SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

CBS Radio

CBS Radio was a radio broadcasting company and radio network operator owned by CBS Corporation, consolidated radio station groups owned by CBS and Westinghouse Broadcasting/Group W since the 1920s and Infinity Broadcasting since the 1970s. The broadcasting company was sold to Entercom on November 17, 2017. Although CBS's involvement in radio dates back to the establishment of the original CBS Radio Network in 1927, the most recent radio division was formed by the 1997 acquisition of Infinity Broadcasting by CBS owner Westinghouse. In 1999, Infinity became a division of the original Viacom, it was the last radio group left to be tied to a major broadcast television network, as NBC divested its radio interests in the 1980s, ABC sold off its division to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007. CBS Radio is one of the oldest units within CBS Corporation, has been around since 1928. However, the actual CBS Radio Network was launched in 1927, when CBS itself was known as United Independent Broadcasters. Columbia Records joined in and that company was renamed the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System.

In September 1927, Columbia Records sold the company to William S. Paley and in 1928, Paley streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System; the company that would become CBS Radio was founded in 1972 as Infinity Broadcasting Corporation by Michael A. Wiener and Gerald Carrus, with the acquisition of KOME, an FM radio station that served the San Francisco Bay Area, it became a publicly traded company twice, in 1986, again in 1992. Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired CBS, Inc. in 1995 and acquired Infinity Broadcasting in 1997. Westinghouse, which produced the first radio broadcast on November 2, 1920, with KDKA in Pittsburgh, would change its name to CBS Corporation, reorganize all of its radio properties, as well as its outdoor advertising business, under the Infinity Broadcasting Corporation name. Westinghouse acquired American Radio Systems in September 1997. In 1999, CBS Corporation was merged into Viacom. On December 14, 2005, Viacom spun out its motion picture and cable television assets, with the remainder maintained as CBS Corporation In anticipation of this, Infinity Broadcasting was reorganized as CBS Radio.

In August 2006, CBS Radio announced the sale of its 15 radio stations in Ohio. This group deal was granted FCC approval in mid-November 2007 after it faced regulatory review and numerous challenges for over a year, closed on November 30. Several other stations, most in smaller markets, were sold to companies like Border Media Partners and Peak Media Corporation. On April 30, 2008, CBS Radio and AOL entered a partnership; the AOL Radio player powered by CBS Radio features over 200 CBS Radio stations, along with over 200 AOL Radio stations, combining two of the largest online radio networks and giving millions of listeners unlimited and free access to a diverse array of music and programming including news and talk. These stations were folded into the AOL Radio mobile app. In 2008, CBS started the process of paring down its station holdings, with a particular focus on ridding itself of stations in mid-sized markets, markets where there are no television stations for synergistic advantages. On July 31, 2008, CBS Radio announced that it would sell 50 more radio stations in 12 mid-size markets.

However some companies like RBC Capital Markets said CBS Radio is a "melting icecube" and that CBS Corporation would be better off selling the entire radio unit rather than "waiting a couple of years and selling the rest for less."On December 15, 2008, CBS Radio and Clear Channel Communications reached an agreement to swap seven stations. In this deal, Clear Channel acquired WQSR in Baltimore, Maryland, KBKS in Seattle, Washington, KLTH and KXJM in Portland, KQJK in Sacramento, California; the deal closed on April 1, 2009. On December 20, 2008, CBS Radio announced that it would sell the entire Denver cluster to Wilks Broadcasting for $19.5 Million, including KIMN, KWOF, KXKL. On August 10, 2009, CBS Radio announced that it would sell the entire Portland cluster to Alpha Broadcasting for $40 Million; the stations included in the sale are KCMD, KINK, KUFO, KUPL. On February 4, 2010, all CBS Radio stations, as well as AOL Radio and Yahoo! Music Radio restricted all non U. S. listeners from streaming online content.

CBS Radio redirected to sister property Last.fm. In July 2010, CBS Radio launched Radio.com. 2011 saw the biggest AC format removal of the company dropping AC for hot adult contemporary on Washington, D. C.'s WIAD in March, followed by New York City's WWFS on October 12. On August 1, WCFS-FM Chicago removed its AC format for all-news to simulcast WBBM. By November 2011, WLTE in Minneapolis/St. Paul removed the AC format for Christmas music, only to transition to country music as KMNB on December 26. On April 9, 2012, CBS Radio announced that it was selling its West Palm Beach cluster of stations to Palm Beach Broadcasting for $50 Million. On December 1, 2014, CBS Radio traded 14 stations—its Charlotte, North Carolina and Tampa Bay clusters as well as WIP-AM in Philadelphia—to Beasley Broadcast Group in exchange for WRDW-FM and WXTU in Philadelphia and WKIS, WPOW, and

Cut-insertion theorem

The Cut-insertion theorem known as Pellegrini's theorem, is a linear network theorem that allows transformation of a generic network N into another network N' that makes analysis simpler and for which the main properties are more apparent. Let e, h, u, w, q=q', t=t' be six arbitrary nodes of the network N and S be an independent voltage or current source connected between e and h, while U is the output quantity, either a voltage or current, relative to the branch with immittance X u, connected between u and w. Let us now cut the qq' connection and insert a three-terminal circuit between the two nodes q and q' and the node t=t', as in figure b. In order for the two networks N and N' to be equivalent for any S, the two constraints W r = W p and W r ¯ = W p ¯, where the overline indicates the dual quantity, are to be satisfied; the above-mentioned three-terminal circuit can be implemented, for example, connecting an ideal independent voltage or current source W p between q' and t', an immittance X p between q and t.

With reference to the network N', the following network functions can be defined: A ≡ U W p | S = 0. Therefore, the first constraint for the equivalence of the networks is satisfied if W p = α 1 − β A S. Furthermore, W r ¯ = W r X p W p ¯ = W r therefore the second constraint for the equivalence of the networks holds if 1 X p = 1 X i + ρ α If we consider the expressions for the network functions γ and A, the first constraint for the equivalence of the networks, we consider that, as a result of the superposition principle, U = γ S + A W p, the transfer function A f ≡ U S is given by A f = α A 1 − β A + γ. For the particular case of a feedback amplifier, the network functions α, γ and ρ take into account the nonidealities of such amplifier. In particular: α takes into account the nonideality

Anna Consortini

Anna Consortini was a researcher in Optics and Physics based at the University of Florence. She was the President of the International Commission for Optics. Consortini studied at a Liceo Classico earned a Master's degree in Physics at the University of Florence and a PhD in Electromagnetic Waves. From 1952 to 1982 Consortini worked as researcher at the "Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche" of the National Research Council in Italy, now called IFAC-CNR. Consortini was director of the group of theoretical and experimental research on atmospheric propagation, she established the Computer Center of the Institute and was the Center Director until 1978. In 1983 Consortini became full professor in general physics until her retirement. Consortini is the author of Trends in Optics. Consortini has received the following academic honours: President of the International Commission for Optics. Fellow of the OSA and 2018 recipient of the Robert E. Hopkins Leadership Award Fellow of the Institute of Physics Fellow of the European Optical Society Fellow of SPIE Emeritus member of the Italian Society of Optics and Photonics.

Member of EPS and the Società Italiana di Fisica, Italian Physical Society