Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. The name "Telefunken" appears in: the product brand name "Telefunken". H. System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of Siemens & Halske. H.. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany. L." The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication; the one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company; when a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it.
On 17 April 1923, it was renamed The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address; the first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force; the Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather. Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network; this was the first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed; the TAB V-72 soon became popular with recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings.
In 1932, record players were added to the product line. In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary. During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes and radio relay systems, developed Funkmess facilities and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast and phono. Telefunken was the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec, was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988. In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began.
The works was expanded several times, in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed 2,500 employees. In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere. PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom and, except France, many other European countries - in Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968; the computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company; the production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG.
When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name. In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction sy
German Aerospace Center
The German Aerospace Center, abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace and transportation research of Germany. Its headquarters are located in Cologne and it has multiple other locations throughout Germany; the DLR is engaged in a wide range of research and development projects in national and international partnerships. In addition to conducting its own research projects, DLR acts as the German space agency; as such, it is responsible for planning and implementing the German space programme on behalf of the German federal government. As a project management agency, DLR coordinates and answers the technical and organisational implementation of projects funded by a number of German federal ministries. DLR has 8000 employees at 20 locations in Germany, its institutes and facilities are spread over 13 sites, as well as offices in Brussels and Washington, D. C. DLR has a budget of about 670 million euro to cover its own research and operations. One third of this sum comes from competitively allocated third-party funds.
In addition to this, DLR administers around 500 million euro in German funds for the European Space Agency. In its capacity as project management agency, it manages over 650 million euro in research on behalf of German federal ministries. DLR is a full member of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems and a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. In the context of DLR's initiatives to promote young research talent, ten DLR School Labs were set up in Berlin-Adlershof, Bremen, Cologne-Porz, Dortmund, Göttingen, Hamburg-Harburg, Lampoldshausen/Stuttgart and Oberpfaffenhofen over the past years. In the DLR School Labs, school pupils can become acquainted with the practical aspects of natural and engineering sciences by conducting interesting experiments; the members of the DLR Executive Board are: Pascale Ehrenfreund since August 2015 Klaus Hamacher since April 2006 Hansjörg Dittus since October 2011. Rolf Henke since November 2010 Karsten Lemmer since March 2017 Gerd Gruppe since April 2011On 18 June 2015, Pascale Ehrenfreund was named chair of the DLR Executive Board, following the departure of Johann-Dietrich Wörner, appointed Director General of the European Space Agency.
The modern DLR was created in 1997, but was the culmination of over half a dozen space and research institutes from across the 20th century. The oldest predecessor organization of DLR was established by Ludwig Prandtl in Göttingen in 1907; this Modellversuchsanstalt der Motorluftschiff-Studiengesellschaft became the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt. In the 1940s the DVL funded Konrad Zuse's work on the Z4 computers. Another German aviation technology research facility, the 1935-founded, top-secret Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt at Völkenrode which conducted research — much of it for military aviation to suit the Luftwaffe's needs — in parallel to the then-existing forerunners of the DLR of today, would not be discovered by the Allies until after the war's end. In 1947 the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Weltraumfahrt was formed, leading to the Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung being formed in 1948. In 1954, the Research Institute of Jet Propulsion Physics was established at the Stuttgart airport. What was called the DLR was formed in 1969 as the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt through the merger of several institutions.
These were the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt, the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt, the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftfahrt and the Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung. In 1989, the DFVLR was renamed Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt. In 1989, the Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten was created. Following the merger with the Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten on 1 October 1997, the name was changed to "Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt" "German Center for Aviation and Space Flight"; the shorter translation "German Aerospace Center" is used in English-language publications. Other German space organizations include the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, founded in 1970; this should not be confused with DLR's Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme located in Bremen. Significant contributions are made to the European Space Organization. DLR’s mission comprises the exploration of the Earth and the solar system, as well as research aimed at protecting the environment and developing environmentally compatible technologies, at promoting mobility and security.
DLR’s research portfolio, which covers the four focus areas Aeronautics, Space and Energy, ranges from basic research to innovative applications. DLR operates large-scale research centres, both for the benefit of its own projects and as a service for its clients
Landshut is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria, it is the seat of the surrounding district, has a population of more than 70,000. Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city. Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the town is often called "City of the three Helmets". Furthermore, the town is popularly known for a full-tilt medieval festival. Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, Landshut became a powerful and future-oriented investment area; the town is one of the richest industrialized towns in Bavaria and has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate. Landshut lies in the centre of Lower Bavaria, is part of the Alpine foothills; the River Isar runs through the city centre. Landshut is about 72 kilometres northeast of Munich.
The city of Landshut and Trausnitz castle were founded in 1204 by Duke Louis I. Landshut was a Wittelsbach residence by 1231, in 1255, when the duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Landshut became the capital of Lower Bavaria. Duke Henry XVI was the first of the three famous rich dukes who ruled Bayern-Landshut in the 15th century; the wedding of Duke George with the Polish Princess Royal Jadwiga Jagiellon in 1475 was celebrated in Landshut with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages. After his death and the Landshut War of Succession, Bavaria-Landshut was reunited with Bavaria-Munich. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria built the Landshut Residence 1537–1543 after his visit to Italy. Louis built the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps after the Palazzo Te in Mantua. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered to upgrade Trausnitz Castle from a gothic fortification into a renaissance complex when he lived in Landshut as crown prince for ten years until 1579. Afterwards Landshut lost most of its importance until the University of Ingolstadt was moved to Landshut in 1800.
But in 1826 the university was transferred to Munich. In 1634, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was taken and plundered by Swedish forces under the command of Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located in the city to provide slave labour for local industry; the U. S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968. Since the opening of Munich Airport close to Landshut in 1992, the town has become an attractive business location; the town is of national importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic town centre Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches of St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification. Landshut is known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.
The renaissance era produced in particular the decorated inner courtyard of the Trausnitz Castle and the ducal Landshut Residence in the inner town. Baroque churches are represented by the Jesuit church St. Ignatius, the Dominican church St. Blasius and the church of St. Joseph; the medieval churches of the Seligenthal convent and of the Cistercians were redesigned in baroque style. Many old middle-class houses of the past in the Old Town still represent the history of the town from the Gothic times to the Neo-Classicism. There are regular regional train connections to Munich, Passau and Hof. Stadttheater Kleines Theater Theater Nikola Kinoptikum – repertory cinema Kinopolis Landshut – Multiplex cinema Burgtheater/Kühlhauskino Skulpturenmuseum im Hofberg Eisstadion am Gutenbergweg – Indoor Ice hockey arena used by the Landshut Cannibals Sparkassen-Arena – Mainly used for concerts and fairs Grieserwiese – Giant parking area located between Wittstraße and the bank of the river Isar used for the annual Frühjahrs- und Bartlmädult BMW Dräxlmaier Group Deutsche Telekom ebmpapst LFoundry, a semiconductor fab owned by Renesas and before by Hitachi) Schott Glass Vishay Karstadt de:Pöschl TabakThere are two nuclear power plants located 14 km away from Landshut, Isar I and Isar II.
Landshut is twinned with: Ulrich Füetrer and painter Ludwig Feuerbach, philosopher Friedrich Feuerbach and philosopher Gustav Tiedemann, officer Carl du Prel, philosopher and occultist Karl Tanera, officer of the Bavarian Army and author Max Slevogt, graphician Otto Kissenberth, fighter pilot in World War I Hermann Erhardt, actor Max Schäfer, football player- and trainer Marlene Neubauer-Woerner, sculptor Josef Deimer and Lord mayor of Landshut from 1970-2014 David Elsner, professional ice hockey player Tom Kühnhackl, professional ice hockey player Roman Herzog, President of Germany from 1994 to 1999 Honorary Citizen as well Klaus Auhuber, ice hockey player Albert Sigl, author Gerhard Tausche and author Gerd Truntschka, ice hockey player Martin Bayerstorfer, politician Alex Holzwarth, dru
Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used; the use of smoke signals, reflected light signals, flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy; the advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging; the word "telegraph" was first coined by the French inventor of the Semaphore telegraph, Claude Chappe, who coined the word "semaphore".
A "telegraph" is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e. for telegraphy. The word "telegraph" alone now refers to an electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy, transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance; this is to be distinguished from semaphore, which transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when Pavel Schilling invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs. A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable shortened to a cable or a wire. A Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.
A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture, sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. A diplomatic telegram known as a diplomatic cable, is the term given to a confidential communication between a diplomatic mission and the foreign ministry of its parent country; these continue to be called cables regardless of the method used for transmission. Passing messages by signalling over distance is an ancient practice. One of the oldest examples is the signal towers of the Great Wall of China. In 400 BC, signals could drum beats. By 200 BC complex flag signalling had developed, by the Han dynasty signallers had a choice of lights, flags, or gunshots to send signals. By the Tang dynasty a message could be sent 700 miles in 24 hours; the Ming dynasty added artillery to the possible signals. While the signalling was complex, only predetermined messages could be sent; the Chinese signalling system extended well beyond the Great Wall. Signal towers away from the wall were used to give early warning of an attack.
Others were built further out as part of the protection of trade routes the Silk Road. Signal fires were used in Europe and elsewhere for military purposes; the Roman army made frequent use of them, as did their enemies, the remains of some of the stations still exist. Few details have been recorded of European/Mediterranean signalling systems and the possible messages. One of the few for which details are known is a system invented by Aeneas Tacticus. Tacitus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation. Annotation on a floating scale indicated which message was being received. Signals sent by means of torches indicated when to start and stop draining to keep the synchronisation. None of the signalling systems discussed above are true telegraphs in the sense of a system that can transmit arbitrary messages over arbitrary distances. Lines of signalling relay stations can send messages to any required distance, but all these systems are limited to one extent or another in the range of messages that they can send.
A system like flag semaphore, with an alphabetic code, can send any given message, but the system is designed for short-range communication between two persons. An engine order telegraph, used to send instructions from the bridge of a ship to the engine room, fails to meet both criteria. There was only one ancient signalling system described; that was a system using the Polybius square to encode an alphabet. Polybius suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted; the number of said torches held up signalled the grid square. The system would have been slow for military purposes and there is no record of it being used. An optical telegraph, or semaphore telegraph is a telegraph consisting of a line of stations in towers or natural high points which signal to each other by means of shutters or paddles. Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir Richard Lovell Edgeworth in 1767.
The first successful optical telegraph network was invented by Claude Chappe and operated in France from 1
Eberswalde is a major town and the administrative seat of the district Barnim in the German State of Brandenburg, about 50 km northeast of Berlin. Population 42144, geographical location 52°50′N 13°50′E; the town is called Waldstadt, because of the large forests around it, including the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve. Despite this fact, Eberswalde was an important industrial center until the German Reunification; the area around Eberswalde was populated in Paleolithic. Before the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg it was the place of a Slavic stockade; the Treasure of Eberswalde, the largest pre-Christian gold treasure from the area of today's Germany was found here. Today the treasure is located in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow; the town of Everswolde was established in 1254 by the Ascanian margrave Johann I. It was first mentioned in a document dated April 23, 1276 when margrave Albrecht III. Resided there. In 1300 it received market rights. From the year 1317 the main trade route between Stettin and Frankfurt went through the city.
A major fire struck the city in 1499. After rebuilding the town, Eberswalde became the first industrial town of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, with huge metallurgy capacities; some parts of the town are still named like Kupferhammer. 1605 till 1620 the important waterway Finow Canal was built. During the Thirty Years' War Eberswalde was besieged and conquered several times by nearly every important faction of the war; the general of the Catholic League, Albrecht von Wallenstein, resided in the town Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who did not survive the battle of Lützen, was embalmed in the town's Maria Magdalena church. Both parties forced the town population to support their troops. After the end of the war only twenty inhabitants of Eberswalde were still alive, Eberswalde needed more than a century to recover from its losses. Between 1743 and 1755 120 families of metalworkers moved from Thuringia and the Rhineland to Eberswalde; the boilers of the first German steam engines were made here. During the 19th century large factories were built in the area of Eberswalde along the Finow Canal.
In 1830 it became the site of. On November 23, 1877 the first German telephone line was established in the town; the world's first radio concert was broadcast from Eberswalde in 1923. Werner Forssmann received his 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1929 experiments with cardiac catheterization performed on his own heart, whilst resident in Eberswalde. In the 1938 pogroms, Eberswalde's synagogue was destroyed. During World War II, several factories employed forced labourers and inmates of the Ravensbrück concentration camp. At the end of the war, the town center was attacked by the German Luftwaffe, in an attempt to delay the Soviet advance. After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admitted defeat in his underground bunker and stated that suicide is his only recourse. In 1970 Eberswalde was merged with the settlement of Finow to create Eberswalde-Finow. In 1993 the name Eberswalde was restored. Since December 2006 Friedhelm Boginski is the mayor of Eberswalde.
The former mayor Reinhard Schulz was unelected in July 2006 with 91,2 % of the votes. Eberswalde has access to the federal highways B 2 and B 167 and the highway A 11-E28. Eberswalde station is located on the Berlin–Szczecin railway line that first connected Eberswalde and Berlin in 1842, it is the starting point of the railway lines to Templin and Frankfurt and was terminus of the Eberswalde-Finowfurter-Eisenbahn to Finowfurt until it was discontinued. The town and its industrial areas are on the Oder Havel Finow Canal waterways; the airfield Flugplatz Finow is a former Soviet Air Force base, handed over to civil use on May 11, 1993. The town had a tram service until 1940. Eberswalde is one of only three towns in Germany where trolleybuses are still in operation, along with Solingen and Esslingen. While Eberswalde was renowned for its thriving heavy industry in the past, since the fall of the wall, it has fallen upon harder times; as the East German government fell, state support vanished, factories had to compete with more efficient firms in the West.
As a result, many factories in Eberswalde went under, visitors can see the remnants of these abandoned plants across town. Like many former East German towns, Eberswalde has since struggled with unemployment, many have left the region in search of work elsewhere. Many of the huge Soviet-Bloc style apartment complexes in Eberswalde are becoming empty, are being razed. Carnival Compared to other towns of the region, Eberswalde has quite a huge Carnival society, it was brought to Eberswalde from Bavaria and from the Rhineland, both are standing for different Carnival traditions. That's why Carnival is celebrated in two independent festivals at the same time, they are called Karneval and Fasching. Rock me Magdalena Rock me Magdalena is a rock concert in the Maria Magdalena church of Eberswalde, taking place every December 25. Filmfest Eberswalde Since 2004 there is the annual Eberswalde Movie Festival for Independent Film and Documentaries. There are some foods; the most important of them are Eberswalder Würstchen.
The tongue spoken in the region of Eberswalde is often
The Volksempfänger was a range of radio receivers developed by engineer Otto Griessing at the request of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. The purpose of the Volksempfänger-program was to make radio reception technology affordable to the general public. Joseph Goebbels realized the great propaganda potential of this new medium and thus considered widespread availability of receivers important; the original Volksempfänger VE301 model was presented on August 18, 1933, at the 10. Große Deutsche Funkausstellung in Berlin; the VE301 was available at a affordable price of 76 German Reichsmark, a cheaper 35 Reichsmark model, the DKE38 fitted with a multisection tube, was later produced, along with a series of other models under the Volksempfänger, Gemeinschaftsempfänger, KdF, DKE and other brands. The Volksempfänger was designed to be produced as cheaply as possible, as a consequence they lacked shortwave bands and did not follow the practice, common at the time, of marking the approximate dial positions of major European stations on its tuning scale.
Only German and Austrian stations were marked and cheaper models only listed arbitrary numbers. Sensitivity was limited to reduce production costs further, so long as the set could receive Deutschlandsender and the local Reichssender it was considered sensitive enough, although foreign stations could be received after dark with an external antenna as stations such as the BBC European service increased transmission power during the course of the war. Listening to foreign stations became a criminal offence in Nazi Germany when the war began, while in some occupied territories, such as Poland, all radio listening by non-German citizens was outlawed. Penalties ranged from fines and confiscation of radios to later in the war, sentencing to a concentration camp or capital punishment; such clandestine listening was widespread in many Nazi-occupied countries and in Germany itself. The Germans attempted radio jamming of some enemy stations with limited success. Much has been said about the efficiency of the Volksempfänger as a propaganda tool.
Most famously, Hitler's architect and Minister for Armaments and War Production, Albert Speer, said in his final speech at the Nuremberg trials: The Volksempfänger "people's radio" concept has been compared to the Utility Radio or "Civilian Receiver" produced by Britain between 1944 and 1945. Unlike the Volksempfänger, the Utility Radio was produced to remedy a shortage of consumer radio sets caused by the British radio industry's switch from civilian to military radio production; these Utility Radios followed a standardized and government approved design, were built by a consortium of manufacturers using standard components. The album Radio-Activity, released in 1975, by German electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk prominently features a Volksempfänger, of the DKE brand, on its cover. German band Welle: Erdball has produced a song entitled Volksempfänger VE-301, which first appeared on their Die Wunderwelt der Technik album of 2002. While living in Berlin in the 1970s, the American artist Edward Kienholz produced a series of works entitled'Volksempfänger', using old radios, which at the time could be purchased cheaply at Berlin flea markets, a consequence of the large numbers, produced in the pre-war years.
Propaganda Freedom of information Censorship Utility Radio Volksflugzeug Diller, Ansgar. "Der Volksempfänger. Propaganda- und Wirtschaftsfaktor". Mitteilungen des Studienkreises Rundfunk und Geschichte. 9: 140–157. Hensle, Michael P.. Rundfunkverbrechen. Das Hören von "Feindsendern" im Nationalsozialismus. Berlin: Metropol. ISBN 3-936411-05-0. König, Wolfgang. "Der Volksempfänger und die Radioindustrie. Ein Beitrag zum Verhältnis von Wirtschaft und Politik im Nationalsozialismus". Vierteljahreshefte für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 90: 269–289. König, Wolfgang. "Mythen um den Volksempfänger. Revisionistische Untersuchungen zur nationalsozialistischen Rundfunkpolitik". Technikgeschichte. 70: 73–102. König, Wolfgang. Volkswagen, Volksempfänger, Volksgemeinschaft. "Volksprodukte" im Dritten Reich: Vom Scheitern einer nationalsozialistischen Konsumgesellschaft. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 3-506-71733-2. Latour, Conrad F.. "Goebbels' "außerordentliche Rundfunkmaßnahmen" 1939–1942". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte.
11: 418–435. Mühlenfeld, Daniel. "Joseph Goebbels und die Grundlagen der NS-Rundfunkpolitik". Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft. 54: 442–467. Schmidt, Uta C.. "Der Volksempfänger. Tabernakel moderner Massenkultur". In Marßolek, Inge. Radiozeiten. Herrschaft, Gesellschaft. Potsdam: Vlg. f. Berlin-Brandenburg. Pp. 136–159. ISBN 3-932981-44-8. Steiner, Kilian J. L.. Ortsempfänger, Volksfernseher und Optaphon. Entwicklung der deutschen Radio- und Fernsehindustrie und das Unternehmen Loewe 1923–1962. Essen: Klartext Vlg. ISBN 3-89861-492-1. Volksempfänger schematics, various models Radiomuseum Fürth Antique Radio Transdiffusion Radiomusications "Hitlers Radio" Volksempfängers, various models, pictures "VE 301, DKE38, DAF 1011" Gray and Black Radio Propaganda against Nazi Germany Extensively illustrated paper describes the Volkse
Wire recording or magnetic wire recording was the first early magnetic recording technology, an analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin steel wire. The first crude magnetic recorder was invented in 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen; the first magnetic recorder to be made commercially available anywhere was the Telegraphone, manufactured by the American Telegraphone Company, Massachusetts. The wire is pulled across a recording head which magnetizes each point along the wire in accordance with the intensity and polarity of the electrical audio signal being supplied to the recording head at that instant. By drawing the wire across the same or a similar head while the head is not being supplied with an electrical signal, the varying magnetic field presented by the passing wire induces a varying electric current in the head, recreating the original signal at a reduced level. Magnetic wire recording was replaced by magnetic tape recording, but devices employing one or the other of these media had been more or less under development for many years before either came into widespread use.
The principles and electronics involved are nearly identical. Wire recording had the advantage that the recording medium was fully developed, while tape recording was held back by the need to improve the materials and methods used to manufacture the tape; the first wire recorder was invented in 1898 by Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen, who gave his product the trade name Telegraphone. Wire recorders for dictation and telephone recording were made continuously by various companies through the 1920s and 1930s, but use of this new technology was limited. Dictaphone and Ediphone recorders, which still employed wax cylinders as the recording medium, were the devices used for these applications during this period; the brief heyday of wire recording lasted from 1946 to 1954. It resulted from technical improvements and the development of inexpensive designs licensed internationally by the Brush Development Company of Cleveland and the Armour Research Foundation of the Armour Institute of Technology.
The two organizations licensed dozens of manufacturers in the U. S. Japan, Europe. Examples are Wilcox-Gay, Pierce and Air King; the popularity encouraged Sears to provide a model, some authors to prepare specialized manuals. These improved wire recorders were not only marketed for office use, but as home entertainment devices that offered advantages over the home disc recorders which were becoming popular for making short recordings of family and friends and for recording excerpts from radio broadcasts. Unlike home-cut phonograph records, which can accommodate only a few minutes of audio on each side, the steel wire can be rerecorded and allowed much longer uninterrupted recordings to be made; the earliest magnetic tape recorders, not commercially available in the U. S. until 1948, were too expensive and bulky to compete with these consumer-level wire recorders. During the first half of the 1950s, tape recorders which were sufficiently affordable and compact to be suitable for home and office use started appearing and they drove wire recorders from the market.
Exceptionally, the use of wire for sound recording continued into the 1960s in Protona's Minifon miniature recorders, in which the importance of maximizing recording time in a minimum of space outweighed other considerations. For any given level of audio quality, the nearly hair-thin wire had the advantage that it was a much more compact storage medium than tape; the Minifon wire recorder was designed for stealth use and its accessories included a microphone disguised as a wristwatch. Wire recording was used in some aircraft flight recorders beginning in the early 1940s for recording radio conversations between crewmen or with ground stations; because steel wire was more compact and heat-resistant than magnetic tape, wire recorders continued to be manufactured for this purpose through the 1950s and remained in use somewhat than that. There were wire recorders made to record data in satellites and other unmanned spacecraft of the 1950s to the 1970s. Poulsen's original telegraphone and other early recorders placed the two poles of the record/replay head on opposite sides of the wire.
The wire is thus magnetised transversely to the direction of travel. This method of magnetization was found to have the limitation that as the wire twisted during playback, there were times when the magnetization of the wire was at right angles to the position of the two poles of the head and the output from the head fell to zero; the development was to place the two poles on the same side of the wire so that the wire was magnetised along its length or longitudinally. Additionally, the poles were shaped into a "V" so that the head wrapped around the wire to some extent; this increased the magnetising effect and increased the sensitivity of the head on replay because it collected more of the magnetic flux from the wire. This system was not immune to twisting but the effects were far less marked; the longitudinal method survives into magnetic tape recording to this day. Compared to tape recorders, wire recording devices have a high media speed, made necessary because of the use of the solid metal medium.
Standard postwar wire recorders use a nominal speed of 24 inches per second, making a typical one-hour spool of wire 7,200 feet long. This enormous length is possible on a spool less than 3 inches i