The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte. Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes; the megabyte is used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
As 1024 approximates 1000 corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST; the term megabyte continues to be used with different meanings: Base 10 1 MB = 1000000 bytes is the definition recommended by the International System of Units and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is one billion bytes.
Base 2 1 MB = 1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte. In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is 10243 bytes. Mixed 1 MB = 1024000 bytes is the definition used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch HD floppy disk, which has a capacity of 1474560bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with 256 colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music. 6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format; the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Timeline of binary prefixes Gigabyte § Consumer confusion Historical Notes About The Cost Of Hard Drive Storage Space the megabyte International Electrotechnical Commission definitions IEC prefixes and symbols for binary multiples
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
The CDC 1604 was a 48-bit computer designed and manufactured by Seymour Cray and his team at the Control Data Corporation. The 1604 is known as one of the first commercially successful transistorized computers. Legend has it that the 1604 designation was chosen by adding CDC's first street address to Cray's former project, the ERA-UNIVAC 1103. A cut-down 24-bit version, designated the CDC 924, was shortly thereafter produced, delivered to NASA; the first 1604 was delivered to the US Navy in 1960 for applications supporting major Fleet Operations Control Centers for weather prediction in Hawaii and Norfolk, Virginia. By 1964, over 50 systems were built; the CDC 3000, which added five op codes, succeeded the 1604, "was compatible" with it. One of the 1604s was shipped to the Pentagon to DASA and used during the Cuban missile crises to predict possible strikes by the Soviet Union against the United States. A 12-bit minicomputer, called the CDC 160, was used as an I/O processor in 1604 systems. A stand-alone version of the 160 called.
Memory in the CDC 1604 consisted of 32K 48-bit words of magnetic core memory with a cycle time of 6.4 microseconds. It was organized as two banks of 16K words each, with odd addresses in one bank and addresses in the other; the two banks were phased 3.2 microseconds apart, so average effective memory access time was 4.8 microseconds. The computer executed about 100,000 operations per second; each 48-bit word contained two 24-bit instructions. The instruction format was 6-3-15: six bits for the operation code, three bits for a "designator" and fifteen bits for a memory address; the CPU contained a 48-bit accumulator, a 48-bit mask register, a 15-bit program counter, six 15-bit index registers. Internal integer representation used one's complement arithmetic. Internal floating point format was 1-11-36: one bit of sign, eleven bits of offset binary exponent, thirty-six bits of binary significand; the most-significant three bits of the accumulator were converted from digital to analog and connected to a tube audio amplifier contained in the console.
This facility could be used to generate music. Those familiar with the inner workings of the software could hear what parts of a task were being performed by the CDC 1604. In 1960 one of the first text-mining applications, was written for the Marathon Oil Company in Findlay, Ohio. Masquerade was a text-mining program that used syntactic structures underlying text data to mask out words and phrases for searching purposes. During 1969, Fleet Operations Control Center, Pacific on Oahu in Hawaii launched an Automated Control Environment using a cluster of five CDC 160As to supervise a multi-tasking network of four CDC 1604s; the Minuteman I was the first U. S. solid-rocket ICBM system to be fielded. There were two separate ground station designs which were developed independently; the smaller, more elegant, single silo design incorporated two redundant CDC 1604 computer systems, each equipped with dual cabinets containing four 200 bpi magnetic tape drives. The computers were used to pre-compute guidance and aiming control information.
Results based on current weather and targeting information were downloaded into the missile prior to launch. Model displays of both of these ICBM ground station designs, including block models of the CDC 1604 computers, may be viewed at the Octave Chanute Aerospace Museum in Rantoul, Illinois; the third version of the PLATO computer-based educational system was implemented on a CDC 1604-C. JOVIAL was used as the main programming language of the CDC 1604, while octal was used to program shared services supported by the CDC 160A. NAVCOSSACT based at the Washington Navy Yard provided systems and training support. According to Irving John Good, the CDC 1604 was used to compose the "drawing" Sailboat by Sam Schmitt and Stockton Gaines; the 1604 design was used by the Soviet nuclear weapons laboratory. Their BESM-6 computer, which entered production in 1968, was designed to be somewhat software compatible with the CDC 1604, but it ran 10 times faster and had additional registers; the CDC 924 was a 24-bit computer that supported the use of "any input-output devices capable of communicating with the 160 and/or 1604 computer," and its six independent channels permitted 3 simultaneous input operations as 3 channels concurrently performed output.
Like many CDC processors, it used one's complement Some advanced features of the 924, which included 64 instructions, were: Six index registers. The value "7" was reserved to indicate indirect-addressing. An "execute" instruction.. Powerful Storage Search instructions. Neil R. Lincoln with 18 Control Data Corporation engineers on computer architecture and design, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Engineers include Robert Moe, Wayne Specker, Dennis Grinna, Tom Rowan, Maurice Hutson, Curt Alexander, Don Pagelkopf, Maris Bergmanis, Dolan Toth, Chuck Hawley, Larry Krueger, Mike Pavlov, Dave Resnick, Howard Krohn, Bill Bhend, Kent Steiner, Raymon Kort, Neil R. Lincoln. Discussion topics include CDC 6600, CDC 7600, CDC 8600, CDC STAR-100 and Seymour Cray. On-line copies of CDC 1604 manuals. Addressability strengths of 24 and 48 bit designs CDC 16
Onizuka Air Force Station
Onizuka Air Force Station was a United States Air Force installation in Santa Clara County, just outside the city limits of Sunnyvale, at the intersection of U. S. Route 101 and State Route 237, it was operational from 1960 to 2010. Its distinguishing feature was Building 1003, known locally as the Blue Cube or the "Cube" given its size and lack of windows; the station's other distinguishing features were its three primary parabolic dish antennas used for communication with remote tracking stations used to control military satellites. In the United States space program's formative stages, Air Force Systems Command contracted with the Philco Ford division of Ford Motor Company to provide interim operational facilities at its Palo Alto, location. Operations commenced in the late 1950s. By 1958, the United States Air Force sought a permanent home with larger facilities; the United States Air Force purchased 19 acres of land from Lockheed Corporation, which included Lockheed Building 100, was named Sunnyvale Air Force Station.
Construction of the station's original facilities was completed in 1960. Over time, additional structures were built as operations expanded; the station was home to the Air Force Systems Command operational unit known as the Air Force Satellite Test Center," and other non-Air Force Systems Command operational organizations. By 1979, the Air Force Satellite Test Center was renamed the Air Force Satellite Control Facility. In 1986, the same year of the Challenger explosion, Sunnyvale AFS was renamed Onizuka AFB in honor of Air Force Lt. Colonel Ellison S. Onizuka, an astronaut that died on the Challenger. Both Onizuka Air Force Station and the Air Force Satellite Control Facility were transferred from Air Force Systems Command to Air Force Space Command and was operated by the 21st Space Operations Squadron, a geographically separated unit of the 50th Space Wing; the non-Air Force System Command operational organizations remained under their respective commands. When the station was opened in 1960, the Sunnyvale area was rural and the station was predominantly surrounded by orchards.
By the late 1970s, the region had become Silicon Valley and the station's physical security vulnerabilities became apparent. As a result, Air Force Systems Command commenced plans for the Consolidated Space Operations Center, which would be located several miles east of Colorado Springs, Colorado at a to be built Falcon Air Force Station. Spacecraft operations would be split between the two locations and each location would serve as a backup to the other. To maintain this redundancy, when Onizuka Air Force Station was selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission, the Air Force determined to relocate Onizuka's remaining operational units to the new Ellison Onizuka Satellite Operations Facility at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Upon completion of this transition, Onizuka Air Force Station was ceremonially closed on July 28, 2010, closed on September 30, 2010. Realignment of Onizuka Air Force Station was recommended and accepted as part of the 1995 round of the Base Realignment and Closure Program.
In summary, the 750th Space Group was to be inactivated and its functions relocated to Falcon AFB, CO. Detachment 2 of the Space and Missile Systems Center would relocate to Falcon AFB, CO and Kirtland AFB, NM, while some other undisclosed tenants would remain in the existing facilities for some time. On May 13, 2005, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld recommended closing the Onizuka Air Force Station in Sunnyvale as part of a fifth round of military base closures and re-sizing; the date by which the realignment and closure must be completed was September 15, 2011. In April 2007, the mission of the National Reconnaissance Office at Onizuka AFS ended after 46 years. On about April 15, 2014, the site began full-scale demolition, with 9 acres of the land slated for conversion to educational space operated by the Foothill–De Anza Community College District. 4.4 acres of the land will be used by the Department of Veterans Affairs. One acre was added to Sunnyvale's existing Fire Station 5 and is now subject to a land swap with a developer to relocate Fire Station 5, upgrade it to full service capabilities, support a shooting range for Public Safety personnel training.
The remaining 5 acre parcel is now owned by the City of Sunnyvale for an unspecified future use. Onizuka Air Force Station 750th Medical Squadron at Onizuka Roster of 750 MDS Staff BRAC 2005: Closings, Realignments to Reshape Infrastructure
Fortran is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language, suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics and computational chemistry, it is a popular language for high-performance computing and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers. Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while retaining compatibility with prior versions. Successive versions have added support for structured programming and processing of character-based data, array programming, modular programming and generic programming, high performance Fortran, object-oriented programming and concurrent programming.
Fortran's design was the basis for many other programming languages. Among the better known is BASIC, based on FORTRAN II with a number of syntax cleanups, notably better logical structures, other changes to more work in an interactive environment; the names of earlier versions of the language through FORTRAN 77 were conventionally spelled in all-capitals. The capitalization has been dropped in referring to newer versions beginning with Fortran 90; the official language standards now refer to the language as "Fortran" rather than all-caps "FORTRAN". In late 1953, John W. Backus submitted a proposal to his superiors at IBM to develop a more practical alternative to assembly language for programming their IBM 704 mainframe computer. Backus' historic FORTRAN team consisted of programmers Richard Goldberg, Sheldon F. Best, Harlan Herrick, Peter Sheridan, Roy Nutt, Robert Nelson, Irving Ziller, Lois Haibt, David Sayre, its concepts included easier entry of equations into a computer, an idea developed by J. Halcombe Laning and demonstrated in the Laning and Zierler system of 1952.
A draft specification for The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System was completed by November 1954. The first manual for FORTRAN appeared in October 1956, with the first FORTRAN compiler delivered in April 1957; this was the first optimizing compiler, because customers were reluctant to use a high-level programming language unless its compiler could generate code with performance comparable to that of hand-coded assembly language. While the community was skeptical that this new method could outperform hand-coding, it reduced the number of programming statements necessary to operate a machine by a factor of 20, gained acceptance. John Backus said during a 1979 interview with Think, the IBM employee magazine, "Much of my work has come from being lazy. I didn't like writing programs, so, when I was working on the IBM 701, writing programs for computing missile trajectories, I started work on a programming system to make it easier to write programs."The language was adopted by scientists for writing numerically intensive programs, which encouraged compiler writers to produce compilers that could generate faster and more efficient code.
The inclusion of a complex number data type in the language made Fortran suited to technical applications such as electrical engineering. By 1960, versions of FORTRAN were available for the IBM 709, 650, 1620, 7090 computers; the increasing popularity of FORTRAN spurred competing computer manufacturers to provide FORTRAN compilers for their machines, so that by 1963 over 40 FORTRAN compilers existed. For these reasons, FORTRAN is considered to be the first used programming language supported across a variety of computer architectures; the development of Fortran paralleled the early evolution of compiler technology, many advances in the theory and design of compilers were motivated by the need to generate efficient code for Fortran programs. The initial release of FORTRAN for the IBM 704 contained 32 statements, including: DIMENSION and EQUIVALENCE statements Assignment statements Three-way arithmetic IF statement, which passed control to one of three locations in the program depending on whether the result of the arithmetic statement was negative, zero, or positive IF statements for checking exceptions.
The arithmetic IF statement was reminiscent of a three-way comparison instruction available on the 704. The statement provided the only way to compare numbers – by testing their difference, with an attendant risk of overflow; this deficiency was overcome by "logical" facilities introduced in FORTRAN IV. The FREQUENCY statement was used to give branch probabilities for the three branch cases of the arithmetic IF statement; the first FORTRAN compiler used this weighting to perform at compile time a Monte Carlo simulation of the generated code, the results of which were used to optimize the
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
University of Massachusetts Amherst
The University of Massachusetts Amherst is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts. It is the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system. UMass Amherst has an annual enrollment of 1,300 faculty members and more than 30,000 students and was ranked 27th best public university by U. S. News Report in 2018 in the national universities category; the university offers academic degrees in 77 master's and 48 doctoral programs. Programs are coordinated in colleges; the main campus is situated north of downtown Amherst. In 2012, U. S. News and World Report ranked Amherst among the Top 10 Great College Towns in America, it is a member of the Five College Consortium. The University of Massachusetts Amherst is categorized as a Research University with Highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In fiscal year 2014, UMass Amherst had research expenditures exceeding $200 million. UMass Amherst sports teams are called the Minutemen and Minutewomen, the colors being maroon and white.
All teams participate in NCAA Division I. The university is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, while playing ice hockey in Hockey East and football as an FBS Independent; the university was founded in 1863 under the provisions of the Federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to provide instruction to Massachusetts citizens in "agricultural and military arts." Accordingly, the university was named the Massachusetts Agricultural College, popularly referred to as "Mass Aggie" or "M. A. C." In 1867, the college had yet to admit any students, been through two Presidents, had still not completed any college buildings. In that year, William S. Clark was appointed Professor of Botany, he appointed a faculty, completed the construction plan, and, in the fall of 1867, admitted the first class of 50 students. Clark became the first president to serve longterm after the schools opening and is regarded the primary founding father of the college. Of the school's founding figures, there are a traditional "founding four"- Clark, Levi Stockbridge, Charles Goessmann, Henry Goodell, described as "the botanist, the farmer, the chemist, the man of letters."The original buildings consisted of Old South College, North College, the Chemistry Laboratory known as College Hall, the Boarding House, the Botanic Museum and the Durfee Plant House.
Although enrollment was slow during the 1870s, the fledgling college built momentum under the leadership of President Henry Hill Goodell. In the 1880s, Goodell implemented an expansion plan, adding the College Drill Hall in 1883, the Old Chapel Library in 1885, the East and West Experiment Stations in 1886 and 1890; the Campus Pond, now the central focus of the University Campus, was created in 1893 by damming a small brook. The early 20th century saw great expansion in the scope of the curriculum; the first female student was admitted in 1875 on a part-time basis and the first full-time female student was admitted in 1892. In 1903, Draper Hall was constructed for the dual purpose of a dining female housing; the first female students graduated with the class of 1905. The first dedicated female dormitory, the Abigail Adams House was built in 1920. By the start of the 20th century, the college was thriving and expanded its curriculum to include the liberal arts; the Education curriculum was established in 1907.
In recognition of the higher enrollment and broader curriculum, the college was renamed Massachusetts State College in 1931. Following World War II, the G. I. Bill, facilitating financial aid for veterans, led to an explosion of applicants; the college population soared and Presidents Hugh Potter Baker and Ralph Van Meter labored to push through major construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s with regard to dormitories. Accordingly, the name of the college was changed in 1947 to the "University of Massachusetts." By the 1970s, the University continued to grow and gave rise to a shuttle bus service on campus as well as many other architectural additions. Du Bois Library, the Fine Arts Center. Over the course of the next two decades, the John W. Lederle Graduate Research Center and the Conte National Polymer Research Center were built and UMass Amherst emerged as a major research facility; the Robsham Memorial Center for Visitors welcomed thousands of guests to campus after its dedication in 1989.
For athletic and other large events, the Mullins Center was opened in 1993, hosting capacity crowds as the Minutemen basketball team ranked at number one for many weeks in the mid-1990s, reached the Final Four in 1996. UMass Amherst entered. In 2003, for the first time, the Massachusetts State Legislature designated UMass Amherst as a Research Univ