New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
Dr. No (film)
Dr. No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress, Joseph Wiseman and Jack Lord, filmed in Jamaica and England, it is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, Berkely Mather and was directed by Terence Young; the film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that continued until 1975. In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent; the trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, plotting to disrupt an early American space launch with a radio beam weapon. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming's novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character; this film introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which appeared in six subsequent films. Dr. No was produced on a low budget, was a financial success. While the film received a mixed critical reaction upon release, over time it has gained a reputation as one of the series' best instalments.
The film was the first of a successful series of 24 Bond films. Dr. No launched a genre of "secret agent" films that flourished in the 1960s; the film spawned a comic book adaptation and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing. Many of the iconic aspects of a typical James Bond film were established in Dr. No: the film begins with an introduction to the character through the view of a gun barrel and a stylised main title sequence, both of which were created by Maurice Binder, it established the iconic "James Bond" theme music. Production designer Ken Adam established an elaborate visual style, one of the hallmarks of the film series. John Strangways, the British MI6 Station Chief in Jamaica, his secretary are ambushed and killed; the assassins steal documents related to "Crab Key" and "Doctor No". In response, M, the head of MI6, instructs agent James Bond to investigate Strangways' disappearance and to determine whether it is related to his co-operation with the American Central Intelligence Agency on a case involving the disruption of rocket launches from Cape Canaveral by radio jamming.
On his arrival at Kingston Airport, Bond is picked up by a chauffeur claiming to have been sent to take him to Government House. Bond determines him to be an enemy agent and, after having him evade a car following them, bests him in a fight. Bond starts to interrogate the chauffeur, who kills himself with a cyanide capsule. At Strangways' house, Bond sees a photograph of a boatman with Strangways. Bond locates the boatman, named Quarrel, whom he recognises as the driver of the car that followed him. Bond, after overpowering Quarrel and his friend Puss Feller, meets Quarrel's passenger, Felix Leiter, a CIA agent on the same mission as Bond; the CIA has not determined its exact origin. Quarrel, assisting Leiter, reveals that he had been guiding Strangways around the nearby islands to collect mineral samples, he mentions the reclusive Dr. No, the owner of Crab Key, an island rigorously protected against trespassers by an armed security force. In Strangways' house, Bond finds a receipt from Professor R.
J. Dent concerning rock samples. Bond meets Dent, who claims he assayed the samples for Strangways and determined them to be ordinary rocks. Dent subsequently visits Dr. No, who expresses displeasure at Dent's failure to kill Bond, orders him to try again with a tarantula. Bond sets a trap for Dent, whom he interrogates and kills. Using a Geiger counter, Bond detects radioactive traces in Quarrel's boat where Strangways' mineral samples had been. Bond convinces a reluctant Quarrel to take him to Crab Key. There Bond meets the beautiful Honey Ryder, dressed only in a white bikini, collecting shells. Ryder leads Quarrel inland to an open swamp contaminated by radiation. After nightfall, they are attacked by the "dragon" of Crab Key, in reality a flamethrower-equipped tank. In the resulting battle, Quarrel is incinerated, while Bond and Ryder are kidnapped, decontaminated in Dr. No's lair, rendered unconscious with drugged coffee. Upon waking, they are escorted to dine with Dr. No, a Chinese-German criminal scientist who has prosthetic metal hands due to radiation exposure.
He reveals that he is a former member of a Chinese crime Tong, from whom he stole ten million dollars, is now an operative of the secret organisation SPECTRE. He plans to disrupt the Project Mercury space launch from Cape Canaveral with his radio beam, he fails. After dinner, Ryder is taken away and Bond is beaten by the guards. Bond escapes by crawling through an air vent. Disguising himself as a worker, he finds his way to Dr. No's control centre, which contains a nuclear pool reactor; as the American rocket lifts off, Bond overloads the reactor and knocks Dr. No into the reactor pool, killing him. Bond finds and frees Ryder, the two escape the island in a boat as the entire lair explodes. After the boat runs out of fuel, they are rescued by Leiter; as Bond and Ryder kiss, Bond lets go of the ship's tow rope. Sean Connery as James Bond: A British MI6 agent, codename 007. Ursula Andress as Honey Ryder: A local shell diver, making a living by selling Jamaican seashells to dealers in Miami. Joseph Wiseman as Dr.
No: A reclusive member of SPECTRE Jack Lord as Felix Leiter: A CIA operative sent to liaise with Jam
CBS Studio Center
CBS Studio Center is a television and film studio located in the Studio City district of Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley. The lot has 18 sound stages from 7,000 to 25,000 square feet, 220,000 square feet of office space, 223 dressing rooms, it is the headquarters of CBS Television Studios but is not open to the public for tours. The triangular site is bisected by the Los Angeles River; the company previously had ownership of three other studios in the area: CBS Television City, Columbia Square and the Paramount Pictures lot. Mack Sennett, a silent film producer and director, came to the San Fernando Valley and opened his new movie studio at this location in May 1928, he operated a smaller studio on Glendale Boulevard in Echo Park where he produced films featuring the Keystone Kops, Charlie Chaplin, Mabel Normand, Buster Keaton, W. C. Fields, Fatty Arbuckle. After creating the Studio City lot, Sennett in five years was forced to file bankruptcy and the studio lot was sold off to another film company, Mascot Pictures.
Mascot, which specialized in serials, renamed the studio after itself. By 1935, another film company, Monogram Pictures, along with Mascot and Consolidated Film Corporation merged to form Republic Pictures Corporation; the studio lot was renamed Republic Studios. The new studio specialized in B-movies, including many Westerns starring the likes of Roy Rogers, Gene Autry, John Wayne, all of whom got their first breaks with Republic. In the 1950s, Republic leased studio space to Revue Productions, which filmed many early television series on the lot before Revue's owner, MCA acquired Universal Pictures and moved Revue's television production to Universal City. Four Star Productions leased the lot for many of its series like The Rifleman, Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater, The Big Valley. Republic Pictures ceased production in 1958 and Victor M. Carter became its president in 1959. Carter built Republic into a diversified business with foci outside of the television and film business, so began leasing its lot to CBS.
In 1963, CBS Television became the primary lessee of the lot. After leasing the Republic Pictures lot, CBS began to place their network-produced filmed shows there, including Gunsmoke, My Three Sons, Gilligan's Island.. The Gilligan's Island lagoon was located at the northwestern edge of the lot. While under lease, the facility was renamed the CBS Studio Center; the network purchased the 70-acre lot outright from Republic in February 1967, for $9.5 million. That same month, Republic sold off its film library. CBS built new sound stages, office buildings, technical facilities. To make up for these investments, CBS began to rent out its studio lot for independent producers, the newly created MTM Enterprises became the Studio Center's primary tenant, beginning in 1970. Moore's memorable sitcom, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, began filming here in 1970, along with its spinoffs, Rhoda and Lou Grant. In July 1982, CBS formed a partnership with 20th Century Fox to share ownership of the Studio Center, thus once again renaming, this time as CBS/Fox Studios.
However, that relationship was short-lived as Fox sold its interest of the Studio Center to MTM, it became CBS-MTM Studios. In March 1992, the studio once again became CBS Studio Center, when MTM sold back its interest in the studio lot to CBS. From 1991 to 1996, American Gladiators was videotaped at CBS Studio Center; the original "Gladiator Arena" remains preserved in its original form in its original location, with tours and group events available. Today, the studio is one of the most active in the city for producing sitcoms, it is the base for "Semester in L. A.", a six-week course by Columbia College Chicago. Since 2007, the Studio Center serves as the home to CBS's Los Angeles flagship TV station, KCBS-TV, along with sister station KCAL-TV, as they vacated Columbia Square to move into a newly built, digitally-enhanced office and studio facility located where the house for the CBS reality series, Big Brother, once stood, it enables the stations to broadcast their local news in High Definition.
The CBS Studio City Broadcast Center houses the Los Angeles bureau of CBS News, shared with the KCBS/KCAL local newsroom. In 2008, Entertainment Tonight and The Insider moved from the Paramount Pictures studios to the Studio Center. CBS News KCBS-TV/KCAL-TV CBS Studio Center Seeing Stars: CBS Studio Center CBS Studios and Beverly
The 1980s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1980, ended on December 31, 1989. The decade saw great socioeconomic change due to advances in technology and a worldwide move away from planned economies and towards laissez-faire capitalism; as economic deconstruction increased in the developed world, multiple multinational corporations associated with the manufacturing industry relocated into Thailand, South Korea and China. Japan and West Germany saw large economic growth during this decade; the AIDS epidemic became recognized in the 1980s and has since killed an estimated 39 million people. Global warming became well known to the political community in the 1980s; the United Kingdom and the United States moved closer to supply-side economic policies beginning a trend towards global instability of international trade that would pick up more steam in the following decade as the fall of the USSR made right wing economic policy more powerful. The final decade of the Cold War opened with the US-Soviet confrontation continuing without any interruption.
Superpower tensions escalated as President Reagan scrapped the policy of détente and adopted a new, much more aggressive stance on the Soviet Union. The world came perilously close to nuclear war for the first time since the Cuban Missile Crisis 20 years earlier, but the second half of the decade saw a dramatic easing of superpower tensions and the total collapse of Soviet communism. Developing countries across the world faced economic and social difficulties as they suffered from multiple debt crises in the 1980s, requiring many of these countries to apply for financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Ethiopia witnessed widespread famine in the mid-1980s during the corrupt rule of Mengistu Haile Mariam, resulting in the country having to depend on foreign aid to provide food to its population and worldwide efforts to address and raise money to help Ethiopians, such as the Live Aid concert in 1985. Major civil discontent and violence occurred in the Middle East, including the Iran–Iraq War, the Soviet–Afghan War, the 1982 Lebanon War, the Nagorno-Karabakh War, the Bombing of Libya in 1986, the First Intifada in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
Islamism became a powerful political force in the 1980s and many terrorist organizations, including Al Qaeda started. By 1986, nationalism was making a comeback in the Eastern Bloc and desire for democracy in communist-led socialist states combined with economic recession resulted in Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika, which reduced Communist Party power, legalized dissent and sanctioned limited forms of capitalism such as joint ventures with Western firms. After newly heated tension for most of the decade, by 1988 relations between the West and East had improved and the Soviet Union was unwilling to defend its governments in satellite states. 1989 brought the overthrow and attempted overthrow of a number of governments led by communist parties, such as in Hungary, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in China, the Czechoslovak "Velvet Revolution", Erich Honecker's East German regime, Poland's Soviet-backed government, the violent overthrow of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime in Romania.
Destruction of the 155-km Berlin Wall, at the end of the decade, signalled a seismic geopolitical shift. The Cold War ended in the early 1990s with the successful Reunification of Germany and the USSR's demise after the August Coup of 1991; the 1980s saw great advances in digital technology. After years of animal experimentation since 1985 the first genetic modification of 10 adult human beings took place in May 1989, a gene tagging experiment which led to the first true gene therapy implementation in September 1990; the first "designer babies", a pair of female twins were created in a laboratory in late 1989 and born in July 1990 after being sex-selected via the controversial assisted reproductive technology procedure preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Gestational surrogacy was first performed in 1985 with the first birth in 1986, making it possible for a woman to become a biological mother without experiencing pregnancy for the first time in history; the 1980s was an era of tremendous population growth around the world, surpassing the 1970s and 1990s, thus arguably being the largest in human history.
Population growth was rapid in a number of African, Middle Eastern, South Asian countries during this decade, with rates of natural increase close to or exceeding 4% annually. The 1980s saw the advent of the ongoing practice of sex-selective abortion in China and India as ultrasound technology permitted parents to selectively abort baby girls; the global Internet took shape in academia by the second half of the 1980s as well as many other computer networks of both academic and commercial use such as USENET, Fidonet and the Bulletin Board System. By 1989 the Internet and the networks linked to it were a global system with extensive transoceanic satellite links and nodes in most rich countries. Based on earlier work from 1980 onwards Tim Berners Lee formalized the concept of the World Wide Web by 1989 and performed its earliest demonstrations in December 1990 and 1991. Television viewing became commonplace in the Third World, with the number of TV sets in China and India increasing by 15 and 10 times respectively.
The most notable terrorist attacks of the decade include: Bologna massacre in Italy on 2 August 1980, three members of the neo-fascist group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari detonate a time bomb at Bologna Central Station, killing 85 people. El Mozote massacre in El Salvador on December 11, 1981, against civilian
Rocky is a 1976 American sports drama film directed by John G. Avildsen, written by and starring Sylvester Stallone, it tells the rags to riches American Dream story of Rocky Balboa, an uneducated but kind-hearted working class Italian-American boxer working as a debt collector for a loan shark in the slums of Philadelphia. Rocky, a small-time club fighter, gets a shot at the world heavyweight championship; the film stars Talia Shire as Adrian, Burt Young as Adrian's brother Paulie, Burgess Meredith as Rocky's trainer Mickey Goldmill, Carl Weathers as the champion, Apollo Creed. It inspired the'Let's Build Esker Boxing Club' clubhouse building campaign by Irish boxing Club, Esker ABC several years later; the film, made on a budget of just over $1 million, was a sleeper hit. The film was critically acclaimed and solidified Stallone’s career as well as commenced his rise to prominence as a major movie star. Among other accolades, it went on to receive ten Academy Award nominations, winning three, including Best Picture.
In 2006, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Rocky is considered to be one of the greatest sports films made and was ranked as the second-best in the genre, after Raging Bull, by the American Film Institute in 2008; the film has spawned seven sequels: Rocky II, Rocky III, Rocky IV, Rocky V, Rocky Balboa and Creed II. Stallone portrays Rocky in all seven sequels, wrote the first five, directed four of the six titular installments, it has a cult classic reputation. In late 1975, the heavyweight boxing world champion, Apollo Creed, announces plans to hold a title bout in Philadelphia during the upcoming United States Bicentennial. However, he is informed five weeks from the fight date that his scheduled opponent is unable to compete due to an injured hand. With all other potential replacements booked up or otherwise unavailable, Creed decides to spice things up by giving a local contender a chance to challenge him.
He settles in on Rocky Balboa, an aspiring southpaw boxer from an Italian neighborhood of Philadelphia, known by the nickname "The Italian Stallion". Rocky meets with promoter Miles Jergens, unexpectedly presuming Creed is seeking local sparring partners. Reluctant at first, Rocky agrees to the fight which will pay him $150,000. After several weeks of training, using whatever he can find, including meat carcasses as punching bags, Rocky accepts an offer of assistance from gym proprietor Mickey "Mighty Mick" Goldmill, a respected trainer and former bantamweight fighter from the 1920s, who always criticized Rocky for wasting his potential. Meanwhile, Rocky meets Adrian Pennino, working part-time at the J&M Tropical Fish pet store, he begins culminating in a kiss. Adrian's brother, becomes jealous of Rocky's success, but Rocky calms him by agreeing to advertise his meatpacking business before the upcoming fight; the night before the fight, Rocky begins to lose confidence after touring the arena.
He confesses to Adrian that he does not expect to win, but wants to go the distance against Creed, which no other fighter has done, prove himself to everyone. On New Year's Day, the fight is held, with Creed making a dramatic entrance dressed as George Washington and Uncle Sam. Taking advantage of his overconfidence, Rocky knocks him down in the first round—the first time that Creed has been knocked down. Humiliated, Creed takes Rocky more for the rest of the fight, though his ego never fades; the fight goes on for the full fifteen rounds, with both combatants sustaining various injuries, Rocky with a detached retina in his right eye and hits to the head, Apollo with internal bleeding and a broken rib. As the fight progresses, Creed's superior skill is countered by Rocky's unlimited ability to absorb punches, his dogged refusal to go down; as the final round bell sounds, with both fighters locked in each other's arms, they promise to each other that there will be no rematch. After the fight, the sportscasters and the audience go wild.
Jergens announces over the loudspeaker that the fight was "the greatest exhibition of guts and stamina in the history of the ring", Rocky calls out for Adrian, who runs down and comes into the ring as Paulie distracts arena security. As Jergens declares Creed the winner by virtue of a split decision and Rocky embrace and profess their love to each other, not caring about the result of the fight. Sylvester Stallone wrote the screenplay for Rocky in three and a half days, shortly after watching the championship match between Muhammad Ali and Chuck Wepner that took place at Richfield Coliseum in Richfield, Ohio on March 24, 1975. Wepner was TKO'd in the 15th round of the match by Ali, with few expecting him to last as long as he did. Despite the fact that the match motivated Stallone to begin work on Rocky, he has subsequently denied that Wepner provided any inspiration for the script. Other possible inspirations for the film may have included characteristics of real-life boxers Rocky Marciano and Joe Frazier, as well as Rocky Graziano's autobiography Somebody Up There Likes Me and the movie of the same name.
Wepner filed a lawsuit, settled with Stallone for an undisclosed amount. United Artists liked Stallone's script, viewed it as a possible vehicle for a well-established star such as Robert Redford, Ryan O'Neal, Burt Reynolds, or James Caan. Stallone insisted to the point of issuing an ultimatum. Stallone said