Silurian (Doctor Who)
The Silurians are a fictional race of reptile-like humanoids in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The species first appeared in Doctor Who in the 1970 serial Doctor Who and the Silurians, were created by Malcolm Hulke; the first Silurians introduced are depicted as prehistoric and scientifically advanced sentient humanoids who predate the dawn of man. The Silurians introduced in the 1970 story are broad, three-eyed land-dwellers; the 1972 serial The Sea Devils by Hulke, introduced their amphibious cousins, the so-called "Sea Devils". Both Silurians and Sea Devils made an appearance in 1984's Warriors of the Deep. After Warriors of the Deep, the Silurians did not appear in the show again before its 1989 cancellation. Redesigned Silurans were reintroduced to the series in 2010, following the show's 2005 revival, have recurred since then. Called Silurians, after their supposed origins in the Silurian period, the creatures have been referred to by other names. In The Sea Devils, the Third Doctor claims that "properly speaking", the Silurians should have been called "Eocenes".
The name Homo reptilia is first used to describe the creatures in the novelisation Doctor Who and the Cave-Monsters, is first used in the series proper in the episode "The Hungry Earth". In The Sea Devils, an amphibious Silurian is dubbed a "Sea Devil" by the human workman Clark, while in Warriors of the Deep, the land-dwelling Silurians use the term "Sea Devil" to refer to their aquatic counterparts. Drawing on the ideas of the Quatermass serials, producer Peter Bryant and producer and script editor Derrick Sherwin decided that for the series' seventh season, the show's protagonist the Doctor should be restricted to contemporary Earth and work alongside the UNIT organisation, featured prominently in the sixth season's serial The Invasion. Producer Barry Letts and script editor Terrance Dicks, inheriting this new vision for the series wanted their stories for the seventh season to have a serious, deeper subtext, they approached Malcolm Hulke, co-writer of the Patrick Troughton serials The Faceless Ones and The War Games, to write a serial for this new season.
Hulke saw limitations with this earthbound format – he believed there would be two types of stories, one featuring mad scientists and the other alien invasions. Terrance Dicks claims credit for thinking of the idea of creatures, there all along. While planning stories for Doctor Who's ninth season and Letts decided to revive the Silurian concept, this time with the twist of these new Silurians originating in the sea. Dubbed "Sea Silurians", they were rechristened "Sea Devils" for dramatic effect as Hulke's storyline was edited. Johnny Byrne, writer of the Peter Davison serial Warriors of the Deep, notes that the Myrka creature was created to absolve the Silurians from the guilt of genocide, using the creature as a weapon of last resort. In their first appearance in Doctor Who and the Silurians, a group of Silurians are awakened from hibernation by the energy from a nearby nuclear power research center in Derbyshire; the Third Doctor manages to negotiate an honourable compromise with the colony's leader.
The colony's leader is murdered by a younger Silurian who becomes the new leader, intent on a far more aggressive policy. To that end, the Silurians attempt to reclaim the planet from humanity by releasing a deadly virus and attempting to disperse the Van Allen radiation belt. Both plans were thwarted by the Doctor. Despite the Doctor's best efforts to broker a peaceful solution, the Silurians are still determined to exterminate humanity, only to have their base destroyed by the fictional organisation UNIT on the orders of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart to preempt this open threat. In The Sea Devils, an amphibious variety of Silurians are awakened from their hibernation by a renegade Time Lord known as the Master, who persuades them to reclaim the planet from the human race. Despite the Third Doctor's efforts to convince them otherwise, the Sea Devils decide to go to war, forcing the Doctor to destroy their base, it is revealed, that there were many colonies still in hibernation around the world.
The land-based Silurians and the "Sea Devils" next appeared, together, in Warriors of the Deep, where they attempt again to reclaim Earth from the humans. Set in the year 2084 during a prolonged "cold war" between factions of humanity, the serial describes the Sea Devils as being elite warriors; the Fifth Doctor tries in vain to prevent any bloodshed against either species. The last surviving Silurian in the episode, however, is killed by Turlough, leaving the Doctor despondent. Silurians are reintroduced to the series, following its cancellation and revival, in the 2010 two-parter "The Hungry Earth" / "Cold Blood", in which Silurians are awoken in 2020 by an underground drilling operation; these Silurians lack the third eye of their 1970–1984 counterparts, wear masks. Having misinterpreted the drilling as a deliberate attack, the Silurians take hostages. After a protracted conflict, the Eleventh Doctor leaves behind two humans i
The Time Lords are a fictional, ancient extraterrestrial species in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, of which the series' protagonist, the Doctor, is a member. Time Lords are so named for their command of time travel technology and their non-linear perception of time, they were described as a powerful and wise race from the planet Gallifrey, from which the Doctor was a renegade. They became integral to many episodes and stories as their role in the fictional universe developed. For the first eight years after the series resumed in 2005, the Time Lords were said to have been destroyed during the fictional Last Great Time War at some point between the original series' cancellation in 1989 and the show's revival. In 2013, the 50th anniversary special "The Day of the Doctor" concerned this supposed destruction and their eventual survival, they developed a culture of custodianship and time-related technologies based on this perception which includes controlled space/time travel machines and monitoring devices to travel through time and to prevent time from being subverted or abused—although actual action was described as rare in practice due to their traditional policy of strict non-interference and neutrality.
They can act to manipulate timelines of a wide range of events and individuals, so long as they do not cross back into their own timeline. Over subsequent episodes their history, their development of time manipulation, their internal politics were touched upon, with Time Lord society portrayed as a stagnated ceremony-bound oligarchy and their past having descended into myth and legend; the Doctor became at times an ally, being appointed their president during his fourth and twelfth incarnations and assisting them on many other occasions. In an audio commentary recorded for the 2009 DVD release of The War Games, producer Derrick Sherwin mentioned how in a discussion with the serial's co-writer Terrance Dicks the previous day, Dicks was "absolutely certain" that Sherwin created the Time Lords for the serial, although Sherwin could not remember himself. In the commentary, Dicks recalled Sherwin telling him in the discussions with Dicks and Dicks' fellow co-writer Malcolm Hulke that because the Doctor had always been established as being on the run from his own people, that if he has to appeal to them, the Doctor would be in trouble.
In a 2016 interview with The Essential Doctor Who magazine, Dicks mentioned how when Sherwin and he were discussing The War Games one day, Sherwin said, "He belongs to this mysterious race called the Time Lords, doesn't he?" with "everything" coming from that discussion. In The War Games DVD commentary, Sherwin mentioned that he recalled hearing about the Time Lords at the beginning of the series, but as no one else remembered this, it "might have come out of dreams". Elaborating on this genesis in a 2014 interview in Doctor Who Magazine, Sherwin said of The War Games, "It was a case of what shall we do, how can we end this? Let's go back to the beginning and say was a Time Lord, a renegade Time Lord, a pain in the arse for the other Time Lords who stole his TARDIS and buggered off around the universe. So if he's going to be called to book let's bring in the Time Lords." Early on in the series, the Doctor was identified as a human being. In The War Games, the Doctor's people appeared, who from on are known as a race called Time Lords, in Spearhead from Space, the Doctor's earlier description of himself as a human is retconned when the Third Doctor explicitly states that he is not human.
In The Time Warrior, the name of the Doctor's home planet, was revealed on screen for the first time. The nature and history of the Time Lords were revealed as the television programme progressed; the Time Lords are considered one of the oldest and most technologically powerful races in the Doctor Who universe. In The Time Warrior, the Time Lords are characterised by Sontaran military intelligence, quoted by Commander Linx, as "A race of great technical achievement, but lacking the morale to withstand a determined assault." The Tenth Doctor says in "The Sound of Drums" that they are "the oldest and most mighty race in the universe". In "The Witch's Familiar", Davros mentions a prophecy on the Doctor's world that spoke of a hybrid made up of "two great warrior races forced together to create a warrior greater than either", "half-Dalek, half-Time Lord", while in "Hell Bent", the General, while describing the prophecy of the Hybrid, mentions the Time Lords as one of two warrior races along with the Daleks.
In "Before the Flood", the Fisher King describes the Time Lords as "Cowardly, vain curators, who remembered they had teeth, became the most warlike race in the galaxy." In the distant past, the Time Lords fought a genocidal war against the Great Vampires, which led to such a catastrophic loss of life that the Time Lords renounced violence. In some spinoff media, the Time Lords are allied with less developed "Temporal Powers". In The War Games, the Second Doctor mentions that the Time Lords' "great powers" are hardly used due to their policy of non-intervention into the affairs of other planets, that they instead observe and gather knowledge; because of this, holding a trial is a "very rare" event for the Time Lords. Exceptions to this policy are made only in extreme circumstances when they feel they have to, such as where the Doctor calls them for help in the serial. At the start of the 2005 television series, Gallifrey was thought to have
The Sontarans son-TAR-ans. They are a warrior race characterised by their fearlessness of death. During rehearsals for their first appearance, Kevin Lindsay, who portrayed the original Sontaran, pronounced the race's name as "son-TAR-an." Alan Bromly, the director, tried to correct him by saying it should be pronounced with the stress on the first syllable. Lindsay declared "Well, I think it's "son-TAR-an", since I'm from the place, I should know." His preferred pronunciation was retained. The Sontarans made their first appearance in 1973 in the serial The Time Warrior by Robert Holmes, where Linx is stranded in the Middle Ages. Linx uses a projector to bring back human scientists from the future to fix his spacecraft. Another Sontaran named Styre appears in The Sontaran Experiment, experimenting on captured astronauts on a far future Earth, their third appearance is in The Invasion of Time, where they invade Gallifrey, but are driven out again after less than a day. They appeared for the final time in the original series in The Two Doctors.
The Sontarans appeared in a skit for the BBC children's programme Jim'll Fix It titled "A Fix with Sontarans", along with Colin Baker as the Sixth Doctor and Janet Fielding as Tegan Jovanka. References are made in Sontaran episodes to the Rutan Host, an militaristic race with whom the Sontarans have been at war for thousands of years though the Rutans were not shown until the 1977 serial Horror of Fang Rock. Sporting an updated design, Sontarans returned to the revived series in the series 4 episodes "The Sontaran Strategem" and "The Poison Sky"; the Sontarans plan to terraform the Earth into a new clone world, but their plans are averted by the Tenth Doctor. It is revealed that the race was excluded from the Time War of the revived series' backstory. In "Turn Left", the same events are depicted in a parallel universe, where through exposition describes their plan as foiled by Torchwood, at the cost of their lives, with Torchwood leader Jack Harkness being captured by the Sontarans. In "The Stolen Earth", UNIT is revealed to have developed a teleportation device based on Sontaran technology.
A lone survivor from the events of "The Poison Sky", next appears in The Last Sontaran, from spin-off series The Sarah Jane Adventures. Kaagh appears again in Enemy of the Bane. In Doctor Who's "The End of Time, Part Two", a Sontaran sniper appears pursuing the Doctor's former companions Mickey Smith and his wife Martha Jones, but is defeated by the Doctor before he can assassinate them. Alongside the Eleventh Doctor, Sontarans battle fleets are seen in series five finale episode "The Pandorica Opens", as part of an alliance of the Doctor's enemies. Series 6 episode "A Good Man Goes to War" introduces Strax, a Sontaran nurse, assigned this role as a means of making penance, he fights on the side of the Doctor and his allies, which include the Silurian warrior Vastra and her lover Jenny. Strax appears alongside Vastra and Jenny in "The Snowmen", "The Crimson Horror", "The Name of the Doctor", "Deep Breath". A troop of Sontarans is shown among Trenzalore's invaders in the 2013 Christmas special "The Time of the Doctor".
A Sontaran appears in the 2015 episode "Face the Raven" as a refugee. The origins of the Sontarans have not been revealed in the television series; the Doctor Who role-playing game published by FASA claimed that they were all descended from the genetic stock of General Sontar, who used newly developed bioengineering techniques to clone millions of duplicates of himself and annihilated the non-clone population. He renamed the race after himself and turned the Sontarans into an expansionist and warlike society set on universal conquest. However, this origin has no basis in anything seen in the television series; the Sontarans have appeared as a character in the PC game Destiny of the Doctors released on 5 December 1997, by BBC Multimedia. They can be defeated by firing the occupants of an angry beehive at them; the Sontarans appear in the Doctor Who: The Adventure Games episode, "The Gunpowder Plot". Big Finish Productions first used the Sontarans for their audio drama Heroes of Sontar, a 2011 Fifth Doctor story, depicting the Doctor and his companions being forced to aid a Sontaran attack squad against a dangerous enemy that has threatened the Sontaran race by compromising their strategic methods.
They next featured in The Five Companions and were stuck in an alternative version of the Death Zone with the Fifth Doctor and various companions. In 2012, The First Sontarans was released. A Sixth Doctor Lost Story from the mid-1980s, written by Andrew Smith, it features the Sontarans and the Rutans on nineteenth century Earth, tracking down a scientist named Jacob, who escaped through time and space, it is revealed that Jacob is from Sontar, was responsible for genetically creating the Sontarans as a defence against a Rutan invasion. They were first developed on Sontar's gravity-heavy moon and proved themselves to be at least on par with the unstoppable Rutan horde. However, believing themselves to be superior, the Sontarans turned on their creators to prevent their knowledge of Sontaran weaknesses being discovered and exploited by their enemies, conquering the planet Sontar and changing it to suit their biology; the audio ends with the Doctor and Peri helping Jacob and his wi
Davros is a character from the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. He was created by screenwriter Terry Nation for the 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks. Davros is a major enemy of the series' protagonist, the Doctor, is the creator of the Doctor's deadliest enemies, the Daleks. Davros is a genius who has mastered many areas of science, but a megalomaniac who believes that through his creations he can become the supreme being and ruler of the Universe; the character has been compared to the infamous dictator Adolf Hitler several times, including by the actor Terry Molloy, while Julian Bleach defined him as a cross between Hitler and the renowned scientist Stephen Hawking. Davros is from the planet Skaro, whose people, the Kaleds, were engaged in a bitter thousand-year war of attrition with their enemies, the Thals, he is horribly scarred and disabled, a condition that various spin-off media attribute to his laboratory being attacked by a Thal shell. He has one functioning hand and one cybernetic eye mounted on his forehead to take the place of his real eyes, which he is not able to open for long.
It would become an obvious inspiration for his eventual design of the Dalek. The lower half of his body is absent and he is physically incapable of leaving the chair for more than a few minutes without dying. Davros' voice, like those of the Daleks, is electronically distorted, his manner of speech is soft and contemplative, but when angered or excited he is prone to ranting outbursts that resemble the hysterical, staccatissimo speech of the Daleks. Davros first appeared in the 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks, written by Terry Nation. Nation, creator of the Dalek concept, had deliberately modelled elements of the Daleks' character on Nazi ideology, conceived of their creator as a scientist with strong fascist tendencies; the physical appearance of Davros was developed by visual effects designer Peter Day and sculptor John Friedlander, who based Davros' chair on the lower half of a Dalek. Producer Philip Hinchcliffe told Friedlander to consider a design similar to the Mekon from the Eagle comic Dan Dare, with a large dome-like head and a withered body.
Cast in the role of Davros was Michael Wisher, who had appeared in several different roles on Doctor Who and had provided Dalek voices in the serials Frontier in Space, Planet of the Daleks and Death to the Daleks. Wisher based his performance as Davros on the philosopher Bertrand Russell. In order to prepare for filming under the heavy mask, Wisher rehearsed wearing a paper bag over his head. Friedlander's mask was cast with only the mouth revealing Wisher's features. In the Destiny of the Daleks, Davros is played by David Gooderson using the mask Friedlander made for Wisher after it was split into intersecting sections to get as good a fit as possible; when Terry Molloy took over the role in Resurrection of the Daleks, a new mask was designed by Stan Mitchell. The Fourth Doctor first encountered Davros in Genesis of the Daleks when he and his companions were sent to Skaro to avert the creation of the Daleks; as chief scientist of the Kaleds and leader of their elite scientific division, Davros devised new military strategies in order to win his people's thousand-year war against the Thal race that occupies Skaro.
When Davros learned his people were evolving from exposure to nuclear and biological weapons used in the war, he artificially accelerates the process to his design and stores the resulting tentacle creatures in tank-like "Mark III travel machines" based on the design of his wheelchair. He names these creatures "Daleks", an anagram of Kaleds. Davros becomes obsessed with his creations, considering them to be the ultimate form of life compared to others; when other Kaleds attempted to thwart his project, Davros arranges the extinction of his own people by using the Thals, whom he killed with the Daleks later. Davros weeds out those in elite scientific division who are loyal to him so he can have the Daleks eliminate the rest. However, the Daleks turn on Davros, killing his supporters before shooting him when he tries to halt the Dalek production line. In Destiny of the Daleks, it is revealed that Davros was not killed, but placed in suspended animation and buried underground; the Daleks unearth their creator to help them break a logical impasse in their war against the android Movellans.
However, the Dalek force is destroyed by the Doctor, Davros is captured and imprisoned in suspended animation by the humans, before being taken to Earth to face trial. In the Fifth Doctor story Resurrection of the Daleks, Davros is released from his space station prison by small Dalek force aided by human mercenaries and Dalek duplicates; the Daleks require Davros to find an antidote for a Movellan-created virus that has all but wiped them out. Believing his creations to be treacherous, Davros begins using mind control on Daleks and humans releasing the virus to kill off the Daleks before they can exterminate him. Davros expresses a desire to build a new and improved race of Daleks, but he succumbs to the virus himself before he can escape, his physiology being close enough to that of the Daleks for the virus to affect him, but in the Sixth Doctor story Revelation of the Daleks, Davros goes into hiding as "The Great Healer" of the funeral and cryogenic preservation centre Tranquil Repose on the planet Necros.
There, creating a clone of his head to serve as a decoy while modifying his bod
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000; until Chichester was Sussex's only city. Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond, the well-wooded Sussex Weald; the name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed subsequently into the kingdom of England, it was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It is the site of the Battle of Hastings. In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as cultural region, it has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex; the name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons. The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries; the earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that.
The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong. The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex; the flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex; the first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association, it is now regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden.
Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes. Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes Bonfire, at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club; the county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women; the round-headed rampion known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002. The physical geography of Sussex relies on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline, the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:South Coast Plain South Downs Wealden Greensand Low Weald High Weald Pevensey Levels Romney MarshesAt 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex; the longest river in Sussex is the River Arun, 60 kilometres long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs; the largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom; the coast has more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex lies in Hardiness zon
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Richmal Crompton Lamburn was a popular English writer, best known for her Just William series of books, humorous short stories, to a lesser extent adult fiction books. Richmal Crompton Lamburn was born in Bury, the second child of the Rev. Edward John Sewell Lamburn, a Classics master at Bury Grammar School and his wife Clara, her brother, John Battersby Crompton Lamburn became a writer, remembered under the name John Lambourne for his fantasy novel The Kingdom That Was and under the name "John Crompton" for his books on natural history. Richmal Crompton attended St Elphin's Boarding School for the daughters of the clergy based in Warrington, Lancashire, she moved with the school to a new location in Darley Dale, near Matlock, Derbyshire in 1904. In order to further her chosen career as a schoolteacher, she won a scholarship to Royal Holloway College, part of the University of London in Englefield Green, Surrey. Crompton graduated in 1914 with a BA honours degree in Classics, she took part in the Women's Suffrage movement.
In 1914, she returned to St Elphin’s as a Classics mistress and at age 27, moved to Bromley High School in southeast London where she began her writing in earnest. Cadogan shows that she was an committed teacher at both schools. Having contracted poliomyelitis, she was left without the use of her right leg in 1923, she began to write full-time. In her forties, she suffered from breast cancer and had a mastectomy, she never married and had no children although she was aunt and great-aunt to other members of her family. Her William stories and her other literature were successful and, three years after she retired from teaching, Crompton was able to afford to have a house built in Bromley Common for herself and her mother, Clara. In spite of her disabilities, during the Second World War she volunteered for the Fire Service, she died in 1969 in Kent. Crompton's best known books are the William stories, about a mischievous 11-year-old schoolboy and his band of friends, known as "The Outlaws", her first short story featuring William to be published was "Rice Mould Pudding", published in Home Magazine in 1919.
In 1922, the first collection, entitled Just William, was published. She wrote 38 other William books throughout her life; the last, William the Lawless, was published posthumously in 1970. The William books sold over twelve million copies in the United Kingdom alone, they have been adapted for films, stage-plays, numerous radio and television series. Illustrations by Thomas Henry contributed to their success. Crompton saw her real work as writing adult fiction. Starting with The Innermost Room, she wrote 41 novels for adults and published nine collections of short stories, their focus was village life in the Home Counties. William was created for a grown-up audience, as she saw Just William as a potboiler, she was pleased by its success, but seemed frustrated that her other novels and short stories did not receive the same recognition. Her first published tale was published in The Girl's Own Paper in 1918, concerning a little boy named Thomas, a forerunner of William who reacts against authority.
Crompton tried several times to reformulate William for other audiences. Jimmy was aimed at younger children, Enter – Patricia at girls. Crompton wrote two more Jimmy books, but no more Patricia, neither was as successful as William; as for the source of inspiration of the main character William, Crompton never disclosed it and therefore different opinions exist. It was the result of mixing observations of children she worked with or knew with her own imagination. According to her niece Kate Massey, co-president of the Just William Society, Crompton captured the world of an 11-year-old boy basing the character on her younger brother Jack. According to the actor John Teed, whose family lived next door to Crompton, the model for William was Crompton's nephew Tommy: "As a boy I knew Miss Richmal Crompton Lamburn well, she lived with her mother in Cherry Orchard Road, Bromley Common. My family lived next door. In those days it was a small rural village. Miss Lamburn was a delightful unassuming young woman and I used to play with her young nephew Tommy.
He used to get up to all sorts of tricks and he was always presumed to be the inspiration for William by all of us. Having contracted polio she was crippled and confined to a wheelchair. Owing to her restricted movements she took her setting from her immediate surroundings which contained many of the features described, such as unspoilt woods and wide streams and Biggin Hill Aerodrome active in the Twenties." Crompton's fiction centres around family and social life, dwelling on the constraints that they place on individuals while nurturing them. This is best seen in her depiction of children as puzzled onlookers of society's ways; the children William and his Outlaws always emerge triumphant. The William books have been sold all over the world; the publication dates are for the UK. Just William, 1922 More William, 1922 William Again, 1923 William the Fourth, 1924 Still William, 1925 William The Conqueror, 1926 William the Outlaw, 1927 William in Trouble, 1927 William the Good, 1928 William's Christmas Truce, 1929 William Writes a Play, 1929 William, 1929 Wil