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Côte-d'Or

Côte-d'Or is a department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Côte-d'Or is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was formed from part of the former province of Burgundy. The department is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, it is surrounded by the departments of Yonne, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Aube, Haute-Saône, Haute-Marne. A chain of hills called the Plateau de Langres runs from north-east to south-west through the department to the north of Dijon and continues south-westwards as the Côte d'Or escarpment, which takes its name from that of the department, it is the south-east facing slope of this escarpment, the site of the celebrated Burgundy vineyards. To the west of the Plateau de Langres, towards Champagne, lies the densely wooded district of Châtillonais. To the south-east of the plateau and escarpment, the department lies in the broad, flat-bottomed valley of the middle course of the Saône. Rivers include: The Saône The Seine rises in the southern end of the Plateau de Langres.

The Ouche flows to the Saône via Dijon. The Armançon flows north-westward; the Arroux rises on the dip slope of the escarpment at the southern end of the department. The climate of the department is temperate, with abundant rain on the west side of the central range; the President of the General Council is François Sauvadet of the New Centre. This is a premier wine-growing region of France, it produces what are arguably the world's finest, most expensive Pinot noir and Chardonnay wines from some of the most rigorously and painstakingly classified vineyards in the world. Wine from the Côte-d'Or was a favorite of the emperor Charlemagne. Other crops include cereal potatoes. Sheep and cattle are raised in the department; the region is famous for its Dijon mustard. There are coal mines and heavy industry, including steel and earthenware; the industries most developed in Côte-d'Or are agriculture and food metallurgy and metal manufacture chemicals and plastics pharmacy electrical and electronic components and equipment wood and paper industries.

The big works are in the conurbation of Dijon although biggest is at Salives in the Plateau de Langres. There is the SEB metal works at Selongey below the plateau on the margin of the Saône plain and the Valourec metalworking group at Montbard in the west of the department on the River Brenne near its confluence with the Armançon; the Pharmaceutical industry has shown the greatest growth in recent years. However, since the Dijon employment statistics zone includes the urban and administrative centre of the Burgundy region, the service sector is proportionately bigger there in relation to the industrial, than in the other three zones of Côte-d'Or. Reference Industry in Bourgogne website The inhabitants of the department are called Costaloriens. Population development since 1791: Some of the major tourist attractions are the Gothic abbey church of Saint-Seine-l'Abbaye and the Romanesque abbey church at Saulieu, as well the Château de Bussy Rabutin at Bussy-le-Grand; the Abbey of Cîteaux, headquarters of the Cistercian Order, lies to the east of Nuits-Saint-Georges in the south of the department.

French wine Cantons of the Côte-d'Or department Communes of the Côte-d'Or department Arrondissements of the Côte-d'Or department Prefecture website Council website Cote-d'Or at Curlie Photos Gallery of Dijon and the Côte D'or

Shang Fa Yang

Shang Fa Yang was a Taiwanese-American plant scientist and a professor at the University of California, Davis. He was awarded the Wolf Prize in Agriculture and elected a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. Yang was born in 1932 in Taiwan, he earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in agricultural chemistry at the National Taiwan University. He subsequently moved to the United States and completed his doctoral degree in plant biochemistry from Utah State University. After completing his PhD, he conducted postdoctoral research at the University of California, New York Medical School, University of California, San Diego, he joined the faculty University of California, Davis in 1966. Yang was known for his research that unlocked the key to prolonging freshness in flowers, his research focused on how plants produce ethylene, important in regulating a host of plant functions, ranging from seed germination to fruit ripening. He studied the pathway of ethylene biosynthesis and proved unequivocally the central role of methionine as a precursor of ethylene.

He discovers that this process is cyclic and therefore receives the name "Yang Cycle". Ethylene represents one of the five major hormones affecting plant maturation, he was the first scientist to report S-adenosylmethionine as an intermediate in methionine conversion to ethylene. In 1979, he discovered aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid as an intermediate, his discovery of ACC-synthase opened the way to the understanding of the regulating process of ethylene biosynthesis. Yang died on February 2007 in a Davis hospital from complications of pneumonia. Yang received several honours for his research. In 1990, he was inducted into the U. S. National Academy of Sciences. In 1991, he was awarded the Wolf Prize in Agriculture "for his remarkable contributions to the understanding of the mechanism of biosynthesis, mode of action and applications of the plant hormone, Ethylene." In 1992, he was awarded the American Society of Horticultural Science Outstanding Research Award. IN MEMORIAM - Shang Fa Yang Plant Scientist Shang Fa Yang Dies

Nancy A. Moran

Nancy A. Moran is an American evolutionary biologist and entomologist, University of Texas Leslie Surginer Endowed Professor, co-founder of the Yale Microbial Diversity Institute. Since 2005, she has been a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, her seminal research has focused on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum and its bacterial symbionts including Buchnera. In 2013, she returned to the University of Texas at Austin, where she continues to conduct research on bacterial symbionts in aphids and other insect species, she has expanded the scale of her research to bacterial evolution as a whole. She believes that a good understanding of genetic drift and random chance could prevent misunderstandings surrounding evolution, her current research goal focuses on complexity in life-histories and symbiosis between hosts and microbes, including the microbiota of insects. Moran is one of eight children of Robert Moran; as a child, Moran liked to collect insects in jars. Yet as youth she never envisioned becoming a scientist and did not find her biology class interesting.

Moran began her undergraduate studies at the University of Texas in 1972 in an honors program known as Plan II. She started out as an art major, switched to philosophy. For an elective requirement she took an introduction to biology course. From this, she became interested in biology. During her senior year at college while taking a class on animal behavior with Nancy Burley as a TA, she undertook an honors project on mate choice in pigeons. In 1976, Moran graduated from the University of Texas with a B. A. in Biology in 1976. She received her Ph. D. in zoology in 1982 from the University of Michigan studying with W. D. Hamilton and Richard D. Alexander. In 1984, she was a fellow at the National Academy of Sciences in the Institute of Entomology in Czechoslovakia>. She completed her postdoctoral fellowship at Northern Arizona University from 1984-1986, she rose to the rank of Regents' Professor at the University of Arizona from 1986-2010, was the William H. Fleming Professor at Yale University from 2010-2013, subsequently moved to the University of Texas where she is now the Leslie Surginer Endowed Professor and Warren J. and Viola Mae Raymer Chair.

Early in Moran's career she studied an aphid species local to Arizona, Melaphis rhois, which has a peculiar life cycle migrating to moss from a complex gall on sumac. While Moran's initial hypothesis was that this was a complex adaptation to changing seasons, it turned out that it was an ancient adaptation dating back over 50 million years; this work attracted the attention of Paul Baumann at the University of California at Davis, an expert in microbial diversity with an interest in aphid microbial diversity culminating in a 15-year collaboration on the mutualistic relationship between aphids and their symbionts. Moran and Baumman used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to demonstrate that Buchnera aphidicola bacteria and their aphid hosts co-evolve, or evolve together, due to their long-term symbiotic relationship. Subsequently, they demonstrated this coevolution of symbionts in mealybugs; as new technologies emerged and improved, Moran transitioned to examining the genomic evolution of symbiotic bacteria.

By comparing Buchnera, an obligately host-associated bacteria, with related free-living bacteria, she demonstrated that Buchnera tends to accumulate nonsynonymous, silent mutations, more increasing the AT-content of the genome with an accelerated rate of evolution. In other words, these obligately host-associated bacteria accumulate mutations, they accumulate deleterious mutations through Muller's Ratchet, such that genome reduction reflects an evolutionary phenomenon known as genetic drift. Her research continued to involve sequencing genes of symbionts through whole genome sequencing and comparing them to free-living relatives using comparative genomics. Moran's research on Drosophila gut microbiomes demonstrated that, unlike other species, Drosophila's microbiome content was ingested with food and varied between individuals and populations, her research provides information on this model organism and the bacteria it possesses which affects research done with Drosophila. The research demonstrated that gut microbiota in Drosophila used as model organisms is more representative of the food they eat as opposed to the wild-type Drosophila gut microbiota.

The conclusion of the research stressed the importance of including fieldwork into microbiota research to better understand the environment-driven gut microbiota makeup. Moran is researching honey bees and their interaction with gut microbiota, her research found that microbiota interact with host hormone signaling. This research showed that microbiota in social bees degrade plant polymers that the organisms consumes in their diet; the research compared the bee's microbiome to other species and determined it can model host-microbiota interactions due to similarities such as types of bacteria. Her work with eusocial corbiculate bees demonstrates that different phylogenies within this class of bees share a common ancestor for their gut microbiota independent of geography or sympatry. Corbiculate bees include honey bees, bumble bees, stingless bees, she completed research on the symbiotic relationship between host insects and their gut microbiota and her research team has found that the honey bee's exposure to antibiotics disrupts the microbiota, which regulates weight and hormone signaling, increases mortality rates.

The data collected demonstrates the bee's susceptibility to fatal pathogens after antibiotic exposure. 1997 MacArthur Fellows Program 2004 Member of the National Academy of Sciences 2006 M

List of Sony A-mount lenses

Sony released the following SAL lenses for Sony A-mount cameras since 2006. 18 of the original designs are based on Minolta A-mount technology it acquired from Konica Minolta. Of those, most lenses are optically and electrically identical to their Minolta predecessors and differ only in their outer appearance. However, three of them have seen subtle changes in the optics and electro-mechanics; some of the new lenses introduced into the line have been developed in cooperation with Carl Zeiss. All Sony A-mount lenses are compatible with Konica Minolta A-mount cameras. All full-frame Sony A-mount lenses are compatible with Minolta A-mount cameras, with the exception that SSM and SAM lenses can only be used with manual focusing on camera bodies not supporting SSM already. All Minolta A-mount lenses are compatible with all Sony A-mount cameras, but features like electronic first curtain shutter and AF-D provided by newer cameras are not supported in conjunction with these lenses and may work unreliable or not at all.

The same holds true for Konica Minolta A-mount lenses, they can be used on APS-C/Super-35mm format Sony A-mount cameras only. Using the Sony lens adapters LA-EA1, LA-EA2, LA-EA3 or LA-EA4, A-mount lenses can be used seamlessly on E-mount cameras, various format and autofocus restrictions apply depending on the adapter and camera used. LA-EA1 and LA-EA2 only support APS-C/Super-35mm format cameras, if you use them on full-frame cameras they will switch to APS-C mode by default. LA-EA1 and LA-EA3 support autofocus only with SSM and SAM lenses, whereas LA-EA2 and LA-EA4 utilize SLT technology to support autofocus with the other lenses as well. List of Sony A-mount lenses: List of Konica Minolta A-mount lenses List of Minolta A-mount lenses List of Sony A-mount cameras List of Konica Minolta A-mount cameras List of Minolta A-mount cameras List of Sony E-mount lenses Zeiss Planar Zeiss Distagon Zeiss Sonnar Zeiss Vario-Sonnar

8th Infantry Brigade (Lebanon)

The 8th Infantry Brigade is a Lebanese Army unit that fought in the Lebanese Civil War, being active since its creation in January 1983. In the aftermath of the June–September 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, President Amin Gemayel, convinced that a strong and unified national defense force was a prerequisite to rebuilding the nation, announced plans to raise a 60,000-man army organized into twelve brigades and equipped by France and the United States. In late 1982, the 8th Infantry Regiment was therefore re-organized and expanded to a brigade group numbering 2,000 men, of whom 80% were Maronite Christians from the northern Akkar District, with the remaining 20% were Sunni Muslims, which became on January 1, 1983, the 8th Infantry Brigade; the Brigade's emblem consists of the following elements: The Arabic number: represents the number of the Brigade. The Cedar: symbolizing the immortality of Lebanon; the Sword: symbolizing the firm right in confronting the enemy A lightning at the base: symbolizing the execution with lightning speed.

Armor: symbolizing the immunity in defending the country. The Laurel: symbolizing the laurel that only grows amongst rocks at the highest mountain peaks, indicating the strength and steadiness of the Brigade; the new unit grew from an understrength battalion comprising three rifle companies to a equipped mechanized infantry brigade, capable of aligning a Headquarters' battalion, an armoured battalion equipped with Panhard AML-90 armoured cars, AMX-13 light tanks and 34 US M48A5 main battle tanks, three mechanized infantry battalions issued with 90 US M113 armored personnel carriers and an artillery battalion fielding eighteen US M114 155 mm howitzers, including a battery of twelve French Hotchkiss-Brandt TDA MO-120-RT-61 120mm towed heavy mortars. The brigade fielded a logistics support battalion, equipped with liaison and transport vehicles such as US M151A2 jeeps, Land-Rover long wheelbase series III, Chevrolet C20 and Dodge Ram pickups, plus US M35A2 2½-ton military trucks; the Brigade's Headquarters was located at Rihaniyeh, in the Baabda District, East Beirut, whilst its units were stationed in the environs of the Ministry of Defense complex at Yarze located in the Baabda District.

In 1983, Lebanese Internal Security Forces positions in the southern suburbs and western part of Beirut were occupied by the Druze. The 8th Brigade was deployed to recapture these positions by force. During this period, with the sudden withdrawal of the Israel Defense Forces from Mount Lebanon to the Southern Lebanese region, the pro-Syrian fighters composed of Palestinian and Druze militias supported by Syrian army tanks and artillery stormed the Christian villages in the Bhamdoun and Chouf Districts, forcing their inhabitants to flee the atrocity while seeking refuge in the Christian town of Deir el-Kamar; the 8th Brigade was once again deployed to the Souk El Gharb ridge, to block the advancement of the pro-Syrian militias from reaching deeper into the Christian zones and threatening the ministry of Defense in Yarze, as well as, the Presidential Palace in Baabda. The 8th Brigade fiercely defended a 15 miles front, turning back numerous attempts to take over the remainder of the Christian zones.

From 1983 through 1984, the 8th Brigade bore the brunt of the battles against Druze militias in Suq al Gharb and against leftist militias in West Beirut, instigated by the Syrian government to promote its control over Lebanon amid the failure of Lebanese-Israeli peace talks. In June 1984, all parties agreed on an ultimate cease-fire. General Michel Aoun was named Army Commander. From 1984 to 1985, in the wake of a political Lebanese crisis, the Syrian government tried to impose constitutional amendments by using the pro-Syrian militias to infiltrate the lines of the autonomous Christian zones; the 8th Brigade's mission was to halt the Syrian government involvement and to stop pro-Syrian militias' attacks by defending the Christian zones. During the War of the Camps in May 1985, the 87th Infantry Battalion from the 8th Brigade supported their Shi'ite colleagues of the 6th Brigade and the Shia Muslim Amal militia against the pro-Arafat Palestinian camp militias in the battle for the control of the Sabra and Shatila and Bourj el-Barajneh refugee camps in West Beirut.

On 15 January 1986, the 8th Brigade was ordered to contain the schismatic internal fighting inside the Lebanese Forces upon the signature of the so-called "Tripartite Accord" in Damascus by Elie Hobeika, the commander of the Maronite Christian Lebanese Forces militia, Walid Jumblatt of the Druze Progressive Socialist Party/People's Liberation Army, Nabih Berri of the Shia Muslim Amal Movement militia and the Syrian government. The deputy chief of the Lebanese forces Samir Geagea opposed the agreement and led a coup to remove Elie Hobeika from his command. Elie Hobeika conceded to leave the Christian zones; the 8th Brigade strived to safely remove Elie Hobeika and his men from their headquarters in East Beirut to the Ministry of Defense in Yarze, in order to be deported to the Christian town of Zahle in the Syrian-controlled Beqaa Valley. After ten days of Elie Hobeika's deportation, fighters from the Syrian Social Nationalist Party militia supported by Syrian Army tanks and field artillery devastated the Lebanese Army positions on the Hills overlooking Bikfaya, the home town of President Amine Gemayel, in the

Mercury

Mercury refers to: Mercury, a metallic chemical element with the symbol'Hg' Mercury, a Roman god Mercury, the nearest to the SunMercury may refer to: Mercury, a character who can turn herself into a mercurial substance Makkari or Mercury, an Eternal, a Marvel comics race of superhumans A member of the Metal Men, a DC comics team A member of Cerebro's X-Men Mercury, an Amalgam Comics character Mercury Black, a character in the RWBY web series A fictional Minnesota town in the 2011 film Young Adult Mercury, a 2018 Indian silent horror thriller by Karthik Subbaraj The Mercury Cinema, Australia, is managed by the Media Resource Centre Mercury, by Ben Bova Mercury, by Margot Livesey Mercury, an astronomy magazine The American Mercury, an American magazine published from 1924 to 1981 Mercury, a common name for an English-language newspaper A novel by Anna Kavan Mercury, 2003 Mercury, 1993 Mercury, 1999 "Mercury", 2008, by Bloc Party A song by Kathleen Edwards from Failer A song by Counting Crows from Recovering the Satellites A song by Sufjan Stevens, Bryce Dessner, Nico Muhly and James McAlister from Planetarium Mercury Records, a record label Mercury Prize, an annual music prize awarded for the best album from the United Kingdom "Mercury, the Winged Messenger", a movement in Gustav Holst's The Planets Mercury 96.6, present-day Heart Hertfordshire, a radio station in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Mercury FM, a radio station in Surrey, United Kingdom Mercury, from Australia Archer Maclean's Mercury, a 2005 PlayStation Portable video game Mercury, a brand of diecast toy cars manufactured in Italy Mercury Communications, a British telecommunications firm set up in the 1980s Mercury Drug, a Philippine pharmacy chain Mercury Energy, an electricity generation and retail company in New Zealand Mercury Insurance Group, a multiple-line American insurance organization Mercury Interactive, a software testing tools vendor Mercury Marine, a major manufacturer of marine engines outboard motors Mercury Systems, a defense-related information technology company Shuttle America, a regional airline Mercury, Daniela Mercury, Brazilian singer and record producer Freddie Mercury, frontman for the rock group Queen Mercury Morris, former American football player A town in Alabama.