Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
A war elephant is an elephant, trained and guided by humans for combat. The war elephant's main use was to charge the enemy, instilling terror. Elephantry are military units with elephant-mounted troops. War elephants played a critical role in several key battles in antiquity, but their use declined with the spread of firearms in the early modern period. Military elephants were restricted to non-combat engineering and labour roles, some ceremonial uses. However, they continued to be used in combat in some parts of the world such as Thailand and Vietnam into the 19th century. An elephant trainer, rider, or keeper is called a mahout. Mahouts were responsible for handling elephants. To accomplish this, they utilize metal chains and a specialized hook called an aṅkuśa or'elephant goad'. According to Chanakya as recorded in the Arthashastra, first the mahout would have to get the elephant used to being led; the elephant would have learn. The elephants were taught to run and maneuver around obstacles, move in formation.
These elephants would be fit to learn how to systematically charge enemies. The first elephant species to be tamed was the Asian elephant, for use in agriculture. Elephant taming – not full domestication, as they are still captured in the wild, rather than being bred in captivity – may have begun in any of three different places; the oldest evidence comes from the Indus Valley Civilization, around 4500 BC. Archaeological evidence for the presence of wild elephants in the Yellow River valley in Shang China may suggest that they used elephants in warfare; the wild elephant populations of Mesopotamia and China declined because of deforestation and human population growth: by c. 850 BC the Mesopotamian elephants were extinct, by c. 500 BC the Chinese elephants were reduced in numbers and limited to areas well south of the Yellow River. Capturing elephants from the wild remained a difficult task, but a necessary one given the difficulties of breeding in captivity and the long time required for an elephant to reach sufficient maturity to engage in battle.
Sixty-year-old war elephants were always prized as being at the most suitable age for battle service and gifts of elephants of this age were seen as generous. Today an elephant is considered in its prime and at the height of its power between the ages of 25 to 40, yet elephants as old as 80 are used in tiger hunts for they are more experienced. It is thought that all war elephants were male because of males' greater aggression, but it is rather because a female elephant in battle will run from a male. There is uncertainty as to when elephant warfare first started but it is accepted that it began in ancient India; the early Vedic period did not extensively specify the use of elephants in war. However in the Rigveda the king of Gods and chief Vedic deity Indra is depicted as riding either Airavata, a mythological elephant, or on the horse Uchchaihshravas as his mounts. Elephants were utilized in warfare by the Vedic period by the 6th century BC; the increased conscription of elephants in the military history of India coincides with the expansion of the Vedic Kingdoms into the Indo-Gangetic Plain suggesting its introduction during the intervening period.
The practice of riding on elephants in peace and war was common among Aryans and non-Aryans, royalty or commoner, in the 6th or 5th century BC. This practice is believed to be much older than proper recorded history; the ancient Indian epics Ramayana and Mahābhārata, dating from 5th–4th century BC, elaborately depict elephant warfare. They are recognized as an essential component of military processions. In ancient India the army was fourfold, consisting of infantry, cavalry and chariots. Kings and princes principally ride on chariots, considered the most royal, while ride the back of elephants. Although viewed as secondary to chariots by royalty, elephants were the preferred vehicle of warriors the elite ones. While the chariots fell into disuse, the other three arms continued to be valued. Many characters in the epic Mahābhārata were trained in the art. According to the rules of engagement set for the Kurukshetra War two men were to duel utilizing the same weapon and mount including elephants.
In the Mahābhārata the akshauhini battle formation consists of a ratio of is 1 chariot: 1 elephant: 3 cavalry: 5 infantry soldiers. Many characters in the Mahābhārata were described as skilled in the art of elephant warfare e.g. Duryodhana rides an elephant into battle to bolster the demoralized Kaurava army. Scriptures like the Nikāya and Vinaya Pitaka assign elephants in their proper place in the organization of an army; the Samyutta Nikaya additionally mentions the Gautama Buddha being visited by a'hatthāroho gāmaṇi'. He is the head of a village community bound together by their profession as mercenary soldiers forming an elephant corp. Ancient Indian kings valued the elephant in war, some stating that an army without elephants is as despicable as a forest without a lion, a kingdom without a king, or as valor unaided by weapons; the use of elephants further increased with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. King Bimbisara, who began the expansion of the Magadha kingdom, relied on his war elephants.
The Mahajanapadas would be conquered by the Nanda Empire under the reign of Mahapadma Nanda. Pliny the Elder and Plutarch estimated the Nanda Army strength in the east as 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 chariots, 6,000 war elephants. Alex
The Biblioteca Casanatense is a library in Rome, Italy. The library is located at Via di Sant'Ignazio, 52; the library was established in 1701 by the Dominicans of the Convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. This convent was at that time the home of the College of St. Thomas, which in the 20th century would be relocated at the convent attached to the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus and grow into the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, it was opened according to the will of Cardinal Girolamo Casanata. The library contained about 25 000 volumes. Since 1872 the library has been managed by the Italian government. In the present day the library is under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture, his chief service to learning the theological sciences, was the Casanatense Library founded and endowed by him. While living he had collected a library of about 25,000 volumes. In 1655 the same convent had inherited the library of Giambattista Castellani, chief physician of Gregory XV, with 12,000 scudi for the erection of a suitable edifice.
Cardinal Casanata, ordered that the new library should be accessible to the public six hours daily, excepting feast-days. In addition to the library staff he provided for a college of six Dominicans of different nationalities; each of them must have received the degree of Doctor from one of the most famous universities of Europe. Aided by the resources of the library, they were to devote themselves to the defence and propagation of Catholic doctrine. Moreover, two professors were to expound the text of St Thomas Aquinas. In other words, by means of the new library, he had created at Rome another centre of intellectual activity. After the 1870 loss by the Papacy of the temporal power over Rome, the library was nationalized, but the Dominicans were left in charge until 1884. Amongst the library's possessions are 64 Greek codices, 230 Hebrew texts, among which are 5 Samaritan codices; the incunabula number 2036. Father Cloché, the General of the Dominicans, placed in the library a statue of Cardinal Casanata, the work of the sculptor Le Gros.
An inscription records the formal permission of Clement XI to preserve there the books of what were considered heretical authors. The Casanatense Library still preserves 1125 manuscript volumes of opinions and statements concerning matters treated in the various Congregations to which Casanata belonged, his curial duties did not prevent him from taking an interest in the sciences. He corresponded with the learned men of his day. Among those whom he encouraged most was Lorenzo Alessandro Zaccagni, whom he induced to publish a collection of materials for the ancient history of the Greek and Latin Churches, Collectanea monumentorum veterum Ecclesiæ græcæ et latinæ Today the Library's collection contains 400 000 volumes, about 6 000 manuscripts, 2 200 incunabula; the library holds medieval manuscripts, including biblical manuscripts. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Girolamo Casanata". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
Cavarra, A. A. ed. Biblioteca Casanatense, Roma. Guida breve, Nardini, 2005. De Gregorio, V. La Biblioteca Casanatense di Roma, Napoli 1993 De Gregorio, V. Casanatense e dintorni... Napoli 1997. Moricca Caputo, A. Catalogo dei manoscritti della Biblioteca Casanatense, Roma, 1949 Panetta, M. La "libraria" di Mattia Casanate, Bulzoni, 1988 Biblioteca Casanatense official website Biblioteca Casanatense at the Fondazione Istituto Internazionale Direttori della Biblioteca Casanatense di Roma
Siege of Diu
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538 held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese resisted the four months long siege, it is part of The Ottoman-Portuguese War. In 1509, the major Battle of Diu took place between the Portuguese and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Ottoman Empire. Since 1517, the Ottomans had attempted to combine forces with Gujarat in order to fight the Portuguese away from the Red Sea and in the area of India. Pro-Ottoman forces under Captain Hoca Sefer had been installed by Selman Reis in Diu. Diu in Gujarat, was with Surat, one of the main points of supply of spices to Ottoman Egypt at that time. However, Portuguese intervention thwarted that trade by controlling the traffic in the Red Sea. In 1530, the Venetians could not obtain any supply of spices through Egypt. Under the command of governor Nuno da Cunha, the Portuguese had attempted to capture Diu by force in February 1531, unsuccessfully.
Thereafter, the Portuguese waged war on Gujarat, devastating its shores and several cities like Surat. Soon after however, the Sultan of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, under threat from the Mughal emperor Humayun made an agreement with the Portuguese, granting them Diu in exchange for Portuguese assistance against the Mughals and protection should the realm fall; the Portuguese seized the stronghold of Gogala near the city, built the Diu Fort. Once the threat from Humayun was removed, Bahadur tried to negotiate the withdrawal of the Portuguese, but on 13 February 1537 he died drowning during the negotiations on board of a Portuguese ship in unclear circumstances, both sides blaming the other for the tragedy. Bahadur Shah had appealed to the Ottomans to expel the Portuguese, which led to the 1538 expedition. Upon the arrival of Sultan Bahadur's envoy to Egypt with a large tribute in 1536, the Ottoman governor of Egypt, 60-year-old eunuch Hadim Suleiman Pasha, was nominated by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to organize and lead an expedition to India.
Pasha Suleiman forbade any shipping out of the Red Sea to avoid leaking information to the Portuguese in India. There were delays however due to the Siege of Coron in the Mediterranean, the Ottoman-Safavid war of 1533–1535. According to the Tarikh al-Shihri, Ottoman forces amounted to 40,000 men. Gaspar Correia provides a more specific account, claiming that the Turks assembled at Suez an armada composed of 15 "bastard galleys", 40 "royal galleys", 6 galliots, 5 galleons "with four masts each" that were "dangerous ships to sail, for they were shallow with no keel", it carried over 400 artillery pieces in total, over 10,000 sailors and rowers and 6,000 soldiers, of which 1500 were janissaries. The Pasha employed a Venetian renegade, Francisco, as captain of 10 galleys, plus 800 Christian mercenaries. On July 20, 1538, the armada set sail from Jeddah, stopping by Kamaran Island before proceeding to Aden. At Aden, Pasha Suleiman captured the city after inviting its ruler, Sheikh Amir bin Dawaud, favourable towards the Portuguese, aboard his ships hanging him.
Thus, Aden was occupied without a siege, plundered. The expedition left Aden in August 19 and called at Socotra, thereafter making its way to the western coast of Gujarat, despite losing some ships that got separated from the fleet during the passage of the Indian Ocean, it was the largest Ottoman fleet sent into the Indian Ocean. The captain of Diu at the time was the experienced António da Silveira, former captain of Bassein and Hormuz who had participated in the Portuguese-Gujarati War of 1531–34; the Portuguese fortress housed about 3,000 people, of which 600 were soldiers. Under the command of Khadjar Safar – Coge Sofar in Portuguese, an Albanian renegade from Otranto and an influential lord in Gujarat – the Gujarati forces began crossing the channel of Diu onto the western side of the island on June 26, 1538, being held back by the city's western walls just long enough for the Portuguese to fill their water reserves and burn their supply storages in the city before retreating to the fortress on the eastern end of the island.
For the following two months the Gujaratis were unable to threaten the besieged with more than a low-intensity bombardment, while the Portuguese conducted occasional raids on the Gujarati positions. Lopo de Sousa Coutinho, who would write his memoirs on the siege, distinguished himself in August 14 after leading 14 Portuguese in a sortie into the city to capture supplies, defeating 400 soldiers of Khadjar Safar. On September 4, the Ottoman fleet arrived in Diu, catching the Portuguese garrison by surprise and thus blockading the fortress by sea. Captain da Silveira sent a small craft to run the blockade with a distress call to Goa, while Pasha Suleiman promptly landed 500 janissaries, who proceeded to plunder the city – causing Suleiman to fall out of favour with the lords of Gujarat but Khadjar Safar; the janissaries attempted to scale the fortress' walls but were repelled with 50 dead. In September 7, a strong storm fell upon Diu, damaging part of the Ottoman fleet, after which the Turks began unloading their artillery and a further 1000 men, raising a number of defensive and siege works around the fort.
It seems by the Gujarati lords became distrustful of the Ottomans fearing that they might establish themselves in Diu after expelling the Portuguese, the following day refused to provide any further supp