Pavelló Girona-Fontajau is an indoor arena in Girona, northern Spain, that holds 5,500 people. It is used for basketball and is the home arena of Uni Girona CB and Bàsquet Girona; the building was designed in 1993 by the architects Esteve Bonell and Josep M. Gil and was opened on September 4th, 1993, it is structured in two levels, one for the public and another, of which use is restricted to the sportsmen, with differentiated entries. Apart from basketball, it is used for other sports like Indoor motorcycle trials and tennis matches. Fontajau hosted the matches of three groups of the EuroBasket 1997 and the 2007 FIBA EuroCup Final Four, that local club Akasvayu Girona won. In 2017, it hosted the Copa de la Reina de Baloncesto; this is a list of league attendances of CB Girona when it played in the Liga ACB. Pavelló Girona-Fontajau at Girona Town Hall website
The Liga ACB, known as Liga Endesa for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional basketball division of the Spanish basketball league system. Administrated by the Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto, Liga ACB is contested by 18 teams, with the two lowest-placed teams relegated to the LEB Oro and replaced by the top team in that division plus the winner of the playoffs. A total of 49 teams have competed in Liga ACB since its inception. Seven teams have been crowned champions, with Real Madrid winning the title a record 34 times and FC Barcelona 18 times. Real Madrid dominated the championship from the 1950s through the 1970s when was organized by the Spanish Basketball Federation. From the 1980s onwards when the ACB took control over the league, FC Barcelona and Real Madrid both dominated, though Liga ACB saw other champions, including Baskonia, Joventut Badalona, Baloncesto Málaga, Bàsquet Manresa, Valencia Basket. In more recent years, Baskonia has joined a coalition of now three teams dominating Liga ACB alongside Real Madrid and FC Barcelona.
Liga ACB is one of the most popular professional indoor sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 6,427 for league matches in the 2017–18 season. This is the ninth-highest of any domestic professional indoor sports league in the world and the fourth-highest of any professional basketball league in the world, behind the National Basketball Association, the EuroLeague, the Women's National Basketball Association; the competition format follows the usual double round-robin format. During the course of a season, which lasts from October to May, each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive one point for a win, no points for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, with the eight highest-ranked clubs at the end of the season plays the playoffs and the winner of the playoffs is crowned champion. A system of promotion and relegation exists between the LEB Oro; the two lowest placed teams in Liga ACB are relegated to the LEB Oro, the top team from the LEB Oro promoted to Liga ACB, with an additional club promoted after a series of playoffs involving the second, fourth, sixth, seventh and ninth placed clubs.
Below is a complete record of how many teams played in each season throughout the league's history: Until 2012, in the 29 editions played of the Liga ACB, only three teams declined promotion, due to acting as reserve teams or for lack of funds: CB Guadalajara and CB Cornellà in 1993 and CB Cajabilbao in 1994. Since 2012, due to the financial crisis that started in 2008, only two teams of a possible 10 could promote to Liga ACB; this started a discussion about the promotion requirements of the ACB, considered by the LEB Oro clubs as "disproportionate". For clubs that promote and would make their debut in the ACB demands: An arena with a minimum capacity of 5,000 seats. An inbound of €3m. For clubs that return to the league after a promotion, an update of the inbound is demanded. A deposit of €1.7m that would be returned in case of relegation to LEB Oro. In case of a new promotion, this deposit is required to be restored. Conversion into a Sociedad Anónima Deportiva if the club remains in Liga ACB after its first season.
In 2012, Iberostar Canarias and Menorca Bàsquet achieved promotion to ACB, but neither could fulfill the requirements in order to promote. However, Canarias played in ACB after buying the berth in the league of Lucentum Alicante sold to the association. In 2013, neither CB Atapuerca, Ford Burgos by sponsorship reasons, nor Lucentum Alicante could promote; the seconds resigned to play in the second league and joined the fifth division. In 2014 and 2015, CB Tizona Ford Burgos by sponsorship reasons, did not promote despite achieving the place two years in a row. After its second failed promotion, the third in the city of Burgos, the club sued the Association any accused them of "distorting the reality". In 2015, despite having played in the league during the 1980s and 1990s, Club Ourense Baloncesto was not admitted in the league despite fulfilling all the requirements, after not passing an accounts audit. However, ACB would admit Ourense for the 2016–17 season if it fulfilled the requirements regardless of their position in the 2015–16 LEB Oro season.
On 24 April 2016, the National Commission of the Markets and the Competence argued that the inbound impedes, in an "unjustified and discriminatory" way, access of new clubs to Liga ACB. On June 2016, the two promoted teams from LEB Oro resigned promotion to the 2016–17 ACB season and requested to the ACB their sign-in before the 2017–18 season. However, as Gipuzkoa Basket, who finished in relegation positions in three of the last four seasons, resigned from ACB, the Association offered again its place to Palencia and Melilla under these conditions: An arena with a minimum capacity of 5,000 seats. An inbound of €2m; the second million delayed on the dates agreed between the club and ACB. A deposit of € 1,6 m. In case of a new promotion, this deposit is required to be restored. Conversion into a Sociedad Anónima Deportiva before the start of their second season in Liga ACB. Palencia and Mellila refused the invitation, to reinforce their position against the inbound to play in the league. In April 2017, the National Commission for Markets and Competition declared the entering inbound and the deposit for the regulation of promotions and relegations as illegal, as they consider it "unjustified and excessive" and imposed a fine of €400,000 to the ACB.
Subsequently, the ACB replied that it would appeal the decision of the CNMC, contending that it infringed on the self-or
Club Bàsquet Vic is a Spanish basketball club based in Vic, Catalonia. The team arrived to the Spanish second league, the LEB Oro in the 2008–09 season, but renounced to play after selling the berth to CB Sant Josep. CB Vic played the next season in Liga EBA, division where they played during two seasons reaching the promotion playoffs to LEB Plata. On 2011–12 season, the club renounces to its spot at Liga EBA and decided to play in one level lower: Copa Catalunya. Guillem Rubio Rafa Martínez Rafael Hettsheimeir Juan Palacios Eulis Báez LEB Plata: 2008 Copa LEB Plata: 2008 Federación Española de Baloncesto Official CB Vic page
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Liga Española de Baloncesto
The Liga Española de Baloncesto known as LEB Oro, is the second basketball division of the Spanish basketball league system. It is run by the FEB; the Liga Española de Baloncesto is divided into two categories. The LEB league is played under FIBA rules, it was renamed LEB Oro in 2007. Each team of has to play with all the other teams of its division twice, once at home and the other at the opponent's arena; each victory adds two points to the team in the league ranking. At the end of the league: The winner of the Regular season promotes directly to Liga ACB. Teams qualified between second and ninth position play the promotion play-offs, where the winner promotes with the regular season champion to Liga ACB; the worst or the two worst teams are relegated to LEB Plata. At the half of the league, the two first teams in the table play the Copa Princesa at home of the winner of the first half season; the Champion of this Cup will play the play-offs as first qualified if it finishes the league between the 2nd and the 5th qualified.
The two first teams are promoted to ACB. Since 2007–08, is known as LEB Oro and the regular season champion promotes to ACB without playing the playoffs; the winner of the Playoffs Finals is the other promoted team. Notes: † Team did not promote to Liga ACB in the next season. ‡ Iberostar Canarias did not promote to Liga ACB, but acquired the spot of Lucentum Alicante for playing in the league. Most points50 by Antwain Barbour vs. Lucentum on November 21, 2008Most rebounds26 by Jakim Donaldson vs. Melilla on February 15, 2008Most offensive rebounds21 by Willie Walls vs. Gijón on February 8, 2003Most defensive rebounds16 by Willie Walls vs. Tenerife on April 16, 2003Most assists17 by Silas Mills vs. Cantabria on December 12, 2004Most three-pointers11 by Tony Smith vs. Tenerife on April 3, 1998 9 by Albert Sàbat vs. Cáceres on March 2, 2011 Most steals11 by Gimel Lewis vs. Gijón on March 30, 2007 11 by Jeff Xavier vs. Huesca on September 30, 2011Most blocks13 by Lester Earl vs. Coruña on January 18, 2002Most PIR65 by Derrell Washington vs. Askatuak on September 28, 1996 The All-time LEB Oro table is an overall record of all match results of every team that has played in LEB Oro since the 1996–97 season.
The table is accurate as of the end of the 2017–18 season. League or status at 2018–19 season: Before 1996, teams promoted to Liga ACB from other second division leagues; the number of teams promoted varies each year. The LEB Plata is the Spanish basketball third league since 2001, the second division of the leagues organized by the Spanish Basketball Federation; the best teams promotes to LEB Oro and the last qualified ones are relegated to Liga EBA. In 2007, the Spanish Basketball Federation decided to create a third LEB with 18 teams, like the other two. Since that day, renamed LEB as LEB Oro and LEB-2 as LEB Plata; this new league was called LEB Bronce, three first teams were promoted each year to LEB Plata and the four last teams were relegated to Liga EBA. LEB Bronce had its Cup, like the other LEBs. In 2009, after two seasons, LEB Bronce was removed due to the difficulties of the teams that enjoyed the new league. Official website Spanish Basketball Federation Official Website
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia