Aspect ratio (image)
The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. For an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units. For example, in a group of images that all have an aspect ratio of 16:9, one image might be 16 inches wide and 9 inches high, another 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high, a third might be 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Thus, aspect ratio concerns the relationship of the width to the height, not an image's actual size; the most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3, the universal video format of the 20th century, 16:9, universal for high-definition television and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios are used infrequently.
In still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4:3, 3:2, more found in consumer cameras, 16:9. Other aspect ratios, such as 5:3, 5:4, 1:1, are used in photography as well in medium format and large format. With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information, by adding horizontal mattes or vertical mattes to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges. In motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the image's size; the universal standard is a frame, four perforations high. The film itself is 35 mm wide, but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm × 18.67 mm, leaving the de facto ratio of 4:3, or 1.3:1.
With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, the frame size reduced to maintain an image, wider than tall, this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm × 16 mm or 1.375:1 aspect ratio. The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image's height. After 1952, a number of aspect ratios were experimented with for anamorphic productions, including 2.66:1 and 2.55:1. A SMPTE specification for anamorphic projection from 1957 standardized the aperture to 2.35:1. An update in 1970 changed the aspect ratio to 2.39:1. This aspect ratio of 2.39:1 was confirmed by the most recent revision from August 1993. In American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Some European countries have 1.6:1 as the wide screen standard. The "Academy ratio" of 1.375:1 was used for all cinema films in the sound era until 1953. During that time, which had a similar aspect ratio of 1.3:1, became a perceived threat to movie studios. Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope, Todd-AO, VistaVision to name just a few.
The "flat" 1.85:1 aspect ratio was introduced in May 1953, became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U. S. and elsewhere. The goal of these various lenses and aspect ratios was to capture as much of the frame as possible, onto as large an area of the film as possible, in order to utilize the film being used; some of the aspect ratios were chosen to utilize smaller film sizes in order to save film costs while other aspect ratios were chosen to use larger film sizes in order to produce a wider higher resolution image. In either case the image was squeezed horizontally to fit the film's frame size and avoid any unused film area. Development of various film camera systems must cater to the placement of the frame in relation to the lateral constraints of the perforations and the optical soundtrack area. One clever wide screen alternative, VistaVision, used standard 35 mm film running sideways through the camera gate, so that the sprocket holes were above and below frame, allowing a larger horizontal negative size per frame as only the vertical size was now restricted by the perforations.
There were a limited number of projectors constructed to run the print-film horizontally. However, the 1.50:1 ratio of the initial VistaVision image was optically converted to a vertical print to show with the standard projectors available at theaters, was masked in the projector to the US standard of 1.85:1. The format was revived by Lucasfilm in the late 1970s for special effects work that required larger negative size, it went into obsolescence due to better cameras and film stocks available to standard four-perforation formats, in addition to increased lab costs of making prints in comparison to more standard vertical processes. Super 16 mm film was used for televisi
A monochromic image is composed of one color. The term monochrome comes from the Ancient Greek: translit. Monochromos, lit.'having one color'. A monochromatic object or image reflects colors in shades of limited hues. Images using only shades of grey are called black-and-white. However, scientifically speaking, monochromatic light refers to visible light of a narrow band of wavelengths. Of an image, the term monochrome is taken to mean the same as black and white or, more grayscale, but may be used to refer to other combinations containing only tones of a single color, such as green-and-white or green-and-red, it may refer to sepia displaying tones from light tan to dark brown or cyanotype images, early photographic methods such as daguerreotypes and tintypes, each of which may be used to produce a monochromatic image. In computing, monochrome has two meanings: it may mean having only one color, either on or off, allowing shades of that color. A monochrome computer display is able to display only a single color green, red or white, also shades of that color.
In film photography, monochrome is the use of black-and-white film. All photography was done in monochrome. Although color photography was possible in the late 19th century used color films, such as Kodachrome, were not available until the mid-1930s. In digital photography, monochrome is the capture of only shades of black by the sensor, or by post-processing a color image to present only the perceived brightness by combining the values of multiple channels; the weighting of individual channels may be selected to achieve a desired artistic effect. If the red channel is eliminated and the green and blue combined the effect will be similar to that of orthochromatic film or the use of a cyan filter on panchromatic film; the selection of weighting thus allows a wide range of artistic expression in the final monochromatic image. For production of an anaglyph image the original color stereogram source may first be reduced to monochrome in order to simplify the rendering of the image; this is sometimes required in cases where a color image would render in a confusing manner given the colors and patterns present in the source image and the selection filters used.
In physics, monochromatic light is electromagnetic radiation of a single frequency. In the physical sense, no source of electromagnetic radiation is purely monochromatic, since that would require a wave of infinite duration as a consequence of the Fourier transform's localization property. Controlled sources such as lasers operate in a range of frequencies. In practice, filtered light, diffraction grating separated light and laser light are all referred to as monochromatic. Light sources can be compared and one be labeled as “more monochromatic”. A device which isolates a narrow band of frequencies from a broader-bandwidth source is called a monochromator though the bandwidth is explicitly specified, thus a collection of frequencies is understood. Duotone – the use of two ink colors in printing Halftone – the use of black and white in a pattern, perceived as shades of grey Polychrome – of multiple colors, the opposite of monochrome Monochromacy Monochromatic color Selective color – use of monochrome and color selectively within an image Monochrome painting – monochromes in art
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios used in film and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35mm film. For television, the original screen ratio for broadcasts was in fullscreen 4:3. Between the 1990s and early 2000s, at varying paces in different nations, 16:9 widescreen TV displays came into common use, they are used in conjunction with high-definition television receivers, or Standard-Definition DVD players and other digital television sources. With computer displays, aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are referred to as widescreen. Widescreen computer displays were of 16:10 aspect ratio, but now are 16:9. Widescreen was first used in the film of the Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight in 1897; this was not only the longest film, released to date at 100 minutes, but the first widescreen film being shot on 63mm Eastman stock with five perforations per frame.
Widescreen was first used in the late 1920s in some short films and newsreels, including Abel Gance's film Napoleon with a final widescreen sequence in what Gance called Polyvision. Claude Autant-Lara released a film Pour construire un feu in the early Henri Chretien widescreen process adapted by Twentieth Century-Fox for CinemaScope in 1952. In 1927, The American aka The Flag Maker was released; the film, directed by J. Stuart Blackton and starring Bessie Love and Charles Ray, was made in the experimental widescreen process Natural Vision, developed by George K. Spoor and P. John Berggren, but was never released theatrically. In 1926, Spoor and Berggren had released a Natural Vision film of Niagara Falls; the Natural Vision widescreen process had a 2:1 aspect ratio. On May 26, 1929, Fox Film Corporation released Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 in New York City in the Fox Grandeur process. Other films shot in widescreen were the musical Happy Days which premiered at the Roxy Theater, New York City, on February 13, 1930, starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell and a 12-year-old Betty Grable as a chorus girl.
RKO Radio Pictures released Danger Lights with Jean Arthur, Louis Wolheim, Robert Armstrong on August 21, 1930 in a 65mm widescreen process known as NaturalVision, invented by film pioneer George K. Spoor. On November 13, 1930, United Artists released The Bat Whispers directed by Roland West in a 70mm widescreen process known as Magnafilm. Warner Brothers released Song of the Kismet in a widescreen process they called Vitascope. In 1930, after experimenting with the system called Fanthom Screen for The Trail of'98, MGM came out with a system called Realife. MGM filmed The Great Meadow in Realife—however, it's unclear if it was released in that widescreen process due to declining interest of the movie-going public. By 1932, the Great Depression had forced studios to cut back on needless expense and it was not until 1953 that wider aspect ratios were again used in an attempt to stop the fall in attendance due to the emergence of television in the U. S. However, a few producers and directors, among them Alfred Hitchcock, have been reluctant to use the anamorphic widescreen size featured in such formats as Cinemascope.
Hitchcock alternatively used VistaVision, a non-anamorphic widescreen process developed by Paramount Pictures and Technicolor which could be adjusted to present various flat aspect ratios. Masked widescreen was introduced in April 1953; the negative is shot exposing the Academy ratio using spherical lenses, but the top and bottom of the picture are hidden or masked off by a metal aperture plate, cut to specifications of the theater's screen, in the projector. Alternatively, a hard matte in the printing or shooting stages may be used to mask off those areas while filming for composition purposes, but an aperture plate is still used to block off the appropriate areas in the theater. A detriment is that the film grain size is thus increased because only part of the image is being expanded to full height. Films are designed to be shown in cinemas in masked widescreen format but the full unmasked frame is sometimes used for television. In such an instance, a photographer will compose for widescreen, but "protect" the full image from things such as microphones and other filming equipment.
Standardized "flat wide screen" ratios are 1.66:1, 1.75:1, 1.85:1, 2:1. 1.85:1 has become the predominant aspect ratio for the format. 35mm anamorphic – This type of widescreen is used for CinemaScope and several other equivalent processes. The film is shot "squeezed", so that the actors appear vertically elongated on the actual film. A special lens inside the projector unsqueezes the image. Films shot in CinemaScope or Panavision are projected at a 2.40:1 aspect ratio, though the historical aspect ratio can be 2.55:1 or 2.35:1. The negative is 2.66:1 or, in
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
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