Saints by Donatello, who executed four reliefs with episodes of life of St. Anthony. To the right hand side of the nave, opposite the tomb of the Saint is the large Chapel of St. James, commissioned by Bonifacio Lupi in the 1370s in Gothic style, with frescoed walls depicting the Stories of St. James and the Crucifixion by Altichiero da Zevio. Altichiero's Crucifixion is one of the most significant paintings of the late 14th century. There are several frescoes created by Girolamo Tessari.
The chin and tongue of St. Anthony are displayed in a gold reliquary at the Basilica; the composer Francesco Antonio Calegari served as maestro di cappella in the 1720s. Giuseppe Tartini, the Baroque composer and violinist, also