C♯ (musical note)

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C (C-sharp) is a musical note lying a chromatic semitone above C and a diatonic semitone below D. C-sharp is thus enharmonic to D. It is the second semitone in the French solfège and is known there as do dièse; in some European notations, it is known as Cis. In equal temperament it is also enharmonic with Bdouble sharp (Hisis).

When calculated in equal temperament with a reference of A above middle C as 440 Hz, the frequency of C4 (the C above middle C) is about 277.18 Hz. See pitch (music) for a discussion of historical variations in frequency.

Designation by octave[edit]

Scientific designation Helmholtz designation Bilinear music notation Octave name Frequency (Hz)
C−1 C͵͵͵ or ͵͵͵C or CCCC (-uC) Subsubcontra 8.662
C0 C͵͵ or ͵͵C or CCC (-vC) Subcontra 17.324
C1 C͵ or ͵C or CC (-wC) Contra 34.648
C2 C (-xC) Great 69.296
C3 c (-yC) Small 138.591
C4 c (zC) One-lined 277.183
C5 c′′ (yC) Two-lined 554.365
C6 c′′′ (xC) Three-lined 1108.731
C7 c′′′′ (wC) Four-lined 2217.461
C8 c′′′′′ (vC) Five-lined 4434.922
C9 c′′′′′′ (uC) Six-lined 8869.844
C10 c′′′′′′′ (tC) Seven-lined 17739.688


Common scales beginning on C[edit]

  • C major: C D E F G A B C
  • C natural minor: C D E F G A B C
  • C harmonic minor: C D E F G A B C
  • C melodic minor Ascending: C D E F G A B C
  • C melodic minor descending: C B A G F E D C

Diatonic scales[edit]

  • C Ionian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Dorian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Phrygian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Lydian: C D E Fdouble sharp G A B C
  • C Mixolydian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Aeolian: C D E F G A B C
  • C Locrian: C D E F G A B C

Jazz melodic minor[edit]

See also[edit]