Pierre-Auguste Renoir known as Auguste Renoir, was a French artist, a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau." He was the father of filmmaker Jean Renoir and ceramic artist Claude Renoir. He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir, son of Pierre. Pierre-Auguste Renoir was born in Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France, in 1841, his father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris in search of more favorable prospects. The location of their home, in rue d’Argenteuil in central Paris, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing, his talent was encouraged by his teacher, Charles Gounod, the choir-master at the Church of St Roch at the time. However, due to the family’s financial circumstances, Renoir had to discontinue his music lessons and leave school at the age of thirteen to pursue an apprenticeship at a porcelain factory.
Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre. The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice’s talent and communicated this to Renoir’s family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts; when the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in art school, he painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans. In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet. At times, during the 1860s, he did not have enough money to buy paint. Renoir had his first success at the Salon of 1868 with his painting Lise with a Parasol, which depicted Lise Tréhot, his lover at the time. Although Renoir first started exhibiting paintings at the Paris Salon in 1864, recognition was slow in coming as a result of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War.
During the Paris Commune in 1871, while Renoir painted on the banks of the Seine River, some Communards thought he was a spy and were about to throw him into the river, when a leader of the Commune, Raoul Rigault, recognized Renoir as the man who had protected him on an earlier occasion. In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family ended, Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the association but a generous welcome to stay on their property near Fontainebleau and its scenic forest; this loss of a favorite painting location resulted in a distinct change of subjects. Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet. After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received.
That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London. Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876, he contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter. In 1881, he traveled to Algeria, a country he associated with Eugène Delacroix to Madrid, to see the work of Diego Velázquez. Following that, he traveled to Italy to see Titian's masterpieces in Florence and the paintings of Raphael in Rome. On 15 January 1882, Renoir met the composer Richard Wagner at his home in Sicily. Renoir painted Wagner's portrait in just thirty-five minutes. In the same year, after contracting pneumonia which permanently damaged his respiratory system, Renoir convalesced for six weeks in Algeria.
In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in Guernsey, one of the islands in the English Channel with a varied landscape of beaches and bays, where he created fifteen paintings in little over a month. Most of these feature Moulin Huet, a bay in Saint Martin's, Guernsey; these paintings were the subject of a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the Bailiwick of Guernsey in 1983. While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him and many of his fellow painters. In 1887, the year when Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee, upon the request of the queen's associate, Phillip Richbourg, Renoir donated several paintings to the "French Impressionist Paintings" catalog as a token of his loyalty. In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty years his junior, along with a number of the artist's friends, had served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers in 1881, wit
Fécamp is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. Fécamp is situated in the valley of the Valmont river, at the heart of the Pays de Caux, on the Albaster Coast, it is around 35 km northeast of Le Havre, around 60 km northwest of Rouen. According to its late medieval founding legend, the trunk of a fig tree carrying the Precious Blood of Christ collected by Joseph of Arimathea was washed ashore on the riverbank at Fécamp in the 1st century. A fountain of holy blood gushed from the site; the monks' legend justified the artificial etymology of the name to Fici-campus, the camp of the fig tree. Fécamp, however, is mentioned in 875 as Fiscannum and in 990 as Fiscannus and as late as 1496 which stem from the Germanic root fisc with an unknown suffix, it used to be the name of the Valmont River. The prehistoric site, on the high ground inland from the port of Fécamp, reveals human occupation dating back to Neolithic times. Spreading over 21 hectares, surrounded by walls and ditches for a length of nearly 2000 meters, including a praetorian door.
Objects recovered range in date from the Neolithic until Roman times. Many items of the Gallo-Roman period have been found locally coins. A bronze axe, of Celtic design, was unearthed in 1859. Fécamp was on the ancient road linking Lillebonne with the north of Gaul; the archaeological diggings around the Ducal palace in 1973-1984 revealed some evidence of the La Tène Celtic culture and Gallo-Roman works. Two Gallo-Roman cemeteries have been discovered. During Roman times, a road linked Fécamp to Étretat, passing through the present-day village of Fond-Pitron; the current D940 follows the original Roman road. In the 6th century, Saint Leger was exiled to Fécamp. In 932, William I of Normandy founded the castle, to be the residence of the Dukes of Normandy up until 1204, after which, the Norman Duchy was integrated within the French royal domain; the castle was the birthplace of many Norman dukes, including Richard I of Normandy and Richard II of Normandy. In 1202, King John of England granted a community system to Fécamp.
In 1410 the English razed the town. In 1449, Fécamp was freed from English occupation. For Fécamp, the Wars of religion finished in July 1593, when Captain de Bois-Rosé rallied the city to Henry IV of France after his conversion to Catholicism, it was at Fécamp that Charles II of England landed, on 16 October 1651, soon after the Battle of Worcester, where he had been defeated by Cromwell. The history of Fécamp has always revolved around its harbour; the reputation of the salt-herrings of Fécamp was established as early as the 10th century, that of smoked herrings from the 13th century. An association of whale fishermen was created in the 11th century. Fishing for cod started commercially in the 16th century, under the impetus of Nicolas Selles, an early shipping magnate. Throughout the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, Fécamp had an important role as the chief fishing port in France for cod and cod-related fish; this was the case up until the 1970s. First practiced by three-masted sailing ships, Atlantic fishing trips could last more than six months, the time taken to fill the hold with cod, which were salted to preserve them.
The fishing was carried out in small boats, carrying only two or three fishermen. Many of these small boats would be never returned to the ship; as technology evolved, the three-mast boats disappeared, giving way to steamers to diesel-engined vessels. These days, only a small fishing fleet restricted to fishing around coastal waters. In the harbour, pleasure-boats have taken the place of all but a few fishing-boats. In the 19th century, the recipe for Benedictine liqueur was “rediscovered” by Alexandre Legrand; the Palais Benedictine now houses a visitors' centre. Fécamp has four high schools: Anita Conti high school Providence high school, a private high school situated in the city centre. Descartes professional high school, situated in the school complex at St. Jacques Guy de Maupassant high school at St. Jacques 12th – 14th century ruins of the ducal former palace enclosed in the abbey grounds – two towers and a wall section Remains of the fort of Bourg-Baudouin, on the approach to Notre-Dame-du-Salut Benedictine Palace, ruined buildings of the Benedictine abbey.
Former mill of the 18th century. The Town hall, a Louis XVI style building Former hostelry of the du Grand Cerf, 16th century Courtyard de la Maîtrise with 11th-12th century tower. Old houses in the neighbourhood of the Hallettes, of which two houses are 16th century: Numbers 21 and 73 Rue Arquaise and 6, Rue de la Voûte Water Tower 13th century Épinay farm, 16th century, former country retreat of a religious order Church of the Trinity: Primitive Norman Gothic style, constructed from 1175 to 1220 with some Roman traces. Lantern tower from the 12th century. Abbey of the Trinity: Traces of former buildings: cloisters, a former mill, tower de la Maîtrise St. Etienne’s churc
Guy de Maupassant
Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and pessimistic terms. Maupassant was a protégé of Gustave Flaubert and his stories are characterized by economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouements. Many are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s, describing the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, caught up in events beyond their control, are permanently changed by their experiences, he wrote some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, one volume of verse. His first published story, "Boule de Suif", is considered his masterpiece. Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant was born 5 August 1850 at the Château de Miromesnil (Castle Miromesnil, near Dieppe in the Seine-Inférieure department in France, he was the first son of Laure Le Poittevin and Gustave de Maupassant, both from prosperous bourgeois families.
His mother urged his father when they married in 1846 to obtain the right to use the particule or form "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" as his family name, in order to indicate noble birth. Gustave discovered a certain Jean-Baptiste Maupassant, conseiller-secrétaire to the King, ennobled in 1752, he obtained from the Tribunal Civil of Rouen by decree dated 9 July 1846 the right to style himself "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" and this was his surname at the birth of his son Guy in 1850. When Maupassant was 11 and his brother Hervé was five, his mother, an independent-minded woman, risked social disgrace to obtain a legal separation from her husband, violent towards her. After the separation, Laure Le Poittevin kept her two sons. With the father's absence, Maupassant's mother became the most influential figure in the young boy's life, she was an exceptionally well-read woman and was fond of classical literature Shakespeare. Until the age of thirteen, Guy lived with his mother, at Étretat, in the Villa des Verguies, between the sea and the luxuriant countryside, he grew fond of fishing and outdoor activities.
At age thirteen, his mother next placed her two sons as day boarders in a private school, the Institution Leroy-Petit, in Rouen—the Institution Robineau of Maupassant's story La Question du Latin—for classical studies. From his early education he retained a marked hostility to religion, to judge from verses composed around this time he deplored the ecclesiastical atmosphere, its ritual and discipline. Finding the place to be unbearable, he got himself expelled in his next-to-last year. In 1867, as he entered junior high school, Maupassant made acquaintance with Gustave Flaubert at Croisset at the insistence of his mother. Next year, in autumn, he was sent to the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen where he proved a good scholar indulging in poetry and taking a prominent part in theatricals. In October 1868, at the age of 18, he saved the famous poet Algernon Charles Swinburne from drowning off the coast of Étretat; the Franco-Prussian War broke out soon after his graduation from college in 1870.
In 1871, he left Normandy and moved to Paris where he spent ten years as a clerk in the Navy Department. During this time his only recreation and relaxation was boating on the Seine on Sundays and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his protection and acted as a kind of literary guardian to him, guiding his debut in journalism and literature. At Flaubert's home, he met Émile Zola and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, as well as many of the proponents of the realist and naturalist schools, he wrote and played himself in a comedy in 1875, "À la feuille de rose, maison turque". In 1878, he was transferred to the Ministry of Public Instruction and became a contributing editor to several leading newspapers such as Le Figaro, Gil Blas, Le Gaulois and l'Écho de Paris, he devoted his spare time to short stories. In 1880 he published what is considered his first masterpiece, "Boule de Suif", which met with instant and tremendous success. Flaubert characterized it as "a masterpiece that will endure."
This was Maupassant's first piece of short fiction set during the Franco-Prussian War, was followed by short stories such as "Deux Amis", "Mother Savage", "Mademoiselle Fifi". The decade from 1880 to 1891 was the most fertile period of Maupassant's life. Made famous by his first short story, he worked methodically and produced two or sometimes four volumes annually, his talent and practical business sense made him wealthy. In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier. In 1883 he finished 25,000 copies of which were sold in less than a year, his second novel Bel Ami, which came out in 1885, had thirty-seven printings in four months. His editor, commissioned him to write more stories, Maupassant continued to produce them efficiently and frequently. At this time he wrote what many consider to be Pierre et Jean. With a natural aversion to society, he loved retirement and meditation, he traveled extensively in Algeria, England, Sicily and from each voyage brought back a new volume.
He cruised on his private yacht Bel-Ami, named after his novel. This life did not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas, fils had a paternal affection for him.
Saint-Valery-en-Caux is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A small fishing port and light industrial town situated in the Pays de Caux, some 20 miles west of Dieppe at the junction of the D53, D20, D79 and the D925 roads. Here, huge chalk cliffs rise up from the pebble beach to overlook the English Channel; the SNCF station is no longer in use and the only way to get out of this beautiful town is by bus - which are few and far between. It is said to have been founded by Saint Valery in the 7th century. A monastery was built on the site of the present-day town and was known as ‘’’Sanctum Walaricum’’’ in 990 CE, according to the charter in which Richard I, Duke of Normandy, gave the town to the abbey of Fecamp. A busy fishing port from the 13th to the 17th century, its decline was due to the growth of the much larger port of Fecamp, to the west, it is best known as the place where the Scottish 51st Infantry Division commanded by Major General Victor Fortune and French troops surrendered to Erwin Rommel on June 12, 1940.
The town was destroyed in the fighting in 1940. During the action, French cavalry on horseback faced German panzer tanks.. Saint-Valéry-en-Caux was liberated on 11 September 1944 by the 51st Highland division. On 17 January 1945, the railway station was destroyed when a runaway train full of American troops crashed into it. Eighty-nine American soldiers were killed and 152 were injured. A lively and interesting little town that boasts a casino and the maximum four flowers on the France in Bloom placards. Tourism now accounts for much of the town's prosperity; the church of St. Valery, dating from the fifteenth century. A Norman-style half-timber house; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery. A seventeenth-century cloister from the old convent; the lighthouse. The memorial to the 51st Highland Division, on the cliff tops. French artist Adrien Victor Auger, was born here in October 1787. Orientalist Charles Defrémery died in Saint-Valery-en-Caux. Chelsea Football Club footballer Demba Ba grew up here.
Inverness, Scotland Sontheim, Germany Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Official website of Saint-Valéry-en-Caux Unofficial Website of the commune The City of Inverness - twinning with St Valéry Website of Aeroclub Cauchois Discover Normandy from the air The CWGC cemetery Saint-Valery-en-Caux on the Quid website History of the shipowner's house'Henry IV house' including surprising links with Cannibals and South America
Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France. It is the chef-lieu of one of the arrondissements of Somme. Located on the River Somme, it was the capital of Ponthieu, its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois. Abbeville is located on 20 km from its modern mouth in the English Channel; the majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme, as well as on an island. It is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, is 45 km northwest of Amiens and 200 kilometres from Paris, it is 10 kilometres as the crow flies from the Bay of Somme and the English Channel. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme and it was nearby that Edward III's army crossed shortly before the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy. Émonville Park takes its name from one of its owners Arthur Foulc d'Émonville, an amateur botanist, who bought a part of the Priory of Saints Peter and Paul in order to accommodate a garden and to construct a mansion, which now houses the study and heritage section of the Robert Mallet municipal library.
The remains of the priory include the entrance arch, current main entrance of the garden located on Place Clemenceau, as well as some buildings which make up the Saint-Pierre School, including the remarkable Chapel of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul. This place is considered by some to be the origin of Abbeville, because it was the location of the first château of the Counts of Ponthieu, called castrum, it is assumed that this place could have been the location of the farm of Abbatisvilla, dependent upon the Abbey of Saint-Riquier. The suburbs of La Bouvaque and Thuison are located to the north of the city; the municipal park of La Bouvaque, bordered by the Boulevard de la République, consists of the La Bouvaque pond and Collart meadows, former settling ponds of the Béghin-Say sugar factory. It was in Thuison that the Carthusian monastery of Saint-Honoré was founded in 1301 by William of Mâcon, Bishop of Amiens; this was a property of the Order of the Temple, sold to the latter by Gérard de Villars, the last master of the province of France.
The sale was confirmed by Hugues de Pairaud visitor of France. The suburb of Saint Gilles Rouvroy is to the west, the origin of the name comes from Rouvray indicates the presence of an oak wood or a remarkable oak. Mautort, beside Rouvroy, is a former stronghold located between Abbeville, it is at the origin of the noble name of de Mautort, surviving in the name of the Tillette de Mautort family or, for example, of Georges-Victor Demautort. The name tort is attested in Old French with the sense of Mau; the Church of Saint-Silvin de Mautort, emblematic of the quarter, was a simple chapel of sailors founded in the 11th century and underwent many changes during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Menchecourt, in the north-west, is known for its football club. Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris. Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947.
Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, is about 1 hour 50 minutes by car from Paris. Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean; the summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are common. There are 26 days of storm per year with a maximum in the months of July and August, the rains are frequent and distributed in the year with precipitation totalling 781.3 millimetres and 128 days with precipitation. The sunshine is average because of its position in the north and the oceanic influence helps to prevent temperatures from being too high with only three days of intense heat and from being too cold with 6 days of heavy frost; the highest temperature was 37.8 °C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is −17.4 °C, which occurred during a cold spell on 17 January 1985. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.
The population of the commune is old. The rate of persons over 60 years of age is higher than the departmental rate. Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the commune is greater than the male population; the rate is over two points higher than the national rate. In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group is as follows: 45.6% of males 54.4% of females Abbeville is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie d'Abbeville - Picardie maritime. It manages the aerodrome and industrial areas of the arrondissement of Abbeville. Abbeville manufactured textiles, in particular and tablecloths when the Van Robais family created la Manufacture Royale des Rames
Étretat is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in Normandy in north-western France. It is a tourist and farming town situated about 32 km north-east of Le Havre, at the junction of the D 940, D 11 and D 139 roads, it is located on the coast of the Pays de Caux area. Étretat is best known for its chalk cliffs, including three natural arches and a pointed formation called L'Aiguille or the Needle, which rises 70 metres above the sea. The Etretat Chalk Complex, as it is known, consists of a complex stratigraphy of Turonian and Coniacian chalks; some of the cliffs are as high as 90 metres. These cliffs and the associated resort beach attracted artists including Eugène Boudin, Gustave Courbet and Claude Monet, they were featured prominently in the 1909 Arsène Lupin novel The Hollow Needle by Maurice Leblanc. They feature in the 2014 film Lucy, directed by Luc Besson. Two of the three famous arches are visible from the town, the Porte d'Aval, the Porte d'Amont; the Manneporte is the third and the biggest one, cannot be seen from the town.
The GR 21 long-distance hiking path passes through the town. Étretat is known for being the last place in France from which the 1927 biplane The White Bird was seen. French World War I war heroes Charles Nungesser and François Coli were attempting to make the first non-stop flight from Paris to New York City, but after the plane's 8 May 1927 departure, it disappeared somewhere over the Atlantic, it is considered one of the great unexplained mysteries of aviation. A monument to the flight was established in Étretat, but destroyed during World War II, during German occupation. A new and taller monument was constructed in 1963, along with a nearby museum
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by small, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s; the Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, soleil levant, which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari; the development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting.
They constructed their pictures from brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner, they painted realistic scenes of modern life, painted outdoors. Still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio; the Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting outdoors or en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration. Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, Winslow Homer in the United States, were exploring plein-air painting; the Impressionists, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.
The public, at first hostile came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style. By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism is a precursor of various painting styles, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Cubism. In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war—the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art; the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of style. Historical subjects, religious themes, portraits were valued; the Académie preferred finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes blended to hide the artist's hand in the work. Colour was restrained and toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.
The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille—met while studying under the academic artist Charles Gleyre, they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become popular by mid-century, they ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom. By painting in sunlight directly from nature, making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the Realism of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school.
A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet, whom the younger artists admired. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, Armand Guillaumin. During the 1860s, the Salon jury rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting; the jury's worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists. After Emperor Napoleon III saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, the Salon des Refusés was organized.
While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visi