Federal law enforcement in the United States
The federal government of the United States empowers a wide range of law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to matters affecting the country as a whole. Federal law enforcement authorities have authority given to them under various parts of the United States Code. Federal law enforcement officers enforce various laws at only the federal level. There are exceptions, with some officials enforcing state and tribal codes. Most are limited by the U. S. Code to investigating matters that are explicitly within the power of the federal government; some federal investigative powers have become broader in practice, since the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act in October 2001. The Department of Justice was the largest, is still the most prominent, collection of Federal law enforcement agencies, it has handled most law enforcement duties at the federal level. It includes the United States Marshals Service, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, Federal Bureau of Prisons, others.
However, upon its creation in 2002. This included large agencies such as Immigration and Customs Enforcement - Homeland Security Investigations, the U. S. Secret Service, the U. S. Coast Guard, the U. S. Transportation Security Administration, the U. S. Customs and Border Protection —which combined the former agencies of the United States Border Patrol, United States Customs Service, the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal Plant Health Inspection Service into a single agency within the DHS. While the majority of federal law enforcement employees work for the departments of Justice and Homeland Security, there are dozens of other federal law enforcement agencies under the other executive departments, as well as under the legislative and judicial branches of the federal government. Federal law enforcement in the United States is more than two hundred years old. For example, the Postal Inspection Service can trace its origins back to 1772. Agencies in bold text are law enforcement agencies.
Office of the Secretary of Agriculture Protective Operations Division Office of Inspector General United States Forest Service U. S. Forest Service Law Enforcement & Investigations Office of Inspector General Office of Security US Commerce Department Police Bureau of Industry and Security Office of Export Enforcement National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Police National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service Office for Law Enforcement Office of Inspector General Defense Criminal Investigative Service Pentagon Force Protection Agency United States Pentagon Police Department of Defense Police Defense Security Service Defense Logistics Agency Defense Logistics Agency Police National Security Agency National Security Agency Police Defense Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Police National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Police Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Department of the Army United States Army Criminal Investigation Command United States Army Military Police Corps Department of the Army Civilian Police United States Army Corrections Command United States Army Counterintelligence United States Army Intelligence and Security Command Department of the Navy Naval Criminal Investigative Service United States Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division Master-at-arms Department of the Navy Police Marine Corps Provost Marshal's Office United States Marine Corps Civilian Police Department of the Air Force United States Air Force Office of Special Investigations Air Force Security Forces Center United States Air Force Security Forces Department of the Air Force Police Office of Inspector General Office of Civil Rights Office of Inspector General Office of Health and Security National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Secure Transportation Office of Inspector General United States Food and Drug Administration Office of Criminal Investigations National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health Police Office of Inspector General Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers DHS National Protection and Programs Directorate Federal Protective Service United States Coast Guard Coast Guard Investigative Service United States Coast Guard Police United States Customs and Border Protection United States Border Patrol CBP Air and Marine Operations CBP Office of Field Operations Federal Emergency Management Agency Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center Police Office of Chief Security Officer United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations Enforcement Removal Operations Office of Intelligence Office of Professional Responsibility United States Secret Service United States Secret Service Un
A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across international boundaries, following international agreements. Travel documents assure other governments that the bearer may return to the issuing country, are issued in booklet form to allow other governments to place visas as well as entry and exit stamps into them; the most common travel document is a passport, which gives the bearer more privileges like visa-free access to certain countries. However, the term is sometimes used only for those documents which do not bear proof of nationality, such as a refugee travel document. In general, a passport is a travel document that serves as proof of nationality from the issuing country. Although accepted by the majority of countries in the world, some issuing countries expressly exclude the validity of passports from nations that are not recognized by their governments. Non-citizens in the now independent Republics of Latvia and Estonia are individuals of Russian or Ukrainian ethnicity, who are not citizens of Latvia or Estonia but whose families have resided in the area since the Soviet era of forcible annexation, thus have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Two thirds of them are ethnic Russians, followed by ethnic Belarussians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians. Non-citizens in the two countries are issued special non-citizen passports as opposed to regular passports issued by the Estonian and Latvian authorities to citizens; this form of legal discrimination is labelled as xenophobic. Although all U. S. citizens are U. S. nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 U. S. C. § 1408, a person whose only connection to the U. S. is through birth in an outlying possession, or through descent from a person so born, acquires U. S. nationality but not U. S. citizenship. This was the case in only four other current or former U. S. overseas possessions. The U. S. passport issued to non-citizen nationals contains the endorsement code 9 which states: "THE BEARER IS A UNITED STATES NATIONAL AND NOT A UNITED STATES CITIZEN." on the annotations page. Non-citizen U. S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, but must apply for citizenship under the same rules as resident aliens.
Like resident aliens, they are not presently allowed by any U. S. state to vote in federal or state elections, although, as with resident aliens, there is no constitutional prohibition against their doing so. A laissez-passer is a travel document issued by a national government or certain international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union and the International Committee of the Red Cross. A laissez-passer is for one-way travel to the issuing country for humanitarian reasons only such as Restoring Family Links; some national governments issue laissez-passers to their own nationals as emergency passports. Others issue them to people who are stateless, or who are unable to obtain a passport from their own government, or whose government is not recognized by the issuing country. One such example is the People's Republic of China, which issues the non-passport Chinese Travel Document to its nationals under certain circumstances. One such circumstance stems from a reported loss of passport while living abroad.
China issues a temporary two-year validity Travel Document in lieu of a passport to allow said citizen to complete their travels and return to China to apply for a replacement Chinese passport. Under other circumstances such as a Chinese citizen studying or working abroad, the Chinese embassies or consulates will issue passports if requested; this Travel Document is a blue-covered passport-sized booklet denoted "TRAVEL DOCUMENT" as opposed to the usual red-covered passport. Laissez-passers were issued during wartime and at other periods acting as a pass to allow travel to specific areas, or out of war zones or countries for various officials, diplomatic agents, other representatives or citizens of third countries. In these contexts, a laissez-passer would include quite specific and limited freedom of movement; the form and issuing authority would be less standardized, depending on the circumstances. An example is when in the early 1950s, the Iraqi government granted permission to its 120,000 Jewish citizens to leave, conditional on their renouncing their citizenship and leaving behind all their properties and assets.
The travel document, issued was the laissez-passer, since an Iraqi passport was no longer possible. Laissez-passer documents may be issued to goods or other non-living objects to facilitate their transport across international borders. For instance, the Agreement on the Transfer of Corpses sets out rules whereby human corpses may be issued laissez-passer documents in order for a body to be buried or cremated in a country different from the one in which the person died. In 2008, the United States Department of Homeland Security denied entry to an Ethiopian asylum seeker carrying a laissez-passer on the basis of a Wikipedia entry describing the document; the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit overturned a ruling by the Board of Immigration Appeals which had upheld the deportation, as there is no guarantee that information in a Wikipedia article is accurate. The Israeli authorities maintain a unique system of travel documents issued to non-Israeli permanent resident
Port of entry
In general, a port of entry is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It has border security staff and facilities to check passports and visas, inspect luggage to assure that contraband is not imported. International airports are ports of entry, as are road and rail crossings on a land border. Seaports can be used as ports of entry; the choice of whether to become a port of entry is up to the civil authority controlling the port. An airport of entry is an airport that provides customs and immigration services for incoming flights; these services allow the airport to serve as an initial port of entry for foreign visitors arriving in a country. The word "international" in an airport's name means that it is an airport of entry, but many airports of entry do not use it. Airports of entry can range from large urban airports with heavy scheduled passenger service, like John F. Kennedy International Airport, to small rural airports serving general aviation exclusively. Smaller airports of entry are located near an existing port of entry such as a bridge or seaport.
On the other hand, some "former" airports of entry chose to leave their name with the word "international" in it though they no longer serve international flights. One example is Osaka International Airport; when it had ended all international services and became a purely domestic airport after the opening of Kansai International Airport in 1994, it kept its original name of "Osaka International Airport". Many airports in the nearby region have the same situation, like Taipei Songshan Airport. Songshan retained its official Chinese name, Taipei International Airport, after Chiang Kai-shek International Airport opened. Similar cases of transitions of international airports such as Seoul, Nagoya, Hong Kong, Tehran, etc. For the European Union, flights between countries in the Schengen Area are considered domestic regarding passport and immigration check. Several international airports have only intra Schengen-flights. Several of these have occasional charter flights to foreign countries; some cases of statelessness have occurred in airports of entry, forcing people to stay there for an extended period.
A famous case was of Mehran Karimi Nasseri, an expelled Iranian who lived in the Charles de Gaulle Airport in France for eighteen years after being denied entry to the country. There are two films about Tombés du ciel and The Terminal. Another case is Zahra Kamalfar who lived in the Sheremetyevo International Airport for many months before getting refugee status in Canada; the formal definition of a port of entry in the United States is something different. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, "the terms'port' and'port of entry' incorporate the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a port director." In other words, a port of entry may encompass an area that includes several border crossings, as well as some air and sea ports. This means that not every border crossing is a port of entry. There are two reasons for this: Every port of entry must have a Port Director, a higher pay grade than a typical border inspector; the U. S. government has determined. As a result, border stations like Churubusco and Fort Covington, New York are considered "stations" within the Trout River Port of Entry.
Many roads entering the U. S. had no border inspection station. Before September 11, 2001, it was permissible for persons entering the U. S. to do as long as they proceeded directly to an open border inspection station. In fact, the U. S. Customs Service and U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service rented property in houses, post offices, storefronts far from the physical border, people entering the U. S. were expected to travel to these locations without stopping so they could make their declarations. This policy has since changed, most of the roads entering the U. S. at locations other than an open and staffed border inspection station have since been barricaded. In some countries, immigration procedures are carried out by the armed forces rather than specific immigration officers. However, in most, the levying of duty on imports is still carried out by customs officers. Immigration clearance in some ports of entry have automated sections open to the country's own residents or citizens, such as the E-Channel found in Hong Kong and Macau, Global Entry found at some airports in the United States.
On some international borders, the concept of a port of entry does not exist. Travelers may cross the border wherever and whenever convenient, for example within the Schengen Area. In some cases this may be restricted to citizens of specific countries and to travelers who are not carrying goods over the customs limits. Border Border checkpoint Border control Customs Schengen Agreement
Mexico–United States barrier
The Mexico–United States barrier, sometimes colloquially called the Border Wall, is a series of vertical barriers along the Mexico–United States border aimed at preventing illegal crossings from Mexico into the United States. The barrier is not one contiguous structure, but a discontinuous series of physical obstructions variously classified as "fences" or "walls". Between the physical barriers, security is provided by a "virtual fence" of sensors and other surveillance equipment used to dispatch United States Border Patrol agents to suspected migrant crossings; as of January 2009, U. S. Customs and Border Protection reported; the total length of the continental border is 1,954 miles. The barriers were built from 1994, under the presidency of Bill Clinton, as part of three larger "operations" to taper transportation of illegal drugs manufactured in Latin America and immigration: Operation Gatekeeper in California, Operation Hold-the-Line in Texas, Operation Safeguard in Arizona. 97% of border apprehensions by the Border Patrol in 2010 occurred at the southwest border.
The number of Border Patrol apprehensions declined 61% from 1,189,000 in 2005 to 723,840 in 2008 to 463,000 in 2010. The decrease in apprehensions may be due to a number of factors, including changes in U. S. economic conditions and border enforcement efforts. Border apprehensions in 2010 were at their lowest level since 1972. In December 2016 apprehensions were at 58,478, whereas in March 2017, there were 17,000 apprehensions, the fifth month in a row of decline; the Secure Fence Act of 2006 authorized the construction of hundreds of miles of fencing along the Mexican border. The 1,954 miles border between the United States and Mexico traverses a variety of terrains, including urban areas and deserts; the barrier is located on both urban and uninhabited sections of the border, areas where the most concentrated numbers of illegal crossings and drug trafficking have been observed in the past. These urban areas include California and El Paso, Texas. By May 2011, the U. S. Department of Homeland Security reported completing 649 miles of fencing.
The barrier was made up of 350 miles of pedestrian fence. The fencing includes a steel fence that divides the border towns of Nogales, Arizona in the U. S. and Nogales, Sonora in Mexico. A 2016 report by the Government Accountability Office confirmed that the government had completed the fence by 2015. A 2017 GAO report noted: "In addition to the 654 miles of primary fencing, CBP has deployed additional layers of pedestrian fencing behind the primary border fencing, including 37 miles of secondary fencing and 14 miles of tertiary fencing."As a result of the barrier, there has been a marked increase in the number of people trying to cross areas that have no fence, such as the Sonoran Desert and the Baboquivari Mountain in Arizona. Such immigrants must cross fifty miles of inhospitable terrain to reach the first road, located in the Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation. U. S. Representative Duncan Hunter, a Republican from California and the then-chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, proposed a plan to the House on November 3, 2005 calling for the construction of a reinforced fence along the entire United States–Mexican border.
This would have included a 100-yard border zone on the U. S. side. On December 15, 2005, Congressman Hunter's amendment to the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 passed in the House; this plan called for mandatory fencing along 698 miles of the 1,954-mile border. On May 17, 2006 the U. S. Senate proposed with Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 what could be 370 miles of triple-layered fencing and a vehicle fence. Although that bill died in committee the Secure Fence Act of 2006 was passed by Congress and signed by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2006; the government of Mexico and ministers of several Latin American countries condemned the plans. Rick Perry, Governor of Texas expressed his opposition, saying that, instead of being closed, the border should be opened more and through technology support legal and safe migration; the barrier expansion was opposed by a unanimous vote by the Laredo, Texas City Council. Laredo's Mayor, Raul G. Salinas, defended his town's people by saying that the bill, which included miles of border wall, would devastate Laredo.
He stated "These are people that are sustaining our economy by forty percent, I am gonna close the door on them and put a wall? You don't do that. It's like a slap in the face." He hoped. The Secure Fence Act of 2006, signed into law on October 26, 2006, by U. S. President George W. Bush and funded the "possible" construction of 700 miles of physical fence/barriers along the Mexican border; the broad support for the Act implied that many assurances were made by the Administration – to the Democrats and the pro "Comprehensive immigration reform" minority among Republicans – that Homeland Security would proceed cautiously. Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff announced that an eight-month test of the virtual fence he favored would precede any construction of a physical barrier; the Department of Homeland Security has a down payment of $1.2
Canada–United States border
The Canada–United States border known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively; the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometres long, of which 2,475 kilometres is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories, thirteen U. S. states are located along the border. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north; the agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York.
It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west. Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river; the Jay Treaty of 1794 created the International Boundary Commission, charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U. S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries; the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818.
That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, part of Rupert's Land. The treaty extinguished U. S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, part of the Louisiana Purchase. Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842; the treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire and New York on the one hand, the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain; the part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.
S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York and Quebec, it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U. S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile south of the surveyed line; this created a dilemma for the United States, not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was redefined. An 1844 boundary dispute during U. S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U. S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north, but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. The Northwest Boundary Survey laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands; the International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to estab
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification, which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of confirming that identity, it might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate, determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be. In other words, authentication involves verifying the validity of at least one form of identification. Authentication is relevant to multiple fields. In art and anthropology, a common problem is verifying that a given artifact was produced by a certain person or in a certain place or period of history. In computer science, verifying a person's identity is required to allow access to confidential data or systems.
Authentication can be considered to be of three types: The first type of authentication is accepting proof of identity given by a credible person who has first-hand evidence that the identity is genuine. When authentication is required of art or physical objects, this proof could be a friend, family member or colleague attesting to the item's provenance by having witnessed the item in its creator's possession. With autographed sports memorabilia, this could involve someone attesting that they witnessed the object being signed. A vendor selling branded items implies authenticity, while he or she may not have evidence that every step in the supply chain was authenticated. Centralized authority-based trust relationships back most secure internet communication through known public certificate authorities; the second type of authentication is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin. For example, an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting, check the location and form of a signature, or compare the object to an old photograph.
An archaeologist, on the other hand, might use carbon dating to verify the age of an artifact, do a chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the materials used, or compare the style of construction or decoration to other artifacts of similar origin. The physics of sound and light, comparison with a known physical environment, can be used to examine the authenticity of audio recordings, photographs, or videos. Documents can be verified as being created on ink or paper available at the time of the item's implied creation. Attribute comparison may be vulnerable to forgery. In general, it relies on the facts that creating a forgery indistinguishable from a genuine artifact requires expert knowledge, that mistakes are made, that the amount of effort required to do so is greater than the amount of profit that can be gained from the forgery. In art and antiques, certificates are of great importance for authenticating an object of interest and value. Certificates can, however be forged, the authentication of these poses a problem.
For instance, the son of Han van Meegeren, the well-known art-forger, forged the work of his father and provided a certificate for its provenance as well. Criminal and civil penalties for fraud and counterfeiting can reduce the incentive for falsification, depending on the risk of getting caught. Currency and other financial instruments use this second type of authentication method. Bills and cheques incorporate hard-to-duplicate physical features, such as fine printing or engraving, distinctive feel and holographic imagery, which are easy for trained receivers to verify; the third type of authentication relies on documentation or other external affirmations. In criminal courts, the rules of evidence require establishing the chain of custody of evidence presented; this can be accomplished through a written evidence log, or by testimony from the police detectives and forensics staff that handled it. Some antiques are accompanied by certificates attesting to their authenticity. Signed sports memorabilia is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity.
These external records have their own problems of forgery and perjury, are vulnerable to being separated from the artifact and lost. In computer science, a user can be given access to secure systems based on user credentials that imply authenticity. A network administrator can give a user a password, or provide the user with a key card or other access device to allow system access. In this case, authenticity is implied but not guaranteed. Consumer goods such as pharmaceuticals, fashion clothing can use all three forms of authentication to prevent counterfeit goods from taking advantage of a popular brand's reputation; as mentioned above, having an item for sale in a reputable store implicitly attests to it being genuine, the first type of authentication. The second type of authentication might involve comparing the quality and craftsmanship of an item, such as an expensive handbag, to genuine articles; the third type of authentication could be the presence of a trademark on the item, a protected marking, or any other identifying feature which aids consumers in the identification o
An international airport is an airport with customs and border control facilities enabling passengers to travel between countries. International airports are larger than domestic airports and feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports also host domestic flights. Buildings and management have become sophisticated since the mid 20th century, when international airports began to provide infrastructure for international civilian flights. Detailed technical standards have been developed to ensure safety and common coding systems implemented to provide global consistency; the physical structures that serve millions of individual passengers and flights are among the most complex and interconnected in the world. By the second decade of the 21st century, there were over 1,200 international airports and two billion international passengers along with 50 million metric tonnes of cargo were passing through them annually.
In August 1919, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, in London, England was the first airport to operate scheduled international commercial services. It was closed and supplanted by Croydon Airport in March 1920. In the United States, Douglas Municipal Airport in Arizona became the first international airport of the Americas in 1928; the precursors to international airports were aerodromes. In the early days of international flights, there was limited infrastructure, "although if engine problems arose there were plenty of places where aircraft could land". Since four-engined land planes were unavailable for over-water operations to international destinations, flying boats became part of the solution. At the far end of the longest international route, on-water landing areas were found in places such as Surabaya and in the open sea off Kupang. In Sydney, Rose Bay, New South Wales, was chosen as the flying boat landing area. International airports sometimes serve military as well as commercial purposes and their viability is affected by technological developments.
Canton Island Airport, for example, in the Phoenix Islands, after serving as a military airport during World War II, was used as a refuelling stop by commercial aircraft such as Qantas which stationed ground crew there in the late 1950s. The advent in the early 1960s of jet aircraft such as the Boeing 707 with the range to fly non-stop between Australia or New Zealand and Hawaii, meant that a mid-Pacific stop was no longer needed and the airport was closed to regular commercial use. Other international airports, such as Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong, have been decommissioned and replaced when they reached capacity or technological advances rendered them inadequate; the construction and operation of an international airport depends on a complicated set of decisions that are affected by technology, politics and geography as well as both local and international law. Designing an airport for domestic traffic or as "non-hub" has, from the beginning, required extensive co-ordination between users and interested parties – architects, engineers and staff all need to be involved.
Airports may be regarded as emblematic of national pride and so the design may be architecturally ambitious. An example is the planned New Mexico City international airport, intended to replace an airport that has reached capacity. Airports can be non-towered, depending on air traffic density and available funds; because of high capacity and busy airspace, many international airports have air traffic control located on site. Some international airports require construction of additional infrastructure outside of the airport, such as at the Hong Kong International Airport, which included the construction of a high-speed railway and automobile expressway to connect the airport to the urban areas of Hong Kong. Construction of the expressway included the construction of two bridges and the Ma Wan viaduct on Ma Wan island to connect the bridges; each bridge carries automobile traffic. International airports have commercial relationships with and provide services to airlines and passengers from around the world.
Many serve as hubs, or places where non-direct flights may land and passengers may switch planes, while others serve direct point-to-point flights. This affects airport design factors, including the number and placement of terminals as well as the flow of passengers and baggage between different areas of the airport. An airport specializing in point-to-point transit can have international and domestic terminals, each in their separate building equipped with separate baggage handling facilities. In a hub airport, however and services are shared. Airport management have to take into account a wide range of factors, among which are the performance of airlines, the technical requirements of aircraft, airport-airline relationships, services for travelling customers and environmental impacts. Technical standards for safety and operating procedures at international airports are set by international agreements; the International Air Transport Association, formed in 1945, is the association of the airline companies.
The International Civil Aviation Organization is a body of the United Nations succeeding earlier international committees going back to 1903. These two organizations served to create regulations over airports which the airports themselves had no authority to debate; this sparked an entire subject of air travel politics. In January 1948, 19 representatives from various US commercial airports met for the first time in New York City to seek resolution to common problems the