The Vinyl Cafe
The Vinyl Cafe was an hour-long radio variety show hosted by Stuart McLean, broadcast on CBC Radio and was syndicated to 80 U. S. public radio stations through Public Radio International. It aired on Sunday at noon EST and Tuesday at 11:00 pm EST on CBC Radio One and Saturday at 9 am EST on CBC Radio 2; the program is available as a podcast, although the podcasts are just McLean's stories for studio episodes because of copyright restrictions on recorded music. CBC Radio currently airs a weekday afternoon program, under the title Vinyl Cafe Stories, which consists of two recorded Dave and Morley stories per episode; the show was produced independently by McLean and sold to the CBC. Each season had 22 new episodes. Half of those were recorded in the studio and the other half were done with live audiences in theatres across Canada and the United States. One episode was recorded onboard VIA Rail's transcontinental passenger train The Canadian from the dome observation car, complete with an audience of passengers and featured a rail travel theme.
The musical guest was singer songwriter Reid Jamieson. The Vinyl Cafe stopped touring and producing new episodes following McLean's diagnosis with melanoma in November 2015. McLean announced on December 13, 2016 that he required a second round of treatment, meaning further delay in producing new episodes, that repeats of past shows would stop airing on CBC Radio One effective January 2017 to "make room for others to share their work on the radio." McLean died on February 15, 2017. The show featured essays and music; the live episodes began with Stuart reciting a complimentary description of the venue's community about its character and history. The show endeavoured to introduce listeners to new Canadian musical talent, through playing recordings in studio episodes and performances in the live audience ones. A major feature of many of McLean's shows were the "Dave and Morley Stories", which featured a fictional Toronto family; the name "Vinyl Cafe" referred both to the show's musical content and the fictional record shop owned by McLean's character Dave.
This aspect of the show had spawned a number of books of short stories, as well as audio recordings. Another feature was "The Vinyl Cafe Story Exchange", where listeners were invited to send in personal true stories to the producers who read selections on air; the series presented an annual set of awards that were called the "Arthur Awards", which were intended to commend various people who had performed extraordinary good deeds in the preceding year. Every episode ended with McLean's signature sign-off, "I'm Stuart McLean, so long for now" and followed by the show's folksy guitar theme song, "Happy Meeting In Glory"; the show was produced by Jess Milton. Meg Masters was the "long-suffering" story editor and the show's founding producer was Dave Amer. Julie Penner was the musical director. Since 2012 the show has aired a "best of" spin-off series under the new title of Vinyl Cafe Stories, it features recorded stories about Dave and Morley and organized around a common theme, with one or two studio-recorded musical tracks, but without the live music or local introductions typical of the original run of the show.
Although they are not featured in every episode of The Vinyl Cafe, the "Dave and Morley Stories" were by far the show's most famous segment. The stories and read by McLean, described the many misadventures of Dave, his wife Morley, their children and pets, as well as friends and neighbours. For his live performances, McLean altered his more well-known stories to keep his audience engaged. Canadian Editions Stories from the Vinyl Cafe Home from the Vinyl Cafe Vinyl Cafe Unplugged Vinyl Cafe Diaries Secrets from the Vinyl Cafe Extreme Vinyl Cafe Revenge of The Vinyl Cafe Vinyl Cafe Turns the Page U. S. Editions Home from the Vinyl Cafe UK Editions Home from the Vinyl Cafe Vinyl Cafe Unplugged The U. S. and UK editions of Home from the Vinyl Cafe are a compilation of stories from the Canadian editions, Stories from the Vinyl Cafe and Home from the Vinyl Cafe. At the Vinyl Cafe -- The Christmas Concert, Vinyl Cafe Stories, The Vinyl Cafe On Tour Vinyl Cafe Odd Jobs Vinyl Cafe Inc. Coast to Coast Story Service A Story-Gram From Vinyl Cafe Inc.
Vinyl Cafe: A Christmas Collection An Important Message from the Vinyl Cafe The Vinyl Cafe Storyland Planet Boy Out and About Vinyl Cafe Family Pack Vinyl Cafe New Stories Vinyl Cafe Seasons Up and Away The Unreleased Stories The covers of the Canadian editions of Vinyl Cafe Diaries, Secrets from the Vinyl Cafe, The Vinyl Cafe Coast to Coast Story Service and A Story-gram from the Vinyl Cafe were designed and illustrated by noted writer and cartoonist Seth. McLean's Vinyl Cafe stories can be purchased in audio form from the web label Zunior. In addition, older stories are available via podcast at the Vinyl Cafe website; the Vinyl Cafe Notebooks In 2011, Apple announced their "Best of the Year" awards and The Vinyl Cafe podcast was chosen as the best audio podcast of the year. List of Dave and Morley stories The Vinyl Cafe
Kamloops is a city in south-central British Columbia, Canada, at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River near Kamloops Lake. With a population of 90,280, it is the largest community in the Thompson-Nicola Regional District and the location of the regional district's offices; the surrounding region is more referred to as the Thompson Country. Kamloops is ranked 36th on the list of the largest metropolitan areas in Canada and represents the 36th largest census agglomeration nationwide, with 103,811 residents in 2016; the population of the regional district is 132,663. Kamloops is known as the Tournament Capital of Canada and hosts over 100 tournaments each year at world class sports facilities such as the Tournament Capital Centre, Kamloops Bike Ranch, Tournament Capital Ranch. Health care and education are major contributing industries to the regional economy and have grown in recent years. Kamloops was British Columbia's first city to become a Bee City in 2016 as numerous organisations in the community are protecting and creating bumble bee habitats in the city.
The first European explorers arrived in 1811, in the person of David Stuart, sent out from Fort Astoria still a Pacific Fur Company post, who spent a winter there with the Secwepemc people, with Alexander Ross establishing a post there in May 1812 - "Fort Cumcloups". The rival North West Company established another post - Fort Shuswap - nearby in the same year; the two operations were merged in 1813 when the North West Company officials in the region bought the operations of the Pacific Fur Company. After the North West Company's forced merger with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the post became known as Thompson's River Post, or Fort Thompson, which over time became known as Fort Kamloops; the post's journals, kept by its Chief Traders, document a series of inter-Indian wars and personalities for the period and give much insight to the goings-on of the fur companies and their personnel throughout the entire Pacific Slope. Soon after the forts were founded, the main local village of the Secwepemc headed by a chief named Kwa'lila, was moved closer to the trading post in order to control access to its trade, for prestige and security.
With Kwalila's death, the local chieftaincy was passed to his nephew and foster-son Chief Nicola, who led an alliance of Syilx and Nlaka'pamux people in the plateau country to the south around Stump and Douglas Lakes. Relations between Nicola and the fur traders were tense, but in the end Nicola was recognised as a great help to the influx of whites during the gold rush, though admonishing those, in parties waging violence and looting on the Okanagan Trail, which led from American territory to the Fraser goldfields. Throughout, Kamloops was an important way station on the route of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail, which connected Fort Astoria with Fort Alexandria and the other forts in New Caledonia to the north, which continued in heavy use through the onset of the Cariboo Gold Rush as the main route to the new goldfields around what was to become Barkerville; the gold rush of the 1860s and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which reached Kamloops from the West in 1883, brought further growth, resulting in the City of Kamloops being incorporated in 1893 with a population of about 500.
The logging industry of the 1970s brought many Indo-Canadians into the Kamloops area from the Punjab region of India. In 1973, Kamloops annexed other nearby communities. "Kamloops" is the anglicised version of the Shuswap word "Tk'əmlúps", meaning "meeting of the waters". Shuswap is still spoken in the area by members of the Tk'emlúps Indian Band. An alternate origin sometimes given for the name may have come from the native name's accidental similarity to the French "Camp des loups", meaning "Camp of Wolves". One story connected with this version of the name concerns an attack by a pack of wolves, much built up in story to one huge white wolf, or a pack of wolves and other animals, travelling overland from the Nicola Country being repelled by a single shot by John Tod Chief Trader, thus preventing the fort from attack and granting Tod a great degree of respect locally. Kamloops is in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone; the city's centre is in the valley near the confluence of the Thompson River's north and south branches.
Suburbs stretch for more than a dozen kilometres along the north and south branches, as well as to the steep hillsides along the south portion of the city and lower northeast hillsides. Robert W. Service in 1904 described Kamloops as his delightful life and wrote "Life was pleasant, the work was light. At four o'clock we were on our horses, riding over the rolling ridges, or into spectral gulches that rose to ghostlier mountains, it was like the scenery of Mexico, aridly morose. A discouraging land, forbidding in its weariness and resigned to ruin." Kamloops Indian Band areas begin just to the northeast of the downtown core but are not within the city limits. As a result of this placement, it is necessary to leave Kamloops' city limits and pass through the band lands before re-entering the city limits to access the communities of Rayleigh and Heffley Creek. Kamloops is surrounded by the smaller communities of Cherry Creek, Savona, Scotch Creek, Adams Lake, Paul Lake and various others; the climate of Kamloops is semi-arid due to its rain shadow location.
Because of milder winters and aridity, the area west of Kamloops in the lower Thompson River valley falls within Köppen climate classification BWk climate. Kamloops gets short cold s
Q (radio show)
Q is a Canadian arts magazine show produced by and airing on CBC Radio One, with syndication to public radio stations in the United States through Public Radio International. The program features interviews with prominent cultural and entertainment figures, though subjects and interviewees deal with broader cultural topics such as their social and business aspects, as well as weekly panels on sports and media issues on Mondays and Fridays respectively. Though not the highest-rated show on CBC Radio One, Q is the highest rated show in its timeslot in CBC history, surpassing Peter Gzowski who hosted the second hour of Morningside during the slot; the show is regarded as standing out in CBC Radio One's schedule through attracting a younger, more social-media-adept audience than other CBC Radio programming. Q launched in April 2007 and was hosted by Jian Ghomeshi until October 2014. Shad was chosen by the CBC in March 2015 as Q's new permanent host, his official debut as host was April 20. The show was re-branded as q at the same time.
In August 2016, the CBC announced that Shad would be replaced as host by Tom Power the host of Radio 2 Morning, in the fall. Power debuted as host on October 24, 2016; the program airs live Monday to Friday at 10:00 a.m. and an abbreviated edition of the morning show is repeated 12 hours later. The program runs for 90 minutes, except for Fridays, which runs for two hours and includes the "Friday Live" segment; the evening repeat runs for one hour, although due to lesser time restraints it is able on most days to air all of the feature content from the 90-minute daytime edition, although some shorter interstitial segments are edited out. Stations carrying the show in the United States broadcast the one-hour edition, it is broadcast from CBC's Toronto studios, although the show will air from another city in connection with a major event, such as the 2010 Winter Olympics or the Sundance Film Festival. On Fridays, the show includes a theme called "Friday Live", where featured musicians are invited for an interview as the opening segment with live performances throughout the program.
Weekly contributors include Elvira Kurt, with her "Cultural Hall of Shame" segment, Torquil Campbell, with his "Rant or Rave" segment. Q first aired on April 2007, replacing Freestyle in the network's afternoon programming block, it moved to its current time slot, replacing Sounds Like Canada, in fall 2008. The name was chosen by the staff of the show from a list. A test run of the show was made using the name Radar. Other possible names included "State-of the-Arts in Canada", "Awesometown", "Afternoon Delight", "Smells like Canada", "Full Duplex Repeater", "Skybox Three", "Ghomer's Pile", or one closer to Jian Ghomeshi, the show host of Iranian descent, "Royal Canadian Air Farsi". Names a little closer to the mark included The Cue. According to Ghomeshi, "A couple of the... suggestions came close", when the name'Q' was brought up "there was a pause in the room and went'Yes, that's it.' It felt like the right name. It's an enigmatic letter hope will become associated with the show."Beginning in 2013, a one-hour weekly spinoff series, Q The Music, was added to the CBC Music schedule, airing a selection of interviews and performances by musicians broadcast on the daily program.
On April 15, 2015, the show changed its name to the lower case q. On April 8, 2009, Billy Bob Thornton and his musical group The Boxmasters made an appearance on Q, criticized and received international attention after Thornton was persistently unintelligible and discourteous to Ghomeshi. Thornton explained he had "instructed" the show's producers to not ask questions about his movie career. Ghomeshi had mentioned Thornton’s acting in the introduction. Thornton had complained Canadian audiences were like "mashed potatoes without the gravy"; the following night, opening for Willie Nelson at Toronto's Massey Hall, Thornton said mid-set he liked Canadians but not Ghomeshi, greeted with boos and catcalls. The Boxmasters did not continue the tour in Canada as, according to Thornton, some of the crew and band had the flu. Ghomeshi and comedian Alan Park made a mock follow-up interview promoting the 2009 Air Farce Live television special; the sketch has Ghomeshi asking Thornton about his plans for New Years, leading to the actor responding similar answers to the April interview.
The two continue to laugh around. Ghomeshi was fired from the CBC in October 2014, amidst a mounting series of allegations that he had sexually assaulted a series of women, including former Q producer Kathryn Borel. After his departure, the program was hosted by a rotating series of guest hosts, including existing CBC staffers such as Brent Bambury, Piya Chattopadhyay, Tom Power, Allan Hawco and Talia Schlanger, outside figures such as Wab Kinew, Rachel Giese, Damian Abraham, Candy Palmater, Daniel Richler and Sean Rameswaram. Many of the guest hosts were auditioning for a place on the shortlist of potential new permanent hosts. During the transition process, the CBC faced controversy when it announced that it intended to remove all Ghomeshi-hosted segments of the program from its online archive of previously-broadcast content, they reversed this decision in the face of public disapproval, allowing the content to remain accessible online for the standard two-year period applicable to all other CBC content, but reaffirming that no conte
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Quebec. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory, it is often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations. The use of the term Confederation arose in the Province of Canada to refer to proposals beginning in the 1850s to federate all of the British North American colonies, as opposed to only Canada West and Canada East. To contemporaries of Confederation the con- prefix indicated a strengthening of the centrist principle compared to the American federation. In this Canadian context, confederation here describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s, related events and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories.
The term is now used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation". Provinces and territories that became part of Canada after 1867 are said to have joined, or entered into, confederation; the term is used to divide Canadian history into pre-Confederation and post-Confederation periods. All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were part of New France, were once ruled by France. Nova Scotia was granted in 1621 to Sir William Alexander under charter by James VI; this claim overlapped the French claims to Acadia, although the Scottish colony of Nova Scotia was short-lived, for political reasons, the conflicting imperial interests of France and the 18th century Great Britain led to a long and bitter struggle for control. The British acquired present-day mainland Nova Scotia by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 and the Acadian population was expelled by the British in 1755, they called Acadia Nova Scotia.
The rest of New France was acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. From 1763 to 1791, most of New France became the Province of Quebec. However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony, it was renamed "Prince Edward Island" in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. The first English attempt at settlement had been in Newfoundland, which would not join Confederation until 1949; the Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, Newfoundland had been the subject of a French colonial enterprise. In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America; the British created the separate colony of New Brunswick in 1784 for the Loyalists who settled in the western part of Nova Scotia. While Nova Scotia received more than half of this influx, many Loyalists settled in the Province of Quebec, which by the Constitutional Act of 1791 was separated into a predominantly English Upper Canada and a predominantly French Lower Canada.
The War of 1812 and Treaty of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the border with the United States from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains in Western Canada. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government; as a result of Durham's report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, the Province of Canada was formed in 1841. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada East. Governor General Lord Elgin granted ministerial responsibility in 1848, first to Nova Scotia and to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland; the area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty. Before joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia, the Colony of Vancouver Island constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada in 1880. The idea of unification was presented in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America, which resulted in the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Beginning in 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in a series of 33 articles published in the Courrier du Canada. In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies; the proposal was received by the Lond
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci