Youth in Revolt
Youth in Revolt: The Journals of Nick Twisp is a 1993 epistolary novel by C. D. Payne; the story makes heavy use of black humor and camp. The book contains parts one through three of a six-part series; the book's main protagonist is Nicholas "Nick" Twisp, a 14-year-old boy of above-average intelligence from Oakland, California. Nick's life continues. Lefty, his divorced parents George and Estelle, his mother is dating a truck driver named Jerry, who sells a group of sailors a Chevy Nova that dies soon after the sailors get it. In response, the sailors go for revenge. After outsmarting them, Jerry strategically decides to take a vacation, so they all go to a religious mobile home camp in the resort town of Clearlake, it is there that Nick meets Sheridan "Sheeni" Saunders and his life is turned upside down. Through plots to get Sheeni closer to him he ends up with several crimes on his hands and is forced to run from the police. Nick tricks everyone into thinking he went to India. Nick hides out with his sister Joanie and returns with help from his friend in Ukiah, Frank "Fuzzy" DeFalco.
He dresses in Fuzzy's late grandmother's clothes, adopting the name Carlotta and a conservative disposition. As Nick does so, he befriends several other people who Nick knew before. While spending the night with Sheeni on Christmas Eve, she reveals to him that she knew from the beginning it was him, not Carlotta. Nick gets "the best Christmas present a youth could receive," starting a secret relationship with Sheeni. Nick inherits a fortune when an elderly neighbor of Joanie takes a liking to him and decides to put him in her will; when Joanie's neighbor died, Nick is left half a million dollars richer, until his mother's boyfriend, a somewhat corrupt police officer, seizes the money. Faced with homelessness from the loss of the house he had been squatting in, Nick becomes rich beyond belief when an idea of his, a wart watch, makes it big. Nicholas "Nick" Twisp - The 14-year-old protagonist; the novel is told through his journal entries. Nick is a cynical teen, he creates, throughout the story, two alter egos: Carlotta.
Francois is the "bad side" and Carlotta is the "feminine side". He considers himself a misuderstood intellectual. François Dillinger - Nick's French "bad-boy" persona, he is named from Sheeni's prediction. He is referred to as a separate character, "conversing" with Nick. Carlotta Ulansky - Nick's feminine side, who got the last name from an elderly woman he met at his sister Joanie's apartment building, she passes as the old woman's daughter. Nick dresses in Fuzzy's late grandmother's clothes, attends public school; this of course causes problems in the gym, so Carlotta claims to have a congenital bone dysfunction preventing her from engaging in strenuous activity. Sheridan "Sheeni" Saunders - A 14-year-old girl, the object of Nick's desire, she is scholarly and verbose, is shown to be liberal-minded. This puts her somewhat at odds with her parents, she remains somewhat aloof to Nick, it is implied that she still loves her original boyfriend, Trent. Estelle Twisp - Nick's neurotic mother, an employee of the DMV.
She is a heavy smoker who becomes pregnant with Jerry's child midway through the first book, preventing Nick from relocating to Ukiah. This prompts him to "burn down half of Berkeley". George Twisp - Nick's alcoholic father, a failed writer who dates hot young women and neglects his child support duties. Joanie Twisp - Nick's crudely rebellious 18-year-old sister who lives in Los Angeles with her boyfriend Dr. Philip Dimby Jerry - Estelle's trucker boyfriend, at odds with Nick on many topics, is the father of Noel Twisp, he dies halfway through the first book from a heart attack. Lance Wescott - A sadistic police officer who falls in love with Nick's mother. Nick and Lance develop a hatred of each other, it is just as well that Nick is sent to Ukiah, because Lance ends up marrying Estelle. Mr. Elwyn Saunders - Sheeni's strict lawyer father, he is not fond of Nick, but approves Trent. Mrs. Saunders - Sheeni's religious mother, not fond of Nick, but like her husband, accepts Trent, she is old, is referred to as "Sheeni's 5,000-year old mother" by Nick.
Trent Preston - Nick's nemesis, former boyfriend/current friend of Sheeni Lacey - George's dim-witted 19-year-old girlfriend who works as a stylist. Paul Saunders - Sheeni's psychedelic older brother, who speaks in riddles, but is alone able to see through all of Nick's machinations, he has designs on Lacey. Frank "Fuzzy" DeFalco - Nick's friend in Ukiah, his father is having an affair with a female employee. His mother, in retaliation, has a brief affair with George Twisp, his nickname comes from his hairy body, his clothes are described as "floating a few inches off his body" Vijay Joshi - Nick's friend, rival, in Ukiah. He is a Republican. Apurva Joshi - Vijay's 16-year-old sister, who in Nick's eyes, is second to only Sheeni in beauty. Noel Twisp Jake Twisp - Nick's younger brother, the son of the late Jerry, he is born within the original trilogy, the fifth book, Revoltingly Young, is told from his perspective. Scott Twisp - The eventual son of Nick Twisp, who
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Youth in Revolt (film)
Youth in Revolt is a 2009 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Miguel Arteta and written by Gustin Nash. Based on C. D. Payne's epistolary novel of the same name, the film stars Michael Cera and Portia Doubleday, with Justin Long, Ray Liotta, Steve Buscemi in supporting roles; the film follows a lonely teenage boy desperate to lose his virginity. While on a trailer park holiday with his mother and her boyfriend, he meets an attractive girl and is smitten; when the two are separated Nick must learn how to rebel in order to be with the girl he loves. Shy inept teenager Nick Twisp lives with his mother and her boyfriend, Jerry, in Oakland, California. After selling a faulty car to a group of sailors, Jerry takes Estelle and Nick to a trailer park in Clearlake where Nick meets Sheeni Saunders, a bright young woman his age, with an interest in French culture and who shares Nick's musical taste. Despite Sheeni's boyfriend, Trent Preston, they become romantically involved. Nick purchases a dog for Sheeni named Albert, but the dog rips up the family Bible and Sheeni's parents ban it from the house.
Jerry takes Estelle and Nick with him. Sheeni promises to arrange a job in Ukiah for Nick's father, while Nick will get his mother to kick him out so he can return to Sheeni. Back at home, Nick creates an alter-ego named a suave, rebellious troublemaker. After Nick makes the decision, Jerry dies of a heart attack. Under François' influence, Nick mouths off to his mom and her new boyfriend, police officer Lance Wescott. Nick takes Jerry's Lincoln, crashes into a restaurant, which starts a fire. Lance agrees to report the car stolen. In return, Nick must live with his father. In Ukiah, Nick phones tells her he had to blow up "half of Berkeley" to return. Sheeni's parents overhear this and ship her to a French boarding school in Santa Cruz, forbidding Nick to see her again. In his new high school, Nick befriends Vijay Joshi, they take Vijay's grandmother's car to visit Sheeni. After sneaking into Sheeni's room, Nick goes to the restroom and meets Bernice Lynch, Sheeni's neighbor, claims Trent said terrible things about her.
Bernice brings the matron to Sheeni's room and the boys flee. On the way home, the car dies and Nick calls Mr. Ferguson, his father's idealist neighbor, to come pick them up; when he returns home, Nick meets Sheeni's older brother, who tells him that she will be returning home on Thanksgiving and invites him for dinner. Nick begins to send Bernice letters asking her to slip sedatives into Sheeni's drinks to make her fall asleep in class, thereby getting Sheeni expelled. Nick finds Lacey, George's 25-year-old girlfriend and Ferguson, lounging in his living room, high on mushrooms, which Nick ingests. George punches Ferguson, which results in Paul punching George. Lacey leaves the house to live with Paul. On Thanksgiving Day, Nick receives a call from his mother explaining Lance left and will not cover for Nick anymore. Nick goes to Thanksgiving at Sheeni's. Trent unexpectedly explains Nick's letters to Bernice. Nick steals his father's car to escape the police, he removes his clothes and drives the car into a shallow lake in front of the police station.
He buys a wig and a dress and impersonates one of Sheeni's "friends". He goes up to Sheeni's room. Upstairs, Nick tells Sheeni that he understands what loneliness is like, that everything he has done, including burning down Berkeley, destroying his parents' cars and having her sedated were all so that they wouldn't have to be alone anymore. Sheeni forgives Nick, the two have sex achieving Nick's dream of losing his virginity. Trent barges in. Nick asks Sheeni to wait for him; the animated closing credits show Nick in jail with François helping him. When Nick is released, Sheeni shows up in a car and they drive away into the sky towards the Paris skyline, as various characters appear to make amends with the two and give them their blessing. Youth in Revolt opened on January 8, 2010 in 1,873 theaters and grossed $6,888,334 in its opening weekend, ranking #9 in the domestic box office. By the end of its run on March 25, the film had grossed $15,281,286 domestically and $4,369,807 overseas for a worldwide total of $19,651,093.
Based on its $18 million budget, the film was a box office failure. The film has received positive reviews. On Metacritic, based on 35 critics' reviews, the film has a 63/100 rating, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Youth in Revolt was released on DVD and Blu-ray on June 15, 2010. Special features include deleted scenes, animated sequences, an audio commentary by Arteta and Cera, audition footage. Youth in Revolt: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released on January 5, 2010 by Lakeshore Records; the film itself contained 19 songs. The score was composed by John Swihart who did the score for Napoleon Dynamite and The Brothers Solomon. Youth in Revolt on IMDb Youth in Revolt a
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Fox Animation Studios
Fox Animation Studios was an American traditional 2D hand-drawn cel-animated/CGI production company located in Phoenix and was the former in-house feature animation division of 20th Century Fox. After 6 years of operation, the studio was shut down on June 26, 2000, ten days after the release of its final film, Titan A. E. and was replaced by Fox's Blue Sky Studios division. After the financially unsuccessful release of Don Bluth Entertainment-produced film Thumbelina in 1994, animators Don Bluth and Gary Goldman were hired by Bill Mechanic, then-chairman of 20th Century Fox, to create a brand new 20th Century Fox animation studio. Mechanic and John Matoian, President of Fox Family Films brought in Stephen Brain as Senior VP/General Manager to oversee the startup of the studio and run day-to-day operations of the division; the company was designed to compete with Walt Disney Feature Animation, which had phenomenal success during the late 1980s and early 1990s with the releases of films such as The Little Mermaid and the Beast and The Lion King.
Disney veterans Bluth and Goldman came in 1994 to Fox from Sullivan Bluth Studios, which had produced An American Tail, The Land Before Time and both All Dogs Go To Heaven and Rock-a-Doodle, among other films. Before Bluth came to Fox, the studio distributed three animated features during the 1990s which were produced by outside studios – FernGully: The Last Rainforest, Once Upon a Forest and The Pagemaster, the last two of which were both commercial and critical failures. Before, Fox distributed Hugo the Hippo by William Feigenbaum and József Gémes, two Ralph Bakshi features and Fire and Ice, as well as Raggedy Ann & Andy: A Musical Adventure by Richard Williams. Fox distributed Asterix Conquers America in France and United Kingdom. Fox Animation Studios did not achieve the same level of success as Disney's animated crop, due to increased competition from Pixar and DreamWorks Animation, the declining revenues of the Disney Renaissance, the rise of computer-generated animation, its first theatrical release, found critical and box-office success.
Its other theatrical release, Titan A. E. was a costly flop, losing $100 million for 20th Century Fox. Early a year before its closure, 20th Century Fox laid off 300 up to 80 people who worked at the Phoenix studio in order to "make films more efficiently." On June 26, 2000, the studio was shut down after 6 years of operation, resulting the financial failure and poor problems. Their last film set to be made would have been an adaptation of Wayne Barlowe's illustrated novel Barlowe's Inferno, it was set to be done with near complete CGI. Fox Animation Studios' only other productions were the PBS television series Adventures from the Book of Virtues, the direct-to-video prequel to Anastasia, Bartok the Magnificent. Out of all the sequels and spinoffs based on existing Don Bluth properties, Bartok was the only of which to have Bluth and Goldman as directors; the former headquarters for the studio sat unused and abandoned until it was demolished in 2017. Adventures from the Book of Virtues Anastasia The Prince of Egypt Bartok the Magnificent Titan A.
E. 20th Century Fox Animation Blue Sky Studios Fox Animation Studios on IMDb
Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878, its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the south of Mendocino County, it is west of Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is the northwesternmost county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa and Lake counties, it possesses thirteen approved over 250 wineries. In 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production; as early as 1920, Sonoma County was ranked as the eighth most agriculturally productive US county and a leading producer of hops, prunes and dairy and poultry products due to the extent of available, fertile agricultural land in addition to the abundance of high quality irrigation water.
More than 7.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Santa Rosa Junior College. Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use and resource management of this region. Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007: grapes and pasturage; the voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, between 8000 and 5000 BC living within the natural carrying capacity of the land. Archaeological evidence of these First people includes a number of occurrences of rock carvings in southern Sonoma County. Spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland.
The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County, with the Russian-American Company establishing Fort Ross on the Sonoma Coast in 1812. This settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento; the Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, at the northern end of El Camino Real. El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, his duties included keeping an eye on the Russian traders at Fort Ross, secularizing the Mission, maintaining cooperation with the Native Americans of the entire region, doling out the lands for large estates and ranches. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846.
Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, Sonoma had declined in importance in both commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, it was remote; as a result, elements in the newer growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Healdsburg began vying to move the county seat to their towns. The dispute was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa; the fate was decided following an election for the state legislature in which James Bennett of Santa Rosa defeated Joseph Hooker of Sonoma and introduced a bill that resulted in Santa Rosa being confirmed as county seat in 1854. Several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, brought them to Santa Rosa; some of the county's land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860.
Early post-1847 settlement and development focused on the city of Sonoma the region's sole town and a common transit and resting point in overland travel between the region and Sacramento and the gold fields to the east. However, after 1850, a settlement that soon became the city of Petaluma began to grow near the farthest navigable point inland up the Petaluma River. A hunting camp used to obtain game to sell in other markets, by 1854 Petaluma had grown into a bustling center of trade, taking advantage of its position in the river near a region of productive agricultural land, being settled. Soon, other inland towns, notably Santa Rosa and Healdsburg began to develop due to their locations along riparian areas in prime agricultural flatland. However, their development lagged behind Petaluma which, until the arrival of railroads in the 1860s, remained the primary commercial and break-of-bulk point for people and goods in the region. After the arrival of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad in 1870, Santa Rosa began to boom, soon equalling and surpassing Petaluma as the region's population and commercial center.
The railroad bypassed Petaluma for southern connections to ferries of San Francisco Bay. Six nations have claimed Sonoma County fro
Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Summit County. It is located on the western edge of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, about 30 miles south of Cleveland; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the city proper had a total population of 197,846, making it the 119th-largest city in the United States. The Greater Akron area, covering Summit and Portage counties, had an estimated population of 703,505; the city was founded in 1825 by Simon Perkins and Paul Williams, along the Little Cuyahoga River at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is derived from the Greek word signifying high point, it was renamed South Akron after Eliakim Crosby founded nearby North Akron in 1833, until both merged into an incorporated village in 1836. In the 1910s, Akron doubled in population. A long history of rubber and tire manufacturing, carried on today by Goodyear Tire, gave Akron the nickname "Rubber Capital of the World", it was once known as a center of airship development.
Today, its economy includes manufacturing, education and biomedical research. Notable historic events in Akron include the passage of the Akron School Law of 1847, which created the K–12 system. A racially diverse city, it has seen noted racial relations speeches by Sojourner Truth in 1851 — the Ain't I A Woman? Speech. Du Bois in 1920. In 1914, Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Akron. Episodes of major civil unrest in Akron have included the riot of 1900, rubber strike of 1936, the Wooster Avenue riots of 1968. In 1811, Paul Williams settled near the corner of what is now Broadway, he suggested to General Simon Perkins, surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company's Connecticut Western Reserve, that they found a town at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is adapted from meaning summit or high point, it was laid out in December 1825, where the south part of the downtown Akron neighborhood sits today. Irish laborers working on the Ohio Canal built about 100 cabins nearby.
After Eliakim Crosby founded "North Akron" in the northern portion of what is now downtown Akron in 1833, "South" was added to Akron's name until about three years when the two were merged and became an incorporated village in 1836. In 1840, Summit County formed from portions of Portage and Stark Counties. Akron replaced Cuyahoga Falls as its county seat a year and opened a canal connecting to Beaver, helping give birth to the stoneware, sewer pipe, fishing tackle, farming equipment industries. In 1844, abolitionist John Brown moved into the John Brown House across the street from business partner Colonel Simon Perkins, who lived in the Perkins Stone Mansion; the Akron School Law of 1847 founded the city's public schools and created the K–12 grade school system, used in every U. S. state. The city's first school is now a museum on Broadway Street near the corner of Exchange; when the Ohio Women's Rights Convention came to Akron in 1851, Sojourner Truth extemporaneously delivered her speech named "Ain't I A Woman?", at the Universalist Old Stone Church.
In 1870, a local businessman associated with the church, John R. Buchtel, founded Buchtel College, which became the University of Akron in 1913. Ferdinand Schumacher bought a mill in 1856, the following decade mass-produced oat bars for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Akron incorporated as a city in 1865. Philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, architect Jacob Snyder designed the used Akron Plan, debuting it on Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872. Numerous Congregational and Presbyterian churches built between the 1870s and World War I use it. In 1883, a local journalist began the modern toy industry by founding the Akron Toy Company. A year the first popular toy was mass-produced clay marbles made by Samuel C. Dyke at his shop where Lock 3 Park is now. Other popular inventions include rubber balloons, dolls, baby buggy bumpers, little brown jugs. In 1895, the first long-distance electric railway, the Akron and Cleveland Railroad, began service. On August 25, 1889, the Boston Daily Globe referred to Akron with the nickname "Summit City".
To help local police, the city deployed the first police car in the U. S. that ran on electricity. The Riot of 1900 saw assaults on city officials, two deaths, the destruction by fire of Columbia Hall and the Downtown Fire Station; the American trucking industry was birthed through Akron's Rubber Capital of the World era when the four major tire companies Goodrich Corporation, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, General Tire were headquartered in the city. The numerous jobs the rubber factories provided for deaf people led to Akron being nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Deaf". On Easter Sunday 1913, 9.55 inches of rain fell, causing floods that killed five people and destroyed the Ohio and Erie Canal system. From 1916 to 1920, 10,000 schoolgirls took part in the successful Akron Experiment, testing iodized salt to prevent goiter in what was known as the "Goiter Belt"; the Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923 by Roy W