Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Shirley Knight Hopkins is an American actress who has appeared in more than 50 feature films, made-for-television movies, television series, Broadway and Off-Broadway productions in her career playing leading and character roles. She is a member of the Actors Studio. Knight has been nominated twice for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, for The Dark at the Top of the Stairs and Sweet Bird of Youth. In the 1960s, she had leading roles in a number of Hollywood movies such as The Couch, House of Women, The Group, The Counterfeit Killer, The Rain People, she received Volpi Cup for Best Actress for her role in the British film Dutchman. In 1976 Knight won a Tony Award for her performance in Kennedy's Children. In years, she played supporting roles in many films, include Endless Love, As Good as It Gets, Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood, Grandma's Boy. For her performances on television, Knight eight times was nominated for Primetime Emmy Award, has received a Golden Globe Award. Knight was born in Goessel in Marion County, east central Kansas, the daughter of Virginia and Noel Johnson Knight, an oil company executive.
At the age of 14, she wrote a short story, published in a national magazine. Knight attended Phillips University and Wichita State University and trained in acting with Erwin Piscator, Lee Strasberg, Uta Hagen at HB Studio. Knight's feature films include The Group, The Dutchman, The Rain People, Juggernaut, As Good as It Gets, Elevator, in which she plays one of several people trapped in a Wall Street elevator with a bomber. Knight was cast in 1958 and 1959 as Mrs. Newcomb in twenty of the thirty-nine episodes of the NBC western television series, with Tom Nolan, Sally Brophy, Mike Road, she became a Warner Brothers Television contract star who while on breaks filming movies appeared in such WB television series as Maverick, Bourbon Street Beat, Sugarfoot and The Roaring 20s. A life member of The Actors Studio, Knight's stage credits include Three Sisters, We Have Always Lived in the Castle, Kennedy's Children, which earned her the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play, A Lovely Sunday for Creve Coeur.
She was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play twice, for Landscape of the Body and The Young Man from Atlanta, for which she received another Tony nomination. She appeared, with Alison Fraser, in Come Back, Come Back, Wherever You Are, an original play by playwright Arthur Laurents, her television credits include Target: The Corruptors!, The Eleventh Hour, The Outer Limits, The Reporter, The Fugitive, The Invaders, The Virginian, She Wrote, Law & Order, L. A. Law, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Maggie Winters, ER, House M. D. Crossing Jordan, Cold Case, Hot in Cleveland, among others, she has appeared in various television movies, including Playing For Time and Indictment: The McMartin Trial. For the latter, she won both the Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie and the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television, her guest performance in thirtysomething earned her a 1988 Emmy for Best Guest Performer in a Drama Series.
She won Emmy in 1995 for her guest performance in the NYPD Blue episode "Large Mouth Bass". She appeared in the first segment of, she had a recurring role on Desperate Housewives. Knight was married twice, to actor and producer Gene Persson, from 1959 until they divorced in 1969, to writer John Hopkins, from 1969 until his death in 1998, she has actress Kaitlin Hopkins and elementary school teacher Sophie Hopkins. Shirley Knight at the Internet Broadway Database Shirley Knight on IMDb Shirley Knight at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Shirley Knight at the Wisconsin Historical Society's Actors Studio audio collection, 1956-1969 Shirley Knight at the TCM Movie Database Shirley Knight at AllMovie TheaterMania.com TalkMoviesWorld.com
Twyla Tharp is an American dancer and author who lives and works in New York City. In 1966, she formed her own company Twyla Tharp Dance, her work uses classical music and contemporary pop music. From 1971 to 1988, Twyla Tharp Dance toured extensively around the world. In 1973, Tharp choreographed Deuce Coupe to the music of The Beach Boys for the Joffrey Ballet. Deuce Coupe is considered to be the first crossover ballet, she choreographed Push Comes to Shove, which featured Mikhail Baryshnikov and is now thought to be the best example of the crossover ballet. In 1988, Twyla Tharp Dance merged with American Ballet Theatre, since which time ABT has held the world premieres of 16 of Tharp's works. On May 24, 2018, she was awarded the Doctor of Arts degree by Harvard University. Tharp was born in 1941 on a farm in Portland, the daughter of Lucille and William Tharp, she was named for Twila Thornburg, the "Pig Princess" of the 89th Annual Muncie Fair in Indiana as related in her own book The Creative Habit: Learn It and Use It for Life.
As a young child, Tharp spent a few months each year living with her Quaker grandparents on their farm in Indiana. Her mother insisted she take lessons in dance, piano, viola, shorthand and French. In 1950, Tharp's family—younger sister Twanette, twin brothers Stanley and Stanford, her parents—moved to Rialto, California, her parents opened a drive-in movie theater. The drive-in was on the corner of Acacia and Foothill, the major east–west artery in Rialto and the path of Route 66, she attended Pacific High School in San Bernardino and studied at the Vera Lynn School of Dance, ballet with Beatrice Collenette. Tharp, a "devoted bookworm", admits. Tharp attended Pomona College in California but transferred to Barnard College in New York City, where she graduated with a degree in art history in 1963, it was in New York that she studied with Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham. In 1963 Tharp joined the Paul Taylor Dance Company. In 1965, Tharp choreographed her first dance Tank Dive and formed her own company, Twyla Tharp Dance.
Her work utilizes classical music and contemporary pop music. From 1971 to 1988, Twyla Tharp Dance toured extensively around the world. In 1973, Tharp choreographed Deuce Coupe to the music of The Beach Boys for the Joffrey Ballet. Deuce Coupe is considered to be the first crossover ballet, she choreographed Push Comes to Shove, which featured Mikhail Baryshnikov and is now thought to be the best example of the crossover ballet. In 1988, Twyla Tharp Dance merged with American Ballet Theatre, since which time ABT has held the world premieres of 16 of Tharp's works. In 2010, they had a total of 20 of her works in their repertory. Tharp has since choreographed dances for: Paris Opera Ballet, The Royal Ballet, New York City Ballet, Boston Ballet, Joffrey Ballet, Pacific Northwest Ballet, Miami City Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, Hubbard Street Dance and Martha Graham Dance Company. Tharp created the dance roadshow Cutting Up with Mikhail Baryshnikov, which went on to tour and appeared in 28 cities over two months.
In the summer of 2000, Twyla Tharp Dance regrouped with new dancers. This Tharp dance company performed around the world, it was with this company that Tharp developed the material that would go on to become Movin' Out, an award-winning Broadway musical featuring the songs of Billy Joel and starring many of the dancers who were in the dance company. In 2012, Tharp created the full-length ballet the Goblin; the ballet is based on George MacDonald's story The Princess and the Goblin and is Tharp's first to include children. The narrative ballet was co-commissioned by Atlanta Ballet and Royal Winnipeg Ballet and performed by both companies. Tharp was the first Artist in Residency at Pacific Northwest Ballet in Seattle. During this time she created and premiered Waiting At The Station, a new work with music by R&B artist Allen Toussaint and sets & costumes by long-time collaborator Santo Loquasto. In 1980, Tharp's work first appeared on Broadway with Twyla Tharp Dance performing When We Were Very Young, followed in 1981 by The Catherine Wheel, her collaboration with David Byrne at the Winter Garden.
Wheel was broadcast on PBS, had its soundtrack released on LP. In 1985, her staging of Singin' in the Rain played at the Gershwin for 367 performances. Tharp premiered her dance musical Movin' Out, set to the music and lyrics of Billy Joel in Chicago in 2001; the show opened on Broadway in 2002. Movin' Out ran for 1,331 performances on Broadway. A national tour opened in January 2004. Movin' Out received 10 Tony nominations and Tharp was named Best Choreographer. Tharp opened a new show titled The Times They Are a-Changin', to the music of Bob Dylan in 2005 at The Old Globe Theatre in San Diego; the Times They are A-Changin' set the records for the highest grossing show and highest ticket sales as of the date of closing. It was the first time a show received a second extension before the first preview. After this record setting run in California, the New York show ran for 35 previews and 28 performances. In 2009, Tharp worked with the songs of Frank Sinatra to mount Come Fly with Me, which ran at the Alliance Theater in Atlanta and was the best selling four-week run as of the date of closing in 2009.
Renamed Come Fly Away, the show opened on Broadway in 2010 at the Marquis Theatre in New York and ran for 26 previews and 188 performances. Come Fly Away, was retooled and opened under the title Sinatra: Dance with Me at The Wynn Las Vegas in 2011. Co
MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
H. M. S. Pinafore, it opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, the second-longest run of any musical theatre piece up to that time. H. M. S. Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivan's fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation; the story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore. The captain's daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty, she abides by her father's wishes at first, but Sir Joseph's advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and Josephine to overturn conventional social order. They declare their love for each other and plan to elope; the captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise disclosure changes things near the end of the story. Drawing on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness; the opera's humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general.
Pinafore pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, a pinafore, to the fearsome symbol of a warship. Pinafore's extraordinary popularity in Britain and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, their works known as the Savoy operas, dominated the musical stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas Pinafore, were much copied and contributed to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard D'Oyly Carte, managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show, a one-act opera entitled Trial by Jury; this proved a success, in 1876 D'Oyly Carte assembled a group of financial backers to establish the Comedy Opera Company, devoted to the production and promotion of family-friendly English comic opera.
With this theatre company, Carte had the financial resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert and Sullivan opera. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877, it too was successful. Sheet music from the show sold well, street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a theatre proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert and Carte produced the show with their own financial support, they were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers, rather than being obliged to use the actors engaged at the theatre. They chose talented actors, most of whom were not well-known stars and did not command high fees, to whom they could teach a more naturalistic style of performance than was used at the time, they tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. The skill with which Gilbert and Sullivan used their performers had an effect on the audience. For until no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, yet intensely human beings....
Conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight." The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Sullivan. Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877. Gilbert's father had been a naval surgeon, the nautical theme of the opera appealed to him, he drew on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, including "Captain Reece" and "General John". Some of the characters have prototypes in the ballads: Dick Deadeye is based on a character in "Woman's Gratitude". On 27 December 1877, while Sullivan was on holiday on the French Riviera, Gilbert sent him a plot sketch accompanied by the following note: I have little doubt whatever but that you will be pleased with it.... There is a good deal of fun in it. Among other things a song for the First Lord – tracing his career as office-boy... clerk, junior partner and First Lord of Britain's Navy.... Of course there will be no personality in this – the fact that the First Lord in the Opera is a Radical of the most pronounced type will do away with any suspicion that W. H. Smith is intended.
Despite Gilbert's disclaimer, audiences and the Prime Minister identified Sir Joseph Porter with W. H. Smith, a politician, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty despite having neither military nor nautical experience. Sullivan was delighted with the sketch, Gilbert read a first draft of the plot to Carte in mid-January. Following the example of his mentor, T. W. Robertson, Gilbert strove to ensure that the costumes and sets were as realistic as possible; when preparing the sets for H. M. S. Pinafore and Sullivan visited Portsmouth in Ap
Martin Charles Scorsese is an American filmmaker and historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese's body of work addresses such themes as Italian and Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption, machismo, modern crime, gang conflict. Many of his films are known for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity. Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is regarded as one of the most significant and influential filmmakers in cinematic history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation, he is a recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award for his contributions to the cinema, has won an Academy Award, a Palme d'Or, Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award, Silver Lion, Grammy Award, Golden Globes, BAFTAs, Directors Guild of America Awards. He has directed works such as the crime film Mean Streets, the vigilante-thriller Taxi Driver, the biographical sports drama Raging Bull, the black comedies The King of Comedy, After Hours, the religious epic drama The Last Temptation of Christ, the crime film Goodfellas, the psychological thriller Cape Fear and the crime film Casino, some of which he collaborated on with actor and close friend Robert De Niro.
Scorsese has been noted for his successful collaborations with actor Leonardo DiCaprio, having directed him in five films, beginning with Gangs of New York and most The Wolf of Wall Street. Their third film together, The Departed, won Scorsese the Academy Award for Best Director in addition to the film winning the award for Best Picture, their collaborations have resulted in numerous Academy Award nominations for both as well as them winning several other prestigious awards. Scorsese's other film work includes the biographical drama The Aviator, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the historical adventure drama Hugo and the religious epic Silence, his work in television includes the pilot episodes of the HBO series Boardwalk Empire and Vinyl, the latter of which he co-created. With eight Best Director Oscar nominations, he is the most nominated living director and is tied with Billy Wilder for the second-most nominations overall; as a fan of rock music, he has directed several documentaries on the subject, including The Last Waltz, No Direction Home, Shine a Light, George Harrison: Living in the Material World.
Scorsese was born on November 1942, in New York City's Queens borough. His family moved to Little Italy, his father, Charles Scorsese, mother, Catherine Scorsese, both worked in New York's Garment District. His father was a clothes presser and an actor, his mother was a seamstress and an actress, his father's parents emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, in the province of Palermo and his maternal grandparents were from Palermo from Ciminna. Scorsese was raised in a devoutly Catholic environment; as a boy, he had asthma and could not play sports or do any activities with other children, so his parents and his older brother would take him to movie theaters. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese rented Powell and Pressburger's The Tales of Hoffmann from a store that had one copy of the reel. Scorsese was one of only two people who rented that reel. Scorsese has cited Victor Mature as his favorite actors during his youth, he has spoken of the influence of the 1947 Powell and Pressburger film Black Narcissus, whose innovative techniques impacted his filmmaking.
Enamored of historical epics in his adolescence, at least two films of the genre, Land of the Pharaohs and El Cid, appear to have had a deep and lasting impact on his cinematic psyche. Scorsese developed an admiration for neorealist cinema at this time, he recounted its influence in a documentary on Italian neorealism, commented on how Bicycle Thieves alongside Paisà, Open City inspired him and how this influenced his view or portrayal of his Sicilian roots. In his documentary, Il Mio Viaggio in Italia, Scorsese noted that the Sicilian episode of Roberto Rossellini's Paisà, which he first saw on television alongside his relatives, who were themselves Sicilian immigrants, made a significant impact on his life, he acknowledges owing a great debt to the French New Wave and has stated that "the French New Wave has influenced all filmmakers who have worked since, whether they saw the films or not." He has cited filmmakers including Satyajit Ray, Ingmar Bergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini as a major influence on his career.
His initial desire to become a priest attending preparatory seminary but failing after the first year while attending Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx gave way to cinema and Scorsese enrolled in NYU's Washington Square College, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1964. He went on to earn his M. F. A. from NYU's School of the Arts in 1966, a year after the school was founded. Scorsese attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts making the short films What's a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? and It's Not Just You, Murray!. His most famous short of the period is the darkly comic The Big Shave; the film is