Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
Donald Alfred Davie was an English Movement poet, literary critic. His poems in general are philosophical and abstract, but evoke various landscapes. Davie was born in a son of Baptist parents, he began his education at Barnsley Holgate Grammar School, he attended St Catharine's College, Cambridge. His studies there were interrupted by service during the war in the Royal Navy in Arctic Russia, where he taught himself the language. In the last year of the war, in Devon, he married Doreen John. After returning to Cambridge, he continued his studies and received his B. A. M. A. and Ph. D, he returned to Cambridge in 1958, in 1964 was made the first Professor of English at the new University of Essex. He taught English at the University of Essex from 1964 until 1968, when he moved to Stanford University, where he succeeded Yvor Winters. In 1978, he relocated to Vanderbilt University, where he taught until his retirement in 1988, he wrote on the technique of poetry, both in books such as Purity of Diction in English Verse, in smaller articles such as'Some Notes on Rhythm in Verse'.
Davie's criticism and poetry are both characterized by his interest in modernist and pre-modernist techniques.'Davie claimed ‘there is no necessary connection between the poetic vocation on the one hand, on the other exhibitionism and licence'. He writes eloquently and sympathetically about British modernist poetry in Under Briggflatts, while in Thomas Hardy and British Poetry he defends a pre-modernist verse tradition. Much of Davie's poetry has been compared to that of the traditionalist Philip Larkin, but other works are more influenced by Ezra Pound, he is featured in the Oxford Book of Contemporary Verse. Irish literary critic Denis Donoghue described Davie's poetry as "an enforced choice between masturbation and wedded love" bereft of drama. Writer Calvin Bedient discusses Davie's style in his book Eight Contemporary Poets, he informs readers of Davie's specific thoughts by including quotes. According to Bedient, Davie said that'To make poetry out of moral commonplace, a poet has to make it clear that he speaks not in his own voice but as the spokesman of a social tradition.'
It follows that Davie's voice is unique compared to the modern movement, happening during his life. His work does not epitomize contemporary poetry like that of many of his counterparts, but rather it calls upon a certain nostalgia for the past. Davie's work is distinctly "English" sounding, as he uses traditional language. In particular, his work reminds readers of the late Augustan poets, whose work is sophisticated and polished, his writes in a similar style to Philip Larkin and Ted Hughes, who were both alive during Davie's lifetime. In addition, Davie writes without fear of criticism, he uses a confident voice to assert his thoughts and musings. A Winter Talent and other poems Events & Wisdoms The Shires In the Stopping Train and other poems Selected Poems Trying To Explain To Scorch Or Freeze Under Briggflatts Slavic Excursions These the Companions Ezra Pound Older Masters Purity of Diction In English Verse and Articulate Energy Church Chapel and the Unitarian Conspiracy Poems & Melodramas With The Grain: Essays On Thomas Hardy and British Poetry Two Ways Out Of Whitman:American Essays Collected Poems A Travelling Man: Eighteenth Century Bearings Modernist Essays Purity of Diction In English Verse and Articulate Energy Works by or about Donald Davie in libraries Collected Poems at GoogleBooks Recordings of 24 lectures Donald Davie gave at Stanford in 1975 on W. B.
Yeats Stuart Wright Papers: Donald Davie Papers 1938-1989, East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University Donald Davie on Poetry Foundation
Order of the Companions of Honour
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded on 4 June 1917 by King George V as a reward for outstanding achievements and is "conferred upon a limited number of persons for whom this special distinction seems to be the most appropriate form of recognition, constituting an honour disassociated either from the acceptance of title or the classification of merit."Founded on the same date as the Order of the British Empire, it is sometimes regarded as the junior order to the Order of Merit. Now described as "awarded for having a major contribution to the arts, medicine, or government lasting over a long period of time", the first recipients, were all decorated for "services in connection with the war" and were listed in The London Gazette The Chapel Royal at Hampton Court is now the Chapel of the Order; the order consists of a maximum 65 members. Additionally, foreigners or Commonwealth citizens from outside the realms may be added as honorary members.
Membership confers no title or precedence, but those inducted into the single-class order are entitled to use the post-nominal letters CH. Appointments can be made on the advice of Commonwealth realm prime ministers. For Canadians, the advice to the Sovereign can come from a variety of officials; the order was limited to 50 ordinary members, but in 1943 it was enlarged to 65, with a quota of 45 members for the United Kingdom, seven for Australia, two each for New Zealand and South Africa, 9 for India and the other British colonies. The quota numbers were altered in 1970 to 47 for the United Kingdom, 7 for Australia, 2 for New Zealand, 9 for other Commonwealth realms; the quota was adjusted again in 1975 by adding 2 places to the New Zealand quota and reducing the 9 for the other countries to 7. While still able to nominate candidates to the Order, Australia has stopped the allocation of this award to their citizens in preference to its national awards. Margaret MacMillan, a Canadian historian, was given the award in 2017.
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, a New Zealand soprano, was given the award in 2018. The insignia of the order is in the form of an oval medallion, surmounted by an imperial crown, with a rectangular panel within, depicting on it an oak tree, a shield with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom hanging from one branch, and, on the left, a mounted knight in armour; the insignia's blue border bears in gold letters the motto IN ACTION FAITHFUL AND IN HONOUR CLEAR, Alexander Pope's description in his Epistle to Mr Addison of James Craggs used on Craggs' monument in Westminster Abbey. Men wear women on a bow at the left shoulder. Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II List of Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour List of honorary British knights and dames List of people who have declined a British honour
David Wright (poet)
David John Murray Wright was an author and "an acclaimed South African-born poet". Wright was born in South Africa 23 February 1920 of normal hearing; when he was 7 years old he was deafened as a result of the disease. He immigrated to England at the age of 14, where he was enrolled in the Northampton School for the Deaf, he studied at Oriel College and graduated in 1942. His first work, a poem entitled Eton Hall, was published in 1942–43 in the journal Oxford Poetry, he became a freelance writer in 1947 after working on the Sunday Times newspaper for five years. With John Heath-Stubbs he edited the Faber Book of Twentieth Century Verse, he edited the literary magazine Nimbus from 1955 to 1956, during which time he published 19 poems, sent to him by Patrick Swift, by Patrick Kavanagh, which proved to be the turing point in Kavanagh's career. He co-founded the quarterly literary review X magazine which he co-edited from 1959 to 1962, his work includes three books about Portugal written with Patrick Swift, his co-founder and co-editor of X.
He translated The Canterbury Tales and Beowulf. He penned an autobiography in 1969, a biography of fellow South African poet Roy Campbell in 1961. Wright edited a number of publications throughout the 1960s and 1970s, he held the Gregory Fellowship in Poetry at the University of Leeds. Wright was not reticent about his deafness, his autobiography, Deafness: A Personal Account, is used to give hearing people an insight into an experience they might not imagine. In 1951, he married Philippa Reid. Wright lived in Braithwaite, just outside Keswick, in the Lake District of England, became good friends with Norman Nicholson, a fellow poet, his wife visiting each other. Wright died of cancer in Waldron, East Sussex, 28 August 1994. "His poetry was by turns lyrical and narrative. Sometimes it was fuelled by recollections of his homeland, although he was not politically active on South African issues." – The New York Times) "profuse, versatile" and "the foremost South African poet of his generation." – The Daily Telegraph "It is a creative paradox that we owe to a deaf man some of the most striking images of sound in contemporary English poetry."
– Geoffrey Hill, 1980 "His poetry is remarkable for its quiet intelligence and humour, the integrity of its style. The tone is conversational, though not in the sense of reproducing a factitious chattiness. Poems and Versions, Carcanet Press Elegies, Greville Selected Poems, Carcanet Press Metrical Observations, Carcanet Selected poems, Johannesburg: Ad. Donker A South African album, Cape Town: David Philip A view of the north, Carcanet Press To the Gods the Shades: New and Collected Poems, Carcanet New Press Nerve Ends, Hodder & Stoughton Adam at Evening, Hodder & Stoughton Monologue of a Deaf Man Moral Stories Deafness: A Personal Account, Faber & Faber Roy Campbell, The British Council/Longmans Green; the Canterbury Tales, prose translation by David Wright, London:Panther Books. Beowulf, translated by David Wright, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Algarve, A Portrait and a Guide London: Barrie & Rockliff Minho, A Portrait and a Guide, David Wright and Patrick Swift, London: Barrie & Rockliff Lisbon, A Portrait and a Guide, David Wright and Patrick Swift, London: Barrie & Rockliff X, A Quarterly Review An Anthology from X, Oxford University Press Longer Contemporary Poems, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books the Penguin Book of English Romantic Verse the Penguin Book of Everyday Verse.
ISBN 0-14-042244-7. Under the Greenwood Tree, Thomas Hardy, David Wright ed. Penguin Books Faber Book of Twentieth Century Verse, John Heath-Stubbs & David Wright The Mid-Century: English Poetry 1940–60, David Wright, Penguin The Forsaken Garden: An Anthology of Poetry 1824–1909, edited by John Heath-Stubbs and David Wright Seven Victorian Poets, edited with an introduction and commentary by David Wright, London: Heinemann Educational South African Stories, Edited by D. Wright, Faber & Faber Selected poems and prose / Edward Thomas, edited with an introduction by David Wright, Harmondsworth: Penguin Recollections of the Lakes and the Lake poets / by Thomas de Quincey, edited with an introduction by David Wright, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Selected poems: Thomas Hardy, edited with an introduction and notes by David Wright, Penguin Records of Shelley and the author, Edward John Trelawny, edited with an introduction by David Wright, Harmondsworth: Penguin Written talk: David Wright in conversation with Anthony Astbury, London: Mailer Press Leeds Poetry Obituary – David Wright – The Independent Independent Living Institute review UK Universities Archives Hub Patrick Swift on David Wright, PN Review 14, Volume 6, Number 6, July – August 1980.
Archival Material at Leeds University Library
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
X, A Quarterly Review referred to as X magazine, was a British review of literature and the arts published in London which ran for seven issues between 1959 and 1962. It was co-edited by Patrick Swift and David Wright. Among the authors and artists included in X are: Dannie Abse, Craigie Aitchison, Michael Andrews, Frank Auerbach, Francis Bacon, George Barker, Samuel Beckett, David Bomberg, Yves Bonnefoy, Anthony Cronin, René Daumal, Lucian Freud, David Gascoyne, Alberto Giacometti, Robert Graves, John Heath-Stubbs, Aidan Higgins, Geoffrey Hill, Philippe Jaccottet, Patrick Kavanagh, Oskar Kokoschka, Malcolm Lowry, Hugh MacDiarmid, Charles Marowitz, André Masson, John McGahern, O. V. de L. Milosz, Dom Moraes, Robert Nye, Boris Pasternak, Robert Pinget, Ezra Pound, Malcolm Quantrill, Michel Saint-Denis, Martin Seymour-Smith, C. H. Sisson, Stevie Smith, Jules Supervielle, Nathaniel Tarn, Vernon Watkins. From the foreword to X: Volume I, Numbers 1-4: "...the real thing, the productions of the individual vision...
If two things are granted, they are not denied, that the productions of the true artist are vital to a healthy society, that in the best societies there is the constant risk that these things will wither and die for want of the minimum support the collection of writing and art brought together here needs no further apology... There is at the heart of any interesting idea of art or poetry an anarchic volatile centre – a sort of living principle – which will not tolerate categoric definition so that the wildest of surrealist or anti-art proclamations militate against the sort of freedom the artist values; this does not mean that we exist to initiate a drift from clear proposition. It means that only propositions sufficiently accurate to include the necessary complexity of any interesting artistic viewpoint are good enough for us, and that any attitude based upon the notion that there exists a total and rational explanation for the artistic impulse and activity is for us the enemy of real poetry.
And so it is that throughout all the critical articles published in this journal will be found a questioning and sceptical curiosity about the prevailing and fashionable conceptions which now dominate the scene... the real enemy now is confusion-general. If we allow ourselves a convenient division of purpose the first aim, to bring to the light of day the work of the best with qualification that preference be given to the unknown and the neglected or the known but unhonoured, is a clear and basic function which demands absolute precedence, while the second, to question and expose the nature of prevailing and fashionable theory and practice, is a more complex function difficult to perform; the hardest thing that anybody can do is to think for himself, to like something because he likes it and not because he knows or is told that ten or ten thousand or ten million other people do. The artist is a man who experiences for himself and believes in the validity of that experience... They are individuals, not a group.
And if they have anything in common it is the seriousness with which they take their art—not that lugubrious dedication... but the apparent frivolity with which they ignore the terrible worries of our time in favour of the selfish delight of creating some image of personal vision, some faint echo of the eternally liberation'I am'." David Wright's introduction to An Anthology from X: "X, a quarterly review of literature and the arts, flourished, or at any rate existed, between the years 1959 and 1962. It took its name from the algebraic symbol for the unknown quantity—‘incalculable or mysterious fact or influence’ as the Concise Oxford Dictionary defines it. Neither manifesto nor editorial introduced the first number: its contents were the manifesto... Through the poet David Gascoyne, Swift had become acquainted with an extraordinary old lady, one of the last survivors of Bloomsbury; this was Mary Hutchinson, a cousin of Lytton Strachey... It had long been her ambition to start a magazine devoted to literature and the arts, as editors Swift and I seemed to her to be the answer.
This was before the days when literary magazines could get financial backing from the Arts Council... However, Mrs Hutchinson and he were confident that she would be able to find a backer for the venture... Our benefactor was Michael Berry, now the owner of the Daily Telegraph, he undertook to guarantee the first four volumes of X, proved an ideal backer—he never interfered. Indeed, I never met him... Apart from Swift and myself there was no other staff, for we had determined to cut out all unnecessary expenses... The first number of X was planned, well received. Philip Toynbee hailed it in the Observer as'an event, if only because a literary magazine of this kind has not existed for a long time; the admirable impression of a review devoted to attacking both the corruptions of an established avant-garde and the dreary "retrenchments" of the age is reinforced by every article and poem which appear here.' In a leading article the Times Literary Supplement was laudatory:'A concern for "rethinking" about the nature of literary and artistic experience is apparent throughout the pages of X, gives the whole of the first issue a unity uncommon among periodicals now'...
About 3,000 of the first number were sold, the circulation remained at this figure, more or less, until its demise. Much of its impact was due to the layout that Patrick Swift designed, to its unusual format, in fact determined by th