California Coastal Commission
The California Coastal Commission is a state agency in the U. S. state of California with quasi-judicial regulatory oversight over land use and public access in the California coastal zone. The California Coastal Commission's mission is "To protect, conserve and enhance the environment of the California coastline"; the Commission's current agenda can be found on their website. The California Coastal Commission was established in 1972 by voter initiative via Proposition 20; this was in response to the controversy surrounding the development of Sea Ranch, a planned coastal community in Sonoma County. Al Boeke, Sea Ranch's developer-architect envisioned a community that would preserve the area's natural beauty, but the plan for Sea Ranch grew to encompass 10 miles of the Sonoma County coastline that would have been reserved for private use. This and other similar coastal projects prompted opponents, wanting more public access along the coast, to form activist groups, their efforts led to putting Proposition 20 on the ballot.
Proposition 20 gave the Coastal Commission permit authority for four years. The California Coastal Act of 1976 extended the Coastal Commission's authority indefinitely; the agency is tasked with protection of coastal resources, including shoreline public access and recreation, lower cost visitor accommodations and marine habitat protection, visual resources, landform alteration, agricultural lands, commercial fisheries, industrial uses, water quality, offshore oil and gas development, development design, power plants and public works. The Commission's responsibilities are described in the California Coastal Act the Chapter 3 policies; the state authority controls construction along the state's 1,100 miles of shoreline. The Commission is composed of 12 voting members, 6 chosen from the general public, 6 appointed elected officials; the panelists are not paid salary nor stipend for their work, however being on the Commission can carry responsibilities which are politicized. Accounting for 164 percent inflation, the commission's total funding declined 26 percent from $22.1 million in 1980 to $16.3 million in 2010.
The commission's full-time staff fell from 212 in 1980 to 125 in 2010. There are 11 enforcement officers. Development activities are broadly defined by the Coastal Act to include construction of buildings, divisions of land, activities that change the intensity of use of land or public access to coastal waters. Development requires a Coastal Development Permit from either the Coastal Commission or the local government if such development would occur within the Coastal Zone; the Coastal Zone is defined by law as an area that extends from the State's seaward boundary of jurisdiction, inland for a distance from the Mean High Tide Line of between a couple of hundred feet in urban areas, to up to five miles in rural areas. State Route 1 is prohibited from being widened beyond one lane in each direction within rural areas inside the Coastal Zone, per Public Resources Code section 30254; the Commission is the primary agency. However, once a local agency has a Local Coastal Program, certified by the Commission, that agency takes over the responsibility for issuing Coastal Development Permits.
For areas with Certified LCP's, the Commission does not issue Coastal Development permits, is instead responsible for reviewing amendments to a local agency's LCP, or reviewing Coastal Development Permits issued by local agencies which have been appealed to the Commission. A Local Coastal Program is composed of an Implementation Plan. A Land Use Plan details the Land Uses which are permissible in each part of the local government's area, specifies the general policies which apply to each Land Use; the Land Use can be a part of a local government's general plan. The Implementation Plan is responsible for implementing the policies contained in the Land Use Plan; the Implementation Plan is a part of the City's Zoning code. The agency has sought enforcement through the courts as it did not have the power to issue fines on its own to alleged violators. A bill in the California legislature to grant the commission a broad power to issue fines was defeated in September 2013; however legislation attached to the state budget in the summer of 2014 granted the authority to impose fines on violators of public-access which could apply to about a third of the backlog of over 2,000 unresolved enforcement cases.
The first notable fines were issued in December 2016 against Malibu property owners Dr. Warren M. Lent and his wife, for 4.2 million dollars, Simon and Daniel Mani, owners of the Malibu Beach Inn, who settled amicably for $925,000. The difference in severity of the fines were attributed to the "egregious" nature of the Lent case; the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the 1987 case of Nollan v. California Coastal Commission that a requirement by the agency was a taking in violation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments; the Coastal Commission had required that a lateral public easement along the Nollans' beachfront lot be dedicated to facilitate pedestrian access to public beaches as a condition of approval of a permit to demolish an existing bungalow and replace it with a three-bedroom house. The Coastal Commission had asserted that the public-easement condition was imposed to promote the legitimate state interest of diminishing the "blockage of t
China Christian Council
The China Christian Council was founded in 1980 as an umbrella organization for all Protestant churches in the People's Republic of China with Bishop K. H. Ting as its president, it works to provide theological education and the publication of Bibles and other religious literature. It encourages the exchange of information among local churches in evangelism, pastoral work and administration, it has formulated a church order for local churches, seeks to continue to develop friendly relations with churches overseas. Together with the Three-Self Patriotic Movement, the organizations are known as the lianghui, or "two organizations." Through the CCC, the registered Protestant church participates in the World Council of Churches. The CCC serves to unite and provide services for churches in China by formulating Church Order, encouraging theological education through seminaries and Bible schools, such as Nanjing Union Theological Seminary, publishing Bibles and other Christian materials, coordinating training programs for churches.
The China Christian Council and the National Committee of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant Churches in China together are called the Lianghui. Christianity was introduced to China first by Nestorian priests in 635AD. Due to various historical, cultural and political reasons, Christianity did not take root in China. In the 19th century, Protestant Christianity was brought to China, but it was associated with colonialism and was seen as a'foreign religion'. Riots broke out in several areas throughout the country; the spread of Christianity to many parts of the country was slow. During the 150 years from the introduction of Christianity in 1807 to the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, there were only 700,000 Chinese Protestant Christians. In the 1950s, in order to change the image of Christianity as a foreign religion, Chinese Christians with a broad vision initiated the Three-Self Patriotic Movement; the principle of self-governance, self-support and self-propagation received a positive response from Chinese Christians.
The first Chinese Christian national conference was held in Beijing in 1954. After that, the National Committee of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant Churches in China was set up, its purpose was to unite and guide Chinese Christians to love the motherland, abide by the law support and participate in the construction of socialism, adhere to independent efforts to the Chinese Christian church. The Three-Self Patriotic Movement not only promotes the Chinese Christian church to achieve self-governance, self-support and self-propagation, but tries to make the church'three-wells', that is, governing it well, supporting it well and propagating it well. In the spring of 1979, Chinese churches resumed worship after the Cultural Revolution. In order to revive the church, the China Christian Council was founded at the third national Christian conference in 1980, it serves to unite and provide services for churches in China by following the Bible, formulating Church Order, encouraging theological education.
In the recent 30 years, Christianity in China has developed rapidly. It introduces the best developing period in Chinese Christian history. Incomplete statistics indicate that there may be over 23 million Christians throughout the country, 30 times than in 1949. There may be over 56,000 churches and meeting points, 70 percent of which are newly built. More than 55 million copies of the Bible have been printed, 3,500,000 copies per year in recent years. There are a total of 21 theological seminaries with more than 1900 students in China; the highest authority of CCC/TSPM is the national congress. The meeting is held every five years to review the work of CCC/TSPM, as well as to elect the Chairperson, Vice Chairperson, Secretary General of the National Committee of the TSPM, the President, Vice President, General Secretary of the CCC. At present, the CCC/TSPM has 7 departments. CCC/TSPM endeavors to serve the construction of the church, lead Chinese Christians on the road to God, encourage Christians to make contribution to economic and social development.
CCC/TSPM seeks to establish and develop fellowship on the basis of mutual respect and equality, after all the best witness for the Christ. The CCC/TSPM headquarters are No. 219, Jiujiang Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai. CCC/TSPM jointly publish the Tian Feng magazine; the Ministry of Theological Renewal Publication Ministry Theological Education and Training Ministry Social Service Ministry Overseas Exchange Ministry Overseas Relations Department Training Department Publication Department Tian Feng Editorial Department Social Service Department Research Department Administration Office President Rev. Gao FengExecutive Associate General SecretaryRev. Kan Baoping Chinese New Hymnal Chinese Union Version of the Bible Christianity in China Lianghui List of Protestant theological seminaries in China Nanjing Union Theological Seminary Protestantism in China Three-Self Patriotic Movement Official website Main Churches and Theological Seminaries Under China Christian Council The Amity Foundation
Chenab College, Chiniot
Chenab College Chiniot is a college campus located on the bypass of Chiniot, in Chiniot District, Pakistan. It is working under the Chenab College, located on Chiniot road 12 km from Jhang, its faculty possesses at least master-level degrees. Its facilities include a library, a physics lab, chemistry lab, a computer lab; the college transports students to and from their residences. Official Website of College
Cru (Christian organization)
Cru is an interdenominational Christian parachurch organization for college and university students. It was founded in 1951 at the University of California, Los Angeles by Bill Bright and Vonette Zachary Bright. Since Cru has expanded its focus to include adult professionals and high school students. In 2011, Cru had 25,000 missionaries in 191 countries. Campus Crusade for Christ relocated its world headquarters from Arrowhead Springs, San Bernardino, California to Orlando, Florida in 1991; the current president of the organization is Steve Douglass. In 2011, Campus Crusade for Christ in the United States changed its name to Cru, to avoid the negative connotation of "crusade" from the historical Crusades, to reflect the fact that much of the organization's work was no longer limited to college campuses; the organization now known as Cru was founded as the Campus Crusade for Christ in 1951 at the University of California, Los Angeles by Bill Bright and Vonette Zachary Bright as a ministry for university students.
According to historian John G. Turner and Vonette Bright were influenced and mentored by Henrietta Mears, the director of Christian Education at the First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood. In addition, Bill was influenced by the theology and teachings of the prominent American evangelist Billy Graham. While studying at Fuller Theological Seminary, Bright felt what he regarded as the call of God to reach out to university students. Abandoning his studies at Fuller, Bright started Campus Crusade at the UCLA campus. By 1952, Campus Crusade had converted 250 UCLA students including decathlete and future film actor Rafer Johnson. With the establishment of other Campus Crusade branches in other universities, the ministry hired six staff members. In 1956, Bright developed a 20-minute evangelistic presentation called "God's Plan For Your Life", which set the tone for Campus Crusade's evangelism and discipleship programs. In 1953, Campus Crusade rented a tiny office on Westwood Avenue in Los Angeles, which served as the organization's headquarters until the 1960s.
According to Turner, Cru's expansion across US university campuses during the 1950s and 1960s created friction with existing Christian campus groups including the InterVarsity Christian Fellowship and liberal campus chaplains. According to Turner, Campus Crusade had a conservative anti-Communist orientation. While Bill Bright cultivated friendly relations with the fundamentalist Bob Jones University, Bright's relations with Bob Jones Sr. and his son Bob Jones Jr. deteriorated after the former sided with Billy Graham, who had accepted the sponsorship of liberal Protestants during his 1957 New York City crusade. As a result, Bob Jones University ended its support for Campus Crusade. Turner argues that the deterioration of Campus Crusade's relationship with BJU led the former to gravitate towards the "new evangelical" wing of the American evangelical Protestant movement by late 1958. Following the split with Bob Jones University, Campus Crusade came to emphasize the importance of the Holy Spirit in its theological teaching and evangelical outreaches.
While Bright and Campus Crusade did cultivate friendly contacts with Pentecostal and charismatics, Bright disagreed with the Pentecostal and Charismatic theological view that glossolalia was a manifestation of the Holy Spirit. As the wedge between evangelicals and charismatics deepened during the 1960s, Campus Crusade issued a ruling in 1960 banning staff members from "speaking in tongues." During the mid-1960s, Campus Crusade adopted the cessassionist standpoint that spiritual gifts such as the speaking of tongues and healing had ceased with the Apostolic age. According to Turner, the dispensationalist theologian Robert Thieme had an influence on Bill and Campus Crusade's opposition to glossolalia. Following a fundraising drive and some litigation with local authorities, Campus Crusade opened a new purpose-build headquarters in Arrowhead Springs, San Bernardino, California; this facility was equipped with a series of dormitories to accommodate thousands of students who received evangelistic training.
During the mid-1960s, Campus Crusade's rapid expansion led to the creation of separate overseas and athletic ministries. Some notable former Campus Crusade staff members have included the evangelist Hal Lindsey, author of the apocalyptic The Late, Great Planet Earth, Marabel Morgan, the author of The Total Woman. In 1959, Bill Bright developed the Four Spiritual Laws talking points in consultation with the salesman Bob Ringer after he and his team encountered difficulty disseminating the Gospel message; the Four Spiritual Laws consisted of the following points: God loves you and has a wonderful plan for your life. Man is sinful and separated from God, thus he cannot know and explain God's plan for life. Jesus Christ is God's provision for man's sin through whom man can know God's love and plan for his life. We must receive Jesus Christ as Lord by personal invitation. In 1965, the Toledo businessman Gus Yeager took the initiative to compile the Four Spiritual Laws into a booklet, accompanied by supporting Bible verses, some commentary, support diagrams.
Bright had large quantities of the booklet printed and distributed in campuses across the United States. These Four Spiritual Law presented a concise, four-step process of how to become a Christian and became one of the most distributed religious booklets in history
Central Congregational Church (Providence, Rhode Island)
Central Congregational Church is a United Church of Christ congregation established in 1852 in Providence, Rhode Island. The current church building at 296 Angell Street was built in 1893, designed by New York architectural firm Carrère and Hastings, it is part of the Stimson Avenue Historic District. The church has a long tradition of social and community work in the Providence area, the United States and around the world; the Congregation outgrew its original Thomas Tefft-designed building on Benefit Street in the College Hill Historic District, moved to its current location in the 1890s. The old building is now part of the Rhode Island School of Design. For the new building, architect Thomas Hastings and minister Edward C. Moore wanted to use the Renaissance style; the dome and vaulting of the current structure is of tiles by Rafael Guastavino, it is the first dome that he constructed in the U. S; the apse decoration is by Herman T. Schladermundt of New York; the stained glass windows were designed by Jacob Holzer with work by the Duffner and Kimberly Company.
They depict the creation of the earth in the east and the heavenly city in the west, are described as'unsurpassed in the state.' The current Aeolian-Skinner organ was installed in 1965 and dedicated to the Reverend Arthur Howe Bradford. It replaced an organ built by Austin Organs in 1917, it contains four divisions, 58 ranks and a total of 3,456 pipes, was restored in 2009. The church supported the founding of the first Cape Verdean Protestant church in America, now called Sheldon Street Church. Leonard Swain, D. D. 1852-1869 George Harris Jr. D. D. 1872-1883 Charles W. Huntington, D. D. 1884-1888 Edward C. Moore, D. D. 1889-1902 Edward F. Sanderson, B. D. 1903-1908 Gaius Glenn Atkins, D. D. 1910-1917 Arthur H. Bradford, D. D. 1918-1952 Lawrence L. Durgin, D. D. 1952-1961 Raymond E. Gibson, Ph. D. 1961-1988 Rebecca L. Spencer, M. Div. 1988- Hamilton House, a non-profit next door at 276 Angell Street designed by Carrere and Hastings Central Congregational Church official website Finery on Easter and where? David Brussat: The rise and fall of the Guastavino tile SAH Archipedia: Central Congregational Church The Central Congregational Church, Providence
Candy Cane Children
"Candy Cane Children" is a single by American garage rock band The White Stripes. Released in late November 2002, this Christmas song is featured in the independent holiday-themed compilation Surprise Package Volume 2, released in 1998; the album title is a reference to die-hard fans of The White Stripes, who are called "Candy Cane Children." On the 7" Vinyl Record there are inscriptions on Side A and Side B. Side A reads: "Whammy=Santa Voice." Side B reads: "Ghosts in the background." "Candy Cane Children" "The Reading of the Story of the Magi" "The Singing of Silent Night" White Stripes.net Retrieved September 9, 2005. The White Stripes Retrieved September 9, 2005
Clackamas Community College
Clackamas Community College is a community college located in Oregon City, United States. Founded in 1966, it is one of the largest community colleges in the state of Oregon. Clackamas Community College offers courses at three campuses: the central campus in Oregon City, Harmony Community Campus in Clackamas, the Wilsonville campus. Extension sites are located in the towns of Canby and Molalla, where CCC offers English as a Second Language, GED in Spanish, computer science and community education classes. CCC is the only college to offer an urban agriculture certificate in the state of Oregon. Clackamas Community College is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. Programs at Clackamas Community College are approved for the education of veterans. CCC provides programs and courses in academic transfer and technical education, workforce development, business training and development, literacy/basic skills, community education. In 2009–10, CCC served more than 38,000 students and had 8,900 FTE.
Clackamas Community College opened in 1966 with 693 part-time students taking classes at Gladstone High School. Two years ground was broken for Clairmont Building on the Oregon City Campus – CCC's first permanent home; the college has expanded in the years since, is now a network of three campuses serving a student body of more than 25,000 students, with more than 1,300 classes taught each term. Clackamas Community College's main campus is located in historic Oregon City, located off of Interstate-205, Highway 213 and Beavercreek Road; the 165-acre CCC Oregon City campus features 17 buildings, including the award-winning Niemeyer Center for Communication Arts, Roger Rook Hall and Art Center, as well as the athletic fields and facilities supporting CCC's sports programs. The Harmony Community Campus offers courses to train students for jobs in the healthcare field; the college's newest building not only houses the college's center for health education, it offers a variety of student services and programs including courses toward an Oregon transfer degree.
The Harmony Community Campus is centrally located in North Clackamas, close to the Clackamas Town Center and the Green Line light rail. The Harmony Community Campus is home to: The Small Business Development Center Drivers Education Academic pathway programs including the Portland State University Evening/Weekend Business Degree Program. OIT building: Seasoned Adult Enrichment Program, GED, instructional courses CCC's Wilsonville campus, located just off I-5, offers programs to prepare career-seekers for jobs in the utility and energy management industry and serves as a utility training center for employees of area utilities including Portland General Electric and PacifiCorp. CCC general education courses are offered, in the evenings and on weekends throughout the year, for various degrees including the Oregon AAOT Transfer degree; the Wilsonville campus broke ground in 1991. It is located at 29353 Town Center Loop East in Wilsonville. Clackamas Community College competes in the Northwest Athletic Conference as the Cougars.
CCC offers 11 competitive college sports including men's baseball, women's softball and women's basketball, cross country, women's volleyball, women's soccer and wrestling. Craig Lesley – Regional author Fariborz Maseeh – Engineer, Philanthropist Brian Abshire – Olympics competitor in Steeplechase Ron Jones – Hollywood composer Matt Lindland – Olympics Silver medalist in wrestling, retired Mixed Martial Artist, former Oregon politician Jeff Ogden – former NFL player Haggart Observatory List of Oregon community colleges Clackamas Community College official site