UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline based in Louisville, Kentucky. The third-largest cargo airline worldwide, UPS Airlines flies to 779 destinations worldwide, the most of any airline. A wholly owned subsidiary of UPS since its launch in 1988, the airline marked its 30th year of operation in 2018. In line with passenger airlines, UPS Airlines operates under the hub-and-spoke model. Headquartered at Worldport at Louisville International Airport, the airline has several secondary hubs across the United States and international hubs in Germany and Hong Kong; the pilots of UPS Airlines are represented by the Independent Pilots Association. The origin of transporting packages by air for UPS dates to 1929. Many packages were shipped by the Ford Trimotors of United Airlines. After Black Tuesday and the beginning of the Great Depression, the air service would be discontinued by the end of 1931. However, the air service would lead to the expansion beyond the West Coast. After World War II, UPS revisited the idea of shipping packages by air.
Starting in 1953, 2-day delivery was offered on coast-to-coast packages. As before, UPS package volume was transported on commercial airline flights. Unprofitable, Blue Label Air became popular as its speed created enough demand to maintain a profit. In 1975, UPS started its first international operations as it expanded into Canada, with an additional expansion into West Germany a year later; as UPS had become a international company, access to its own cargo aircraft had become a more apparent issue. In 1976, competitor Federal Express had turned a profit, showcasing that package delivery companies did not have to rely on commercial aircraft to transport their volume. In 1978, the Airline Deregulation Act gave UPS a significant opportunity: the company could now establish its own airline and flying from city to city would require far fewer legislative hurdles as the federal government now encouraged competition between airlines. In 1980, UPS opened its first major hub for sorting packages transported by aircraft, located in Louisville, Kentucky.
Located at the westernmost point of the Eastern time zone, Louisville is accessible across the majority of the contiguous United States in less than three hours. In contrast to chief competitor Federal Express, in the early 1980s, air operations of UPS were undertaken by several contractors, including Evergreen International Airlines, Interstate Airlines, Ryan Air, Orion Air. Through its contractors, UPS flew its packages using a fleet of commercial aircraft converted to freighters, including Boeing 727-100s, 727-200s, Douglas DC-8s, Boeing 747-100s. In 1982, UPS introduced its Next-Day Air service, guaranteeing overnight delivery on certain packages. To expand its flight network, UPS opened a distribution facility in Anchorage in 1985. Similar to Louisville, Anchorage was chosen for its strategic geographical position, accessible to 90% of the industrialized world in less than 9½ hours flying distance. In 1986, in an effort to obtain service rights to Japan, UPS entered into a joint venture with DHL, named International Parcel Express.
IPX was rejected for use in Japan, leading UPS to purchase the DHL share of the joint venture in 1987. At the end of 1987, UPS ended the use of contract flights by Evergreen and Orion. Using the flight certificate intended for the IPX joint venture, the renamed UPS Airlines commenced operations in January 1988, adopting many flight crews from Orion Air. At the 1988 founding of UPS Airlines, the company operated a route network serving 41 countries connecting the United States and Canada to Asia and Europe. To expand and modernize its jet fleet, at the end of 1987, UPS purchased dedicated freighter variants of the Boeing 757. In 1995, UPS purchased a second aircraft type from the Boeing 767 freighter; the launch customer of both aircraft, UPS Airlines would purchase 75 757s and 32 767s, more than doubling the size of its aircraft fleet. To update the oldest aircraft in its fleet, the 727-100QF conversion was introduced. In place of a hush kit, the QF conversion changed the aircraft from Pratt & Whitney JT8D to Rolls-Royce Tay turbofans.
In 1991, to gain the ability to fly domestic cargo flights within Europe, UPS entered into a partnership with Danish airline Star Air, leasing several 727 freighters to the airline. In the early 1990s, to add capacity to its network, UPS Airlines opened additional hubs, with primary hubs in Rockford and Philadelphia. With most of its aircraft flying on weeknights, the airline was eager to find other ways to produce income from its fleet. In the 1990s, eight 727 freighters were converted into 727-100QC freighters with the ability to be re-converted into passenger aircraft for the purpose of chartered flights. After disappointing results, in 2001, UPS ended charter service with quick-change freighters, with the aircraft returned to cargo service. Following the addition of primary and secondary hubs to the airline network during th
Ann Martinelli Livermore is a former Executive Vice President at Hewlett-Packard, where from 2004 until June 14, 2011 she led the HP Enterprise Business business unit of HP. After being relieved of day-to-day operations, she was elected to board of directors of HP. At the time, she was a 29-year veteran of the company and among existing senior management, the longest-service executive. Livermore was born in North Carolina, she was the valedictorian at her North Carolina high school. She holds a bachelor's degree in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she was a Morehead Scholar, as well as an MBA from Stanford University. Livermore came to HP right out of graduate school. Livermore has been at HP since 1982 and has worked in a variety of sales and research and development jobs before being elected a corporate vice president in 1995. In 1997, Livermore was elected to the board of directors of United Parcel Service. In 1998, when head of HP's software and services business, the company's top executives agreed to put themselves through a 360-degree evaluation.
Livermore observed: "I learned that I'm a very well-controlled executive, but that my employees like when I go off the handle every once in a while, you know, show my human side - It reinforced that leadership means touching people's hearts as well as their brains, so since I haven't worried so much about keeping my lid on." Livermore has been credited with steering HP away from its decentralized culture and hardware mentality and was the brains behind HP's E-services strategy. When HP CEO Lewis Platt announced in March 1999 that he would step down, Livermore confirmed that she wanted the job. Insiders say Livermore was the only internal candidate who made the short list, but, in July 1999, HP made the former Lucent Technologies executive Carly Fiorina the first female CEO of a Dow 30 company. Since 2004, Livermore has led HP's Technology Solutions Group, a US$30 billion-plus business that encompasses storage and servers and services; the products and services from this organization serve HP's business customers of all sizes in more than 170 countries.
Once thought of as a costly distraction, this group is now seen as a source of future growth. Livermore's name was mentioned as a possible candidate to take over at HP when Carly Fiorina was ousted in February 2005 as CEO. Mark Hurd from NCR Corp. was instead picked to be HP's new CEO. In the wake of HP pressuring employees to accept a 5% pay cut, it was revealed that Livermore's 2008 total compensation amounted to $20,551,493. In the same year, Mark Hurd as CEO reported his compensation to be $42,514,524. On May 13, 2008, Hewlett-Packard Co. confirmed that it had reached a deal with Electronic Data Systems to acquire the company for $13.9 Billion. The deal was completed on August 26, 2008. EDS was renamed EDS, an HP company. Ronald A. Rittenmeyer remained at the helm. With Mark Hurd's August 2010 departure, Livermore was once again a possible candidate for the top job however lost out to former SAP CEO, Léo Apotheker. Livermore was named in Forbes annual ranking of America's leading businesswomen.
As of 2011, her business unit was $60 billion, half of total HP revenues and encompassed two-thirds of total HP staff. On June 14, 2011, Livermore was replaced as head of HP Enterprises, as her top lieutenants, Dave Donatelli, software head Bill Veghte, global sales leader Jan Zadak, were to report directly to the CEO, she was forced out since total services revenue had grown just 1% in the most recent fiscal year, despite the earlier acquisition of EDS in 2008. In 2005 Livermore had a kidney transplant for an undisclosed ailment. HP biography HP speeches Pictures of Ann Livermore at Picsearch
Indiana Toll Road
The Indiana Toll Road the Indiana East–West Toll Road, is a tolled freeway that runs for 156.28 miles east–west across northern Indiana from the Illinois state line to the Ohio state line. It has been advertised as the "Main Street of the Midwest"; the entire toll road is designated as part of Interstate 90, the segment from Lake Station east to the Ohio state line is a concurrency with Interstate 80. The toll road is owned by the Indiana Finance Authority and operated by the Indiana Toll Road Concession Company, owned by IFM Investors; the Indiana Toll Road is part of the U. S. Interstate Highway System which runs 156.28 miles through Indiana connecting the Chicago Skyway to the Ohio Turnpike. The toll road is 156.28 miles long, is signed with Interstate 90 for its entire length, as well as Interstate 80 east of Lake Station, after having run concurrently with I-94. Exit points are based on the milepost system, with exits starting at 0 at the Illinois state line, increasing to exit 153 at the Eastpoint toll barrier near the Ohio state line.
The Toll Road opened in 1956 with sequential exit numbering, converted to the current mileage-based scheme in 1981. The original number sequence was amended in 1964 with the opening of the then-Burns Harbor, now Lake Station exit; the farthest it gets from the Michigan state line or Lake Michigan is about 10 miles. Looking north at exit 121 allows one to see the "Welcome to Michigan" sign in the distance. At one point in northern Indiana, in Greenfield Township in LaGrange County at mile 132, the toll road comes within about 200 yards, or 0.1 miles, from the Michigan border. Control cities on guide signs are Ohio, they were "Chicago and West" and "Ohio and East". The Indiana Toll Road was publicly constructed during the 1950s, it opened in stages, east to west, between August and November 1956. The formal dedication ceremony was held on September 17, 1956; the final course of the Toll Road was the northern of four planned alignments. In addition to the east–west toll road, a north–south toll road was planned along the path of today's I-65, but the plan was dropped after the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 was passed.
The I-94 designation was applied to the highway west of where the current interchange with I-94 was built, with I-90 following I-80 to the west along the Borman Expressway as I-94 does now, the completed portions of the Borman being designated as I-80, I-90, I-294. The current routing became effective around 1965, to avoid the confusion that had resulted from I-80, I-90, I-94 all changing roadways there; as a result, a stretch of I-94 is farther south than I-90, I-90 runs the entire length of the Indiana Toll Road. I-294 was cut back to the Tri-State Tollway at that time, thus no longer enters Indiana. Several interchanges on the Toll Road were constructed between 1980 and 1985 as part of a bond sale in October 1980; the Indiana Toll Road Commission operated the toll road from its inception until 1981. The Indiana Department of Transportation operated the toll road between 1981 and 2006. On April 1, 1983, the State of Indiana established the Indiana Toll Finance Authority, renamed the Indiana Transportation Finance Authority in April 1988.
It was consolidated with several other state financial agencies and renamed the Indiana Finance Authority in May 2005. From its inception in 1983, the Indiana Finance Authority has maintained ownership of the Toll Road, while its operations and maintenance have evolved over time, starting with the Indiana Department of Transportation until transitioning to the Indiana Toll Road Concession Company in 2006. Upon taking office in 2005, Governor Mitch Daniels began looking for ways to fund a backlog of Indiana highway maintenance and construction. Working with Goldman Sachs & Co., reported to have earned some $20 million in fees, the state requested bids to lease the Toll Road in exchange for the right to maintain and collect tolls for the following 75 years. A consortium made up of the construction firm Cintra of Spain and Macquarie Atlas Roads of Australia, the same firms that had taken over the Chicago Skyway in 2004, submitted the winning bid of $3.8 billion. Their bid was $1 billion more than the next highest bid..
The deal was completed on June 29, 2006, the two companies formed the Indiana Toll Road Concession Company to operate the road. Opponents of the proposal filed a lawsuit in St. Joseph County in late April 2006. Following two weeks of arguments, Judge Michael Scopelitis ruled in favor of the State of Indiana, declaring the lawsuit brought by opponents a public lawsuit and therefore requiring the plaintiffs to post a bond of $1.9 billion for the case to proceed. The plaintiffs appealed Scopelitis' ruling to the Indiana Supreme Court, which on June 20, 2006, in a 4–0 decision, upheld Scopelitis' earlier decision, allowing the lease of the Indiana Toll Road to proceed as scheduled; the proceeds funded a portion of the extension of I-69 through southwestern Indiana as well as a number of other highway projects throughout the state. The legislation authorized the governor to establish a similar public-private partnership agreement for design and operation of the proposed Southern Indiana Toll Road, which would make up 117 miles of the planned 142-mile extension of I-69 from Indianapolis to Evansville.
On November 9, 2006, Daniels announced. In lieu of the
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service is an American multinational package delivery and supply chain management company. Along with the central package delivery operation, the UPS brand name is used to denote many of its divisions and subsidiaries, including its cargo airline, freight-based trucking operation, retail-based packing and shipping centers; the global logistics company is headquartered in the U. S. city of Sandy Springs, a part of the Greater Atlanta metropolitan area. On August 28, 1907, James Casey founded the American Messenger Company with Claude Ryan in Seattle, capitalized with $100 in debt. Most deliveries at this time were made on foot and bicycles were used for longer trips; the American Messenger Company focused on package delivery to retail stores with special delivery mail delivered for its largest client the United States Postal Service. In 1913, the company acquired a Model T Ford as its first delivery vehicle. Casey and Ryan merged with a competitor, Evert McCabe, formed Merchants Parcel Delivery.
Consolidated delivery was introduced, combining packages addressed to a certain neighborhood onto one delivery vehicle. In 1916, Charlie Soderstrom joined Merchants Parcel Delivery bringing in more vehicles for the growing delivery business. In 1919, the company expanded for the first time outside of Seattle to Oakland and changed its name to United Parcel Service; the name change to United Parcel Service was to remind the company expansion that operations were still United under the same organisation and Parcel identified the type of business offered as part of its Service. Common carrier service was acquired in 1922 from a company in California. UPS became one of the only companies in the United States to offer common carrier service. At first common carrier was only limited to a small area around Los Angeles but by 1927 expanded to areas up to 125 miles outside the city. In 1924, a conveyor belt system was debuted for the handling of packages for UPS operations. In 1930, a consolidated service began in New York City, soon after in other major cities in the East and the Midwest.
The use of common carrier for delivery between all customers placed UPS in direct competition with the United States Postal Service and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The common carrier service was applied in cities where UPS could use the service without the authority of the ICC and state commerce commissions; the first city for UPS to use common carrier status outside California was Chicago, Illinois in 1953. Air service through UPS was first used in 1929 through private airlines. However, The Great Depression and a lack of volume ended the air service. In 1953, UPS resumed air service called UPS Blue Label Air with two-day service to major cities along the East Coast and West Coast. In 1975, UPS moved its headquarters to Greenwich and began serving all of the 48 contiguous states of the United States; the expanded operations to all 48 states made UPS the first package delivery company to serve every address in the Continental United States. UPS went international in 1975 establishing operations in Canada and in 1976 operations were established in Germany.
On February 28, UPS Ltd. began operations in Ontario. UPS Canada's head office is located in Ontario. In 1976, UPS established a domestic operation in West Germany. UPS Next Day Air Service was launched in 1985 for all 48 states plus Puerto Rico. In 1988, UPS Airlines was launched with authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration. UPS Airlines became the fastest-growing airline in FAA history and today is the 10th largest airline in the United States. Domestic air service was added to Germany in 1989. In 1991, UPS moved its headquarters to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. In 1992, UPS rebranded them UPS Supply Chain Solutions. Haulfast provided the pallet trucking network for the CarryFast group of companies. By 1993, UPS was delivering up to documents per day; the large volume of UPS customers in the 1990s made UPS develop new technology for better efficiency. A handheld device called Delivery Information Acquisition Device was created to record and upload delivery information to the UPS network upon pickup by every UPS driver.
In 1992, UPS began tracking all ground shipments electronically. In 1994, UPS.com debuted, provided the perfect interface to make what was internal operational information available for customer access. In 1995, UPS acquired SonicAir to compete with Choice Logistics. In the same year, UPS launched UPS Logistics Group to facilitate global supply chain management solutions and consulting for customer needs. In 1997, a walkout by the 185,000 members of the Teamsters shut down UPS for 16 days. In 1998, UPS Capital was established to enable companies to grow their business through a comprehensive menu of integrated financial services through UPS. UPS acquired Challenge Air in 1999 to expand its operations in Latin America. On November 10, 1999, UPS became a public company in the largest initial public offering of the century. In 2001, UPS acquired. Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. In 2003 3,000 Mail Boxes Etc. Inc. were rebranded as The UPS Store. In 2004, UPS entered the heavy freight business with purchase of Menlo Worldwide Forwarding, a former subsidiary of Menlo Worldwide.
UPS rebranded it as UPS Supply Chain Solutions. The purchase price was the assumption of US$110 million in long-term debt. On August 5, 2005, UPS announced that it has completed its acqui
Star Air (Denmark)
Star Air A/S is a Danish cargo airline and part of Danish business conglomerate Maersk. It operates a fleet of twelve Boeing 767 cargo aircraft. Several of these are on contract to United Parcel Service and operate out of Cologne Bonn Airport, Germany. Star Air is headquartered in Denmark, at the premises of Copenhagen Airport; the airline was established in 1987 with the purchase of Alkair's Fokker 27 operation. The airline had three Fokker F27 Friendships, which increased to four; these were used for both cargo operations. One was involved in a fatal accident in 1988. Star Air secured a last-minute deal with UPS in 1993, allowing it to start operations out of Cologne/Bonn with Boeing 727s. Star Air became a subsidiary of now defunct Maersk Air in 1993; the Fokkers were retired in 1996—after which the airline had flown for UPS. Boeing 757s were introduced in 2001. From 2005 to 2006 the airline replaced its entire fleet. Meanwhile, Maersk Air was sold to ownership resumed to the Maersk Group. In 2013 the airline had a revenue of a net profit of DKK 69 million.
It employed 41 mechanics and 36 administrative staff. The Maersk Group entered the airline industry when it established Maersk Air in 1979. Given the nature of the mother company, Maersk Air looked at the possibilities to operate the cargo segment; the airline started operation with three F27s, mounted with cargo doors for easy conversion to cargo configuration. Oriental Air Transport Services, a cargo handling company based at Kastrup, was bought in 1971; the airline aimed at buying a Boeing 747, but restrictions on freight caused these plans to be abandoned. Until 1987 the rules in Denmark only permitted SAS to operate freight charters; the only exception was if the entire shipment had recipient. This made filling an entire cargo plane uneconomical and resulted in Maersk abandoning its cargo plans. Maersk Air Cargo was founded in 1982, but only acted as at cargo division. Due to the regulations, it only acted as a ground handling agent for overseas airlines, the largest being Cathay Pacific; when the deregulation took effect in 1987, the Maersk Group established Star Air as a subsidiary directly under the corporation.
Incorporated on 1 September 1987, it bought an existing hangar on the south sector of Copenhagen Airport. The ground facilities, an organization and an air operator's certificate was taken over through the purchase of Alkair. Three Fokker F-27-600s were converted to combi-freighters; these could be converted from freighter to passenger configuration in half an hour. Star Air had a mix of operations. One part was corporate charters, one was wet leasing to other airlines, one was charter and domestic operations for Maersk Air, it conducted European hauls for freight companies, including Federal Express, TNT and UPS. By 1990 the airline had a revenue of DKK 66 million, but with increased competition, the airline made a loss of DKK 10 million in 1991. To cut costs the operations were transferred to a new legal entity, Star Air I/S, placed under Maersk Air. Lack of sufficient cargo volumes resulted in Star Air carrying out passenger flights as well, on wet lease basis. In 1991 UPS announced a tender to find a European partner.
They did not themselves hold the rights to fly intra-European flights and needed a European airline to fly services out of the hub at Cologne Bonn Airport. The two main contenders were Sterling Airways, another Danish airline. Sterling had two main advantages: they operated the Boeing 727 and they were approved by the Federal Aviation Administration; the latter would allow them to operate aircraft which were owned by UPS and registered in the United States. Sterling fell into financial distress in 1993 and months before the contract was to take effect its credits were cut off. UPS instead approached Star Air. An agreement was signed on 22 October 1993, with services commencing ten days later; this could be done because Star Air turned to Sterling employees, working on the preparations. People, employed by Sterling were instead hired by Star Air, giving them access to pilots and administrators; the initial contract involved flights to Milan, Rome and Porto. The operations were expanded and soon the airline was operating four 727s.
The same year Star Air started the process of retiring the Fokkers. Falling prices for smaller cargo aircraft made this part of the operation unprofitable. At the same time a closer integration with Maersk Air was carried out, in which the two companies received a common administration, operations center and navigational division; the Fokker F27s were retired in 1996 and since Star Air has flown for UPS. Star Air had a revenue of DKK 82 million in 1997, which rose to DKK 159 million in 2002, its profits in this period varied between DKK 20 million. A total of eight 727s entered service with Star Air. Two aircraft were taken into service in 1993, one more in 1994, two more in 1996, one more in 1997 and the last in 2001. Four Boeing 757-200s were introduced in 2001 and 2002, the number of 727s cut to four. After signing a new contract with a duration until 2015, Star Air carried out a full fleet replacement in 2005 and 2006. All the 727s and 757s were returned and instead eleven Boeing 767-200s were leased.
This gave a major hike in revenue, increasing from DKK 106 million in 2004 to DKK 653 million in 2007. Profits increased from DKK 7 to 58 million. Maersk Air was sold to Sterling Airlines in 2005. Star Air was kept out of
John W. Thompson
John Wendell Thompson is the chairman of Microsoft. He is a former CEO at Virtual Instruments, a vice-president at IBM and the former chief executive officer of Symantec. Thompson became an independent director on the board of Microsoft, on February 4, 2014, he was named the chairman of the board, he led the search for Microsoft's next CEO. Born at Fort Dix, New Jersey, Thompson attended John F. Kennedy High School in Riviera Beach, Florida, he received a Bachelor of Business Administration from Florida A&M University in 1971 and an MBA from MIT Sloan School of Management in 1983. He has worked with Ducks Unlimited as an advocate for outdoor conservation. Before moving on to become Symantec's CEO in 1999, Thompson's 28-year career with IBM Corporation included senior executive positions in sales and software development, lastly as general manager of IBM Americas as well as membership in the company’s Worldwide Management Council. In September 2002, Thompson was appointed to the National Infrastructure Advisory Committee which makes recommendations regarding the security of the critical infrastructure of the United States.
Thompson purchased a 20 percent share of the Golden State Warriors NBA team in 2005 along with three other Silicon Valley businessmen under the umbrella of the Bay Area Basketball Partners, L. L. C. In April 2006, Forbes published a list of the most compensated CEOs. Thompson was ranked #8 with a total compensation of US$71.84 million. Thompson retired from his post as CEO of Symantec on April 4, 2009, turning the company's reins over to long-time Symantec executive Enrique Salem. Illumina Illinois Governor's Human Resource Advisory Council Teach For America Illumio Liquid Robotics Rubrik Seismic SoftwareIn 2010, Thompson was recognized for his commitment to education in Silicon Valley at the Silicon Valley Education Foundation's 2010 Pioneers & Purpose event, he received the Pioneer Business Leader award, awarded to individuals who have achieved outstanding accomplishments in business and education. On February 4, 2014, Thompson was appointed as chairman of Microsoft. Prior to being named chairman, Thompson had been a member of the Microsoft Board for two years.
He stated that he joined the board because he had "admired Microsoft for many, many years". Thompson said he considered Microsoft to be "one of the true, iconic companies in our country". Thompson was a strong supporter of Barack Obama's campaign during the 2008 election cycle. In January 2009, news sources reported that President-elect Obama was considering Thompson to fill the Secretary of Commerce post in the Obama administration. Senator Judd Gregg was chosen for the post but withdrew his name on February 12. Thompson again remained a potential candidate until the successful appointment of Gary Locke. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi appointed Thompson to the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission in 2009. John W. Thompson-Chairman-Microsoft Stanford eCorner: John Thompson
Tijuana is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis; as the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation and art – across both Californias, in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. One of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status; as of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570. Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70 % of 80 % of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America.
Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year; this metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city itself was 6th largest and the municipality 3rd largest nationally; the international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, the largest bi-national conurbation, shared between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego. Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias; as the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 1889 as urban development began. Known by its supposed initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s. The city’s name comes from the rancho that Santiago Argüello Moraga established in 1829 on his Mexican land grant, naming it Rancho Tía Juana; the first Spanish mission call the settlement variously as'La Tía Juana','Tiguana','Tiuana','Tiwana','Tijuan','Ticuan', as well as'Tijuana'. While the Mexican city standardized to "Tijuana", the American term for both the river and a U. S. settlement, now part of San Ysidro remained "Tia Juana" until the mid-20th century.
The accepted theory among historians is that Tía Juana, as Argüello named his rancho, is derived from the word "Tiwan" in the language of the Kumeyaay – the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Urban legend, states that Tía Juana, which means Aunt Jane in Spanish, was a real person whose inn provided food and lodging to travelers. There is however no record of such an inn. In Spanish, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nah" /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, the "j" in Mexican Spanish pronounced as a guttural "h" sound. In English, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nuh" /tiːˈhwɑːnə/ but the incorrect pronunciation "Tee-uh-WAH-nuh" /tiːəˈwɑːnə/, based on the obsolete "Tía Juana", persists outside the San Diego area. In Southern California, Tijuana is referred to as "TJ" or T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing; the phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and crossing the border; the land was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which Sebastián Vizcaíno mapped in 1602. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more details about the area, called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego. Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829; this large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana, covered 100 km2.
Although "Tia Juana" means "Aunt Jane" in Spanish, the name was an adaptation of