Gina Pane was a French artist of Italian origins. She studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1960 to 1965 and was a member of the 1970s Body Art movement in France, called "Art corporel". Parallel to her art, Pane taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Mans from 1975 to 1990 and ran an atelier dedicated to performance art at the Centre Pompidou from 1978 to 1979 at the request of Pontus Hulten. Pane is best known for her performance piece The Conditioning, in which she is laid on a metal bedframe over an area of burning candles; the Conditioning was recreated by Marina Abramović as part of her Seven Easy Pieces at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York in 2005. Gina Pane's estate is managed by her former partner Anne Marchand, she is represented by Galerie Kamel Mennour in Paris. Born in Biarritz to Italian parents, Pane passed part of her life in Italy, she returned to France to study under André Chastel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1960-1965. She died prematurely in 1990 following a long illness.
Extreme self-inflicted injury featured in much of Pane's performance work, distinguishing her from most other female body artists of the 1970s. Through the violence of cutting her skin with razor blades or putting out fires with her bare hands and feet, Pane intended to incite a "real experience" in the viewer, who would be moved to empathize with her discomfort; the shocking nature of these early performances — or "actions," as she preferred to call them — overshadowed her prolific photographic and sculptural practice. However, the body was a central concern in all of Pane's work, whether or conceptually. Pane claimed that she was influenced by political protests in Paris in May 1968, by such international conflicts as the Vietnam War. In Nourriture-actualités télévisées-feu she force-fed herself and spat back up 600 grammes of raw ground meat, watched the nightly news on television as she stared past a nearly blinding light bulb, extinguished flames with her bare hands and feet. After the performance, she said, people reported a heightened sensitivity.
"Everyone there remarked: ` It's strange, we never heard the news before. There's a war going on in Vietnam, unemployment everywhere.'" From 1962-1967 Pane produced geometric abstraction and created a number of metal sculptures by bending sheets of metal into simple shapes, the structures and her use of primary colors being reminiscent of minimal art. From her academic training, Pane developed an interest in the human body and turned to making sculpture and installation; this work considered the relationship between the nature. In 1968, Pane began making minutely prepared and documented actions in which each gesture was imbued with a ritual dimension. Pane distinguishes three periods of her artistic evolution: • 1968-1971: Placing the body in nature. Works include Displaced Stones, Protected Earth, Enfoncement d'un rayon de soleil. In Unanaestheticized Climb she climbed, barefoot, a ladder with rungs studded with sharp metal protrusions, stopping when she could not longer endure the pain. • 1970-late 1970s: The active body in public.
Pane considered time to be the material for these works. All that remains of these works are photographic documentation of chosen moments and the performative object; these actions constitute a research into another language. They seek to transform the individual through willed communication with the Other; this work rejects aestheticism. In 1973 at the Galerie Diagramma in Milan, Pane executed Sentimental Action before an audience, the first row of, female. Pane twice repeated an action twice, the first time with a bouquet of red roses, the second time with a bouquet of white roses. Passing progressively from standing to the fetal position, she executed first a back-and-forth movement with the bouquet, before pressing the thorns of a rose into her arms and making an incision with a razor blade on the palm of her hand; the form of the wounds on her arm stem of a rose. She described this work as a ‘projection of an intra space’ that dealt with the mother–child relationship.• Late 1970s-onward: Relationship of the body to the world.
For the installation series Action Notation she mixed photographs of her previous wounds with objects, such as toys, etc. from her previous actions. The process was controversial since it always involved an element of masochism: climbing up a ladder studded with razor blades, cutting her tongue or her ear, sticking nails into her forearm, smashing through a glass door, ingesting food to the point of nausea. Pane no longer based her approach on direct bodily experience, although the body remained pivotal and retained its symbolic significance through figures and materials. Lucy Lippard: The Pains and Pleasures of Rebirth: Women’s Body Art, A. America Polar Crossing Gina Pane: Travail d’action Pluchart, François: L'Art corporel, Éd. Limage 2, Paris, 1983 Gina Pane: Partitions et dessins Écritures dans la peinture, exhibition catalogue, Villa Arson – Centre national des arts plastiques, Nice, 1984. Vergine, L./Manganelli, G.: Gina Pane Partitions, Milan, 1985. G. Verzotti: "Richard Long, Salvatore Scarpitta, Gina Pane", Flash A. 117, 1986.
Gina Pane, exhibition catalogue, Gal. Brachot, Brussels, 1988. Gina Pane, exhibition catalogue, mus
Christian Boltanski is a French sculptor, photographer and film maker, most well known for his photography installations and contemporary French Conceptual style. He is the partner of Annette Messager; the writer Christophe Boltanski is his nephew. Boltanski began creating art in the late 1950s, but didn't rise to prominence until a decade through a few short, avante-garde films and some published notebooks in which he referenced his childhood. In 1986, Boltanski began creating mixed media/materials installations with light as essential concept. Tin boxes, altar-like construction of framed and manipulated photographs, photographs of Jewish schoolchildren taken in Vienna in 1931, used as a forceful reminder of mass murder of Jews by the Nazis, all those elements and materials used in his work are used in order to represent deep contemplation regarding reconstruction of past. While creating Reserve, Boltanski filled rooms and corridors with worn clothing items as a way of inciting profound sensation of human tragedy at concentration camps.
As in his previous works, objects serve as relentless reminders of human suffering. His piece, uses six photographs of Jewish students in 1939 and lights to resemble Yahrzeit candles to honor and remember the dead. "My work is about the fact of dying, but it's not about the Holocaust itself."Additionally, his enormous installation titled "No Man's Land" at the Park Avenue Armory in New York, is a great example of how his constructions and installations trace the lives of the lost and forgotten. Christian Boltanski has participated in over 150 art exhibitions throughout the world. Among others, he had solo exhibitions at the New Museum, the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Magasin 3 in Stockholm, the La Maison Rouge gallery, Institut Mathildenhöhe, the Kewenig Galerie, The Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme and many others. From 1 July to 25 September 2011, museum Es Baluard exhibited "Signatures", the installation Christian Boltanski conceived for Es Baluard and, focused on the memory of the workers who in the 17th Century built the museum's walls.
In 2002, Boltanski made the installation "Totentanz II", a Shadow Installation with copper figures, for the underground Centre for International Light Art in Unna, Germany. In the winter of 2017/2018 he created a new installation for the Oude Kerk, titled "After", it tackled the theme of. The exhibition was shown from 24th of november 2017 until 29th of april 2018. 1994 Kunstpreis Aachen 2007 billionéateurs sans frontières award for visual arts by Cultures France 2007 Praemium Imperiale Award by the Japan Art Association 2001 Goslarer Kaiserring, Germany 2001 Kunstpreis, given by Nord/LB, Germany Tamar Garb, Didier Semin, Donald Kuspit, "Christian Boltanski", London, 1997. Lynn Gumpert and Mary Jane Jacob, "Christian Boltanski: Lessons of Darkness," Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, 1988. Didier Semin, "Christian Boltanski," Paris, Art Press, 1988. Nancy Marmer, "Christian Boltanski: The Uses of Contradiction," "Art in America," October 1989, pp. 168–181, 233–235. Lynn Gumpert, "Christian Boltanski," Paris, Flammarion, 1984.
Marian Goodman Gallery Tate Magazine Interview ICP: Christian Boltanski Folkestone Triennial: Christian Boltanski Christian Boltanski Exhibitions listed at kunstaspekte.de MoMA profile Art Icono Magasin 3: Christian Boltanski The Jewish Museum
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet
Keith Allen Haring was an American artist whose pop art and graffiti-like work grew out of the New York City street culture of the 1980s. Haring's work grew to popularity from his spontaneous drawings in New York City subways – chalk outlines of figures and other sylized images--on blank black advertising-space backgrounds. After public recognition he created larger scale works such as colorful murals, many of them commissioned, his imagery has "become a recognized visual language". His work addressed political and societal themes – homosexuality and AIDS – through his own iconography. Keith Haring was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, on May 4, 1958, he was raised in Kutztown, Pennsylvania, by his mother, Joan Haring, father, Allen Haring, an engineer and amateur cartoonist. His family attended the United Church of God, he had three younger sisters, Kay and Kristen. He became interested in art at a young age, spending time with his father producing creative drawings, his early influences included Walt Disney cartoons, Dr. Seuss, Charles Schulz, the Looney Tunes characters in The Bugs Bunny Show.
In his early teenage years, Haring was involved with the Jesus Movement. He hitchhiked across the country, while selling T-shirts that he made featuring the Grateful Dead and anti-Nixon shirts, he studied commercial art from 1976 to 1978 at Pittsburgh's Ivy School of Professional Art, but lost interest. He was inspired to focus on his own art after reading The Art Spirit by Robert Henri; this influenced his decison to leave Pittsburgh's Ivy School of Professional Art after two semesters. Haring had a maintenance job at the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts and was able to explore the art of Jean Dubuffet, Jackson Pollock, Mark Tobey, he was influenced around this time by a 1977 retrospective of Pierre Alechinsky's work and by a lecture that the sculptor Christo gave in 1978. From Alechinsky's work, he felt encouraged to create large images that featured writing and characters. From Christo, Haring was introduced to ways of incorporating the public into his art, his first important one-man exhibition was in Pittsburgh at the Center for the Arts in 1978.
Haring moved to New York in 1978 to study painting at the School of Visual Arts. He worked as a busboy during this time at the nightclub, Danceteria, he studied semiotics with Bill Beckley, as well as exploring the possibilities of video and performance art. Profoundly influenced at this time by the writings of William Burroughs, he was inspired to experiment with the cross-referencing and interconnection of images. Haring first received public attention with his graffiti art in subways where he created white chalk drawings on a black, unused advertisement backboard in the stations, he considered the subways to be his "laboratory", a place where he could experiment and create his artwork and saw the black advertisement paper as a free space and “the perfect place to draw”. Starting in 1980, he organized exhibitions at Club 57, a gallery which hosted performances and exhibitions from emerging artists, which were filmed by the photographer Tseng Kwong Chi. Around this time, "The Radiant Baby", a crawling infant with emitting rays of light, became his most recognized symbol.
He used it as his tag to sign his work while a subway artist. His bold lines, vivid colors, active figures carry strong messages of life and unity, and including other symbols such as a barking dog, a flying saucer, large hearts and figures with televisions for heads. He drew animals and human faces for the first time; that same year, he photocopied and pasted provocative collages made from cut-up and recombined New York Post headlines around the city. In 1981, he sketched his first chalk drawings on black paper and painted plastic and found objects. Haring would buy materials from hardware stores such as tarpaulin or muslin. Haring would work on any medium that could provide a proper context for his work and/or could hold the marks. Due to this, his works spread and Haring became much more recognizable. By 1982, Haring had established friendships with fellow emerging artists Futura 2000, Kenny Scharf, Yoko Ono, Boy George, Roy Lichtenstein and Jean-Michel Basquiat, he created more than 50 public works between 1989 in dozens of cities around the world.
He used lines of energy to emphasize kinetic movement and euphoric spirit. One of his early works, “Untitled”, in 1982 depicts two figures with a radiant heart-love motif, which critics have interpreted as a boldness in homosexual love and a significant cultural statement, his "Crack is Wack" mural, created in 1986, is visible from New York's FDR Drive. This mural is an example of Haring’s use of consciousness raising rather than consumerism, “Crack is Wack” rather than “Coke is it”. In 1989, he criticized the avoidance of social issues such as AIDS through a piece called "Rebel with Many Causes" that revolves around a theme of "hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil". |Keith Haring 1986 original/thumb/Keith Haring at work in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam]] Throughout the 1980’s Haring made art for a variety of sources and discotheques, such as the Palladium in Manhattan, MTV set decorations, a backdrop for a 1985 hunger-relief concert in Philadelphia, walls on the Lower East Side and props for various dance works.
His works included murals for the Musee d’Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, the Children’s hospital in Washington and the Necker Children’s hospital in Paris. Haring had an undeniable sexual quality to much of his work. Much of his work includes sexual allusions that evolved into more social activism, using this more sexual images to advocate for safe-sex and AIDS awar