The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Robyn Gabel is a Democratic member of the Illinois House of Representatives, representing the 18th District since April 19, 2010. The district includes the suburbs of Evanston, Kenilworth, Northfield and Glencoe. Gabel has a Bachelor of Arts from Beloit College, an Master of Science in Public Health University of Illinois at Chicago’s School of Public Health, a Master of Jurisprudence in Health Law from Loyola University of Chicago. From 1988 to 2010 she was the Executive Director of the Illinois Maternal and Child Health Coalition. On March 16, 2009, she was appointed to the Commission on the Elimination of Poverty; the Commission was established to address poverty in Illinois consistent with international human rights standards. Gabel was appointed to the Illinois House of Representatives in April 2010 after Representative Julie Hamos became Director of the Department of Healthcare and Family Services. In 2018, J. B. Pritzker appointed Gabel to Powering Illinois’ Future transition committee, responsible for infrastructure and clean energy policies.
Representative Robyn Gabel 18th District at the Illinois General Assembly By session: 98th, 97th, 96th Profile at Vote Smart Robyn Gabel at Illinois House Democrats
Scott County, Illinois
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 5,355, making it the fourth-least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Winchester. Scott County is part of the Jacksonville, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Springfield-Jacksonville-Lincoln, IL Combined Statistical Area. Scott County was formed in 1839 out of Morgan County, it was named for a local pioneer family named Scott. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 253 square miles, of which 251 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. The county's western boundary is formed by the Illinois River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Winchester have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.60 inches in January to 4.34 inches in May.
Interstate 72 U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 67 Illinois Route 106 Illinois Route 100 Morgan County Greene County Pike County As of the 2010 census, there were 5,355 people, 2,214 households, 1,516 families residing in the county; the population density was 21.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,459 housing units at an average density of 9.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.6% white, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 24.3% were American, 18.0% were English, 16.2% were Irish. Of the 2,214 households, 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.89.
The median age was 42.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,462 and the median income for a family was $64,412. Males had a median income of $40,781 versus $32,011 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,530. About 6.5% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Winchester Naples Alsey Bluffs Exeter Glasgow Manchester Riggston National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County Official website
Mary E. Flowers
Mary E. Flowers is an American politician Democratic member of the Illinois House of Representatives, representing the 31st district since 1985. Flowers was born on July 1951, in Inverness, Mississippi, her family moved to Chicago. She attended local schools in Chicago, Kennedy King Community College and the University of Illinois-Chicago Circle. Flowers is married to Daniel Coutee and they have one daughter, Makeda. Mary Flowers was first elected to the 84th General Assembly as a Democrat from the 31st district in 1985, she is serving her 16th term in the Illinois House of Representatives of the 100th General Assembly. She will seek re-election to a 17th term in 2018. Representative Flowers' primary legislative focus has been on child welfare matters, she has been the Principal Sponsor of legislation related to Medical Patients Rights, Medical Managed Care Reform, Health Insurance Reforms and Nursing Home Staffing Standards, Licensure of Lay Midwives, Adverse Health Event Reporting, Health Facility Regulatory Reform and Dental Practice reforms, Public Health/Communicable Disease Control.
She has been the primary sponsor of legislation regarding Welfare Reform, Elementary & Secondary School Reforms, Juvenile Justice Reforms. Over the course of 16 General Assemblies Representative Flowers has served on several different committees covering an extraordinary range of topics and issues in the House of Representatives. Below is a listing of her committee assignments. Health Care Availability & Accessibility 100th, 99th. 98th, 97th General Assemblies Health Care Availability & Access 96th through 90th General Assemblies Health & Healthcare Disparities 99th, 98th, 97th and 96th General Assemblies Health Care & Human Services 89th General Assembly Healthy Illinois Plan 93rd General Assembly Youth & Young Adults 99th General Assembly Economic Justice & Equity 100th General Assembly Economic Opportunity 100th General Assembly Medicaid Reform 96th General Assembly Medicaid Reform, Family & Children 96th General Assembly Human Services 100th through the 90th, 84th General Assemblies The Disabled Community 92nd General Assembly Restorative Justice 100th, 99th, 98th General Assemblies Economic Development & Housing 99th General Assembly Higher Education 100th, 99th, 98th, 97th, 96th, 95th, 84th General Assemblies Juvenile Justice & System-Involved Youth 99th General Assembly Small Business Empowerment & Workforce Development 99th and 97th General Assemblies Accountability & Administrative Review 98th General Assembly Environmental Health 97th General Assembly Special Investigative Committee 96th and 95th General Assemblies Agriculture & Conservation 97th and 96th General Assemblies Smart Growth & Regional Planning 95th General Assembly Department of Children & Family Services Oversight 95th General Assembly Drivers Education & Safety 95th General Assembly International Trade & Commerce 94th General Assembly Fee For Services Initiatives 94th and 93rd General Assemblies Special Committee and Tobacco Settlement Proceeds 92nd General Assembly Special Committee on Tobacco Settlement Proceeds Distribution 91st General Assembly Children & Youth 92nd and 91st General Assemblies Labor and Commerce 87th, 86th, 85th, 84th General Assemblies Commerce & Business Development 93rd and 92nd General Assemblies Financial Institutions 89th, 86th and 85th General Assemblies Consumer Protection 89th General Assembly Insurance 89th General Assembly Executive 88th, 87th and 86th General Assemblies Public Utilities 88th, 87th, 86th, 85th General Assembly Real Estate Law 87th General Assembly Registration & Regulation 87th.
86th, 85th General Assemblies Museums, Arts& Cultural Enhancement 100th and 98th General Assemblies Implementation of Chicago School Reform 86th General Assembly Appropriations – Elementary & Secondary Education 94th and 93rd General Assemblies Appropriations – Human Services 90thand 87th General Assemblies. Appropriations Higher Education 97th and 96th General Assemblies Appropriations II 86th, 85th, 84th General Assemblies Appropriations – General Services 88th General Assembly Public Utilities 88th, 87th, 86th, Small Business 85th and 84th General Assemblies Housing 85th General Assembly World's Fair 1992 84th General AssemblyRepresentative Flowers was the Primary Sponsor of many bills that became law, including but not limited to the following list of major accomplishments; the Perinatal HIV Prevention Act Illinois Muslim American Advisory Council Act Opportunities for At Risk'Women Act Patients' Right to Know Act Administration of Psychotropic Medications to Children Act Public Health Program Beneficiary Employer Disclosure Law Illinois Adverse Health Care Events Reporting Law of 2005 Managed Care Reform and Patient Rights Act Fair Patient Billing Act Hospital Report Card Act Illinois Family Case Management Act A law assuring pregnant women job security through "reasonable accommodation Re-branding free-standing "Emergent" Care Centers A law that prohibits hospitals from promulgating policies or implementing practices that determine differing standards of obstetrical care based on patient's source of payment or ability to pay A law requiring the IL Department of Public Health to effect policies and procedures to monitor and control infections from MDR0's (Multi-dr
Morgan County, Illinois
Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 35,547, its county seat is Jacksonville. Morgan County is part of the Jacksonville, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Springfield-Jacksonville-Lincoln, IL Combined Statistical Area. Morgan County was formed in 1823 out of Sangamon Counties, it was named in honor of General Daniel Morgan, who defeated the British at the Battle of Cowpens in the American Revolutionary War. General Morgan was serving under General Nathanael Greene at Cowpens. Jacksonville was established by European Americans on a 160-acre tract of land in the center of Morgan County in 1825, two years after the county was founded; the founders of Jacksonville, Illinois consisted of settlers from New England. These people were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s.
Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal and the end of the Black Hawk War. The Yankee migration to Illinois was a result of several factors, one of, the overpopulation of New England; the old stock Yankee population had large families bearing up to ten children in one household. Most people were expected to have their own piece of land to farm, due to the massive and nonstop population boom, land in New England became scarce as every son claimed his own farmstead; as a result, there was not enough land for every family to have a self-sustaining farm, Yankee settlers began leaving New England for the Midwestern United States. When they arrived in what is now Jacksonville there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the "Yankee" New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism.
They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and Presbyterianism while some others became Baptist, before moving to what is now Jacksonville. Jacksonville, like some other parts of Illinois, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history.</ref> According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 572 square miles, of which 569 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. Average temperatures in the county seat of Jacksonville range from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.35 inches in January to 4.86 inches in May. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,547 people, 14,104 households, 8,851 families residing in the county; the population density was 62.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,515 housing units at an average density of 27.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 90.9% white, 6.0% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.9% were German, 21.6% were American, 15.4% were Irish, 14.5% were English. Those citing "American" ancestry in Morgan County, Illinois are of overwhelmingly English extraction, in many cases going back to colonial New England, however most English Americans identify as having "American" ancestry because their roots have been in North America for so long, in many cases since the early sixteen hundreds. Of the 14,104 households, 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 40.8 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $44,645 and the median income for a family was $59,185. Males had a median income of $43,609 versus $29,893 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,244. About 11.2% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Jacksonville Waverly Morgan County has been reliably Republican from its beginning. National Register of Historic Places listings in Morgan County, Illinois Official website
Sara Feigenholtz is a Democratic member of the Illinois House of Representatives who has represented the 12th District since 1995. The District includes the lakefront neighborhoods of Lake View, Lincoln Park, Buena Park and the Near North Side in the city of Chicago. Sara Feigenholtz's political interests and activity, notably in the areas of adoption, women's issues and health care, reflect her personal experience and family background, her adoptive mother, Florence Buky, an immigrant from Białystok, worked her way through medical school to become an obstetrician. Many of Dr Buky's patients were unable to care for their children and this was how she came to adopt Sara and her brother. Feigenholz attributes the origin of her political commitment to health care as a basic right to the childhood experience of patients calling to see Dr Buky at the family home in Lake View and her mother never turning anyone away those unable to pay. Feigenholtz earned her bachelor's degree in political science and speech and performing arts from Northeastern Illinois University.
And went on to earn a fellowship degree from the University of Illinois School Of Public Health. In 2011, she completed the Senior Executives in State and Local Government Program at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, she worked as Chief of Staff to State Representative John Cullerton before becoming a fund-raiser for progressive causes. Feigenholtz was elected to her first term as state representative of Illinois’ 12th District in 1994, defeating long-standing incumbent Ellis B. Levin, she chose to focus her attention on human services reform. She was a lead sponsor of the Family Health Care Bill, she campaigned for the introduction of the All Kids program. In 2010, she sponsored the Original Birth Certificate Access Bill; this law provides for the release of the original birth certificate to an adopted person upon written request, provided he or she is over the age of 21. As part of the Affordable Care Act implementation, Feigenholtz sponsored the 2013 expansion of Medicaid in Illinois.
This legislation extended coverage to thousands of Illinoisans who were shut out of the health care system. In 2017, Feigenholtz sponsored House Bill 40 in the 100th General Assembly, which will keep abortion legal in Illinois if Roe v. Wade is overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States, it extends insurance coverage of abortion to state employees and women insured through Medicaid. Sara Feigenholtz served as Assistant Majority Leader from 2013 through 2019, she chairs the Adoption & Child Welfare Committee, most served on the Appropriations-Human Services, Tourism and Craft, Mental Health and Energy Committees. In 2018, Democrat J. B. Pritzker appointed Feigenholtz a member of the gubernatorial transition's Healthy Children and Families Committee. Feigenholtz came in third place to Mike Quigley in the Illinois's 5th congressional district special election, 2009 to fill the district seat vacated by Rahm Emanuel, who resigned to serve as President Barack Obama's Chief of Staff. In 2001 Feigenholtz was inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame as a Friend of the Community.
Representative Sara Feigenholtz 12th District at the Illinois General Assembly By session: 100th, 99th, 98th, 97th, 96th, 95th, 94th, 93rd Representative Sara Feigenholtz constituency website Sara Feigenholtz for House Representative Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Sara Feigenholtz at Illinois House Democrats
Will Guzzardi is a Democratic member of the Illinois House of Representatives who represents the 39th district. The 39th district includes parts of the Avondale, Belmont Cragin, Old Irving Park, Portage Park and Logan Square. Before entering politics, Guzzardi worked as an associate editor for the Chicago branch of the Huffington Post. In 2012 he ran for the state House of Representatives but narrowly lost to the incumbent Maria Antonia Berrios. In 2014 Guzzardi defeated Berrios by a 20% margin. Guzzardi's campaigns have focused on issues of social and economic inequality, opposition to Chicago's machine politics. In 2018, J. B. Pritzker appointed Guzzardi a member of the gubernatorial transition's Job Creation and Economic Opportunity Committee