Minuteman Library Network
The Minuteman Library Network, founded in 1984, is an consortium of 41 public and academic libraries in the MetroWest and southern Middlesex County areas of eastern Massachusetts that share resources and services. The Network has over 680,000 members; because of the shared resources, borrowers are given access cards to any library in the Network. Public Libraries Academic libraries Former members Massachusetts Bay Community College, Perkins Library/Learning Resource Center, Wellesley & Framingham Mount Ida College, Wadsworth Learning Resource Center, Newton Newbury College, Brookline, MA Cape Libraries Automated Materials Sharing C/W MARS Merrimack Valley Library Consortium North of Boston Library Exchange Old Colony Library Network SAILS Library Network The Minuteman Library Network Bacon Free Library in South Natick
Integrated library system
An integrated library system known as a library management system, is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, patrons who have borrowed. An ILS comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, two graphical user interfaces. Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions cataloging circulation serials online public access catalog or OPAC Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Prior to computerization, library tasks were independently from one another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued sources and indexed them with the card catalog system, fines were collected by local bailiffs, users signed books out manually, indicating their name on clue cards which were kept at the circulation desk.
Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation. While the punch card system allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, no other library task was affected by this change; the next big innovation came with the advent of MARC standards in the 1960s, which coincided with the growth of computer technologies – library automation was born. From this point onwards, libraries began experimenting with computers, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1970s, bibliographic services utilizing new online technology and the shared MARC vocabulary entered the market; the 1970s can be characterized by improvements in computer storage, as well as in telecommunications. As a result of these advances, ‘turnkey systems on microcomputers,’ known more as integrated library systems appeared; these systems included necessary hardware and software which allowed the connection of major circulation tasks, including circulation control and overdue notices.
As the technology developed, other library tasks could be accomplished through ILS as well, including acquisition, reservation of titles, monitoring of serials. With the evolution of the Internet throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, ILSs began allowing users to more engage with their libraries through OPACs and online web-based portals. Users could log into their library accounts to reserve or renew books, as well as authenticate themselves for access to library-subscribed online databases. During this time, the ILS market grew exponentially. By 2002, the ILS industry averaged sales of US$500 million annually, compared to just US$50 million in 1982. By the mid to late 2000s, ILS vendors had increased not only the number of services offered but their prices, leading to some dissatisfaction among many smaller libraries. At the same time, open source ILS was in its early stages of testing; some libraries began turning to such open source ILSs as Evergreen. Common reasons noted were to avoid vendor lock in, avoid license fees, participate in software development.
Freedom from vendors allowed libraries to prioritize needs according to urgency, as opposed to what their vendor can offer. Libraries which have moved to open source ILS have found that vendors are now more to provide quality service in order to continue a partnership since they no longer have the power of owning the ILS software and tying down libraries to strict contracts; this has been the case with the SCLENDS consortium. Following the success of Evergreen for the Georgia PINES library consortium, the South Carolina State Library along with some local public libraries formed the SCLENDS consortium in order to share resources and to take advantage of the open source nature of the Evergreen ILS to meet their specific needs. By October 2011, just 2 years after SCLENDS began operations, 13 public library systems across 15 counties had joined the consortium, in addition to the South Carolina State Library. Librarytechnology.org does an annual survey of over 2,400 libraries and noted in 2008 2% of those surveyed used open source ILS, in 2009 the number increased to 8%, in 2010 12%, in 2011 11% of the libraries polled had adopted open source ILSs.
The following year's survey reported an increase to 14%, stating that "open source ILS products, including Evergreen and Koha, continue to represent a significant portion of industry activity. Of the 794 contracts reported in the public and academic arena, 113, or 14 percent, were for support services for these open source systems." The use of cloud-based library management systems has increased drastically since the rise of cloud technology started. Many modern cloud-based solutions allow automated cataloging by scanning a book's ISBN. Library computer systems tend to fall into two categories of software: that purchased on a perpetual license that purchased as a subscription service. With distributed software the customer can choose to self-install or to have the system installed by the vendor on their own hardware; the customer can be responsible for the operation and maintenance of the application and the data
Information science is a field concerned with the analysis, classification, storage, movement and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is associated with computer science and technology. However, information science incorporates aspects of diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, law, museology, mathematics, public policy, social sciences. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, one can see information science as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available and the creativity of its developers.
It must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and permeating all other subsystems of society."Many universities have entire colleges, departments or schools devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information-science scholars work in disciplines such as communication, computer science and sociology. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus, but numerous others besides these have comprehensive information foci. Within information science, current issues as of 2013 include: human–computer interaction groupware the semantic web value-sensitive design iterative design processes the ways people generate and find information The first known usage of the term "information science" was in 1955. An early definition of Information science states: "Information science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability.
It is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, organization, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information. This includes the investigation of information representations in both natural and artificial systems, the use of codes for efficient message transmission, the study of information processing devices and techniques such as computers and their programming systems, it is an interdisciplinary science derived from and related to such fields as mathematics, linguistics, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications and other similar fields. It has both a pure science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, an applied science component, which develops services and products.". Some authors use informatics as a synonym for information science; this is true when related to the concept developed by A. I. Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s; the Mikhailov school saw informatics as a discipline related to the study of scientific information.
Informatics is difficult to define because of the evolving and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Definitions reliant on the nature of the tools used for deriving meaningful information from data are emerging in Informatics academic programs. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem; some people note that much of what is called "Informatics" today was once called "Information Science" – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. For example, when library scientists began to use the phrase "Information Science" to refer to their work, the term "informatics" emerged: in the United States as a response by computer scientists to distinguish their work from that of library science in Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systemsAnother term discussed as a synonym for "information studies" is "information systems". Brian Campbell Vickery's Information Systems places information systems within IS.
Ellis, Allen, & Wilson, on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relation between two different fields: "information science" and "information systems". Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, philosophy, it includes the investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics and sciences, as well as the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to its philosophical problems. In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, the relationships between those concepts, it can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain. More an ontology is a model for describing the world that consists of a set of types and relationship types. What is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology.
There is generally an expectation that there be a cl
A library consortium is a group of libraries who partner to coordinate activities, share resources, combine expertise. The International Coalition of Library Consortia is an informal discussion group of such consortia. Library consortia offer significant advantages to strapped libraries; the sharing of resources, collaboration on shared goals enable libraries to deliver higher quality services than they would be able to deliver on their own. Interlibrary loan is a system that allows for libraries to borrow and share materials across a wide variety of topics as well as vast geographic locations, it is the most common use of cooperation between libraries as well as within specific consortia. Consortia can grow into something that covers much larger ground than a simple inter-library loan agreement. Many consortia within the United States have ventured further and developed collaborative integrated library systems, or ILS. Examples of these integrated systems include OhioLINK. There are many benefits for libraries that wish to join consortia.
Though many have fees for entry, in the end the library finds itself saving a great deal on funding by sharing resources with other members of the consortia. A single library's collection will increase much faster than staying solitary. Additionally, the creation and utilization of inter-library cooperation has the ability to improve communication and relationships across vast fields and can encourage cross-discipline cooperation as well as collaborations. A library system is a central organization created to manage and coordinate operations and services in or between different centers, buildings or libraries branches and library patrons, they use a library classification to organize their volumes and nowadays use an Integrated library system - an enterprise resource planning system for a library used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, patrons who have borrowed. Many counties and universities have developed their own library systems. For example, the London Public Library in Canada has 16 branches, the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Libraries, in Finland, has 63 libraries.
Some countries, such as Venezuela, have only one library system for the whole country. List of largest libraries List of library associations