Copy editing is the process of reviewing and correcting written material to improve accuracy and fitness for its purpose, to ensure that it is free of error, omission and repetition. In the context of publication in print, copy editing is done before typesetting and again before proofreading, the final step in the editorial cycle. In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor. An organization's highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. In book publishing in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world that follow British nomenclature, the term copy editor is used, but in newspaper and magazine publishing, the term is subeditor shortened to sub; the senior subeditor of a publication is called the chief subeditor. As the prefix sub suggests, copy editors have less authority than regular editors. In the context of the Internet, online copy refers to the text content of web pages on the World Wide Web.
Similar to print, online copy editing is the process of revising the raw or draft text of web pages and reworking it to make it ready for publication. Copy editing has three levels: light and heavy. Depending on the budget and scheduling of the publication, the publisher will let the copy editor know what level of editing to employ; the type of editing one chooses. Within copy editing, there is mechanical editing and substantive editing: mechanical editing is the process of making a text or manuscript follow editorial or house style, keeping the preferred style and grammar rules of publication consistent across all content, it refers to editing in terms of spelling and correct usage of grammatical symbols, along with reviewing special elements like tables, formatting footnotes, endnotes. Content editing known as substantive editing, is the editing of material, including its structure and organization, to correct internal inconsistencies and discrepancies. Content editing may require heavy rewriting as compared to mechanical editing.
In addition, copy editing may change punctuation and usage for a different country. For a Commonwealth readership, the Oxford British and American spelling of "organize" may be changed to "organise", "color" changed to "colour". Mechanical editing is the process of proofreading a piece of writing for consistency, either internally or in accordance with the publisher's house style. According to Einsohn, mechanical editors work with such things as the following: Abbreviations and acronyms Additional elements, such as charts and graphs Capitalization Footnotes and endnotes Hyphenation Italicization and boldfaced type Numbers and numerals Punctuation Quotations SpellingGilad mentions the following: Charts, graphs and their keys Initialisms Page numbers and footers Tables of contents and page numbers UnderscoringProper spelling and punctuation are subjective in some cases, where they must be left to the discretion of the copyeditor or the publisher. Most publishing firms use a recognized style manual such as The Chicago Manual of Style or The Associated Press Stylebook.
Companies that produce documents and reports but do not consider themselves publishers in the usual sense, tend to rely on in-house style guides or on the judgment of the copyeditor. The goal of the copyeditor is to enforce inviolable rules while respecting personal stylistic preferences; this can be difficult, as some writers view grammatical corrections of the copyedited manuscript as a challenge to their intellectual ability or professional identity. For this reason, copy editors are encouraged to side with the author. If the author's preference is acceptable, it should be respected; this practice is complicated further by evolving language conventions as recorded by books on grammar and usage. Additionally, the authors of such books disagree. Content editing consists of restructuring the content of a document; this involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Copyeditors can either fix the content by rewriting it or editing it. However, the copyeditor will point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time.
Although copyeditors are not responsible for factual correctness of the document, they can provide comments for the author on any information they know to be incorrect, such as year discrepancies or misleading ideas. This type of fact checking is acceptable for copyeditors; the copyeditor must point out any biased language without infringing on the author's meaning. This includes material "that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity"; some see censoring biased language as political correctness, so it is important the copyeditor distinguishes between the two. To do this, the copyeditor will permit intentional "politically incorrect" views and censor only marginalized, offensive, or exclusive language. Most manuscripts will require the copyeditor to correlate the parts within it. Copyeditors must carry out the following tasks in this process: Verify any cross-references that appear in the text Check the numbering of footnotes, endnotes and illustrations Specify the placement of tables and illustrations Check the content of the illustrations against the captions and the text Read the list of illustrations against the illustrations and captions Read the table of contents against the manuscript Read the footnotes/endnotes and in-text citations against the bibl
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
European Economic Community
The European Economic Community was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community. In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist; the Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands and West Germany. It gained a common set of institutions along with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community as one of the European Communities under the 1965 Merger Treaty. In 1993, a complete single market was achieved, known as the internal market, which allowed for the free movement of goods, capital and people within the EEC. In 1994, the internal market was formalised by the EEA agreement.
This agreement extended the internal market to include most of the member states of the European Free Trade Association, forming the European Economic Area covering 15 countries. Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Community to reflect that it covered a wider range than economic policy; this was when the three European Communities, including the EC, were collectively made to constitute the first of the three pillars of the European Union, which the treaty founded. The EC existed in this form until it was abolished by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon, which incorporated the EC's institutions into the EU's wider framework and provided that the EU would "replace and succeed the European Community"; the EEC was known as the Common Market in the English-speaking countries and sometimes referred to as the European Community before it was renamed as such in 1993. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating Steel Community; this was an international community based on supranationalism and international law, designed to help the economy of Europe and prevent future war by integrating its members.
In the aim of creating a federal Europe two further communities were proposed: a European Defence Community and a European Political Community. While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the proposed defense community was rejected by the French Parliament. ECSC President Jean Monnet, a leading figure behind the communities, resigned from the High Authority in protest and began work on alternative communities, based on economic integration rather than political integration. After the Messina Conference in 1955, Paul Henri Spaak was given the task to prepare a report on the idea of a customs union; the so-called Spaak Report of the Spaak Committee formed the cornerstone of the intergovernmental negotiations at Val Duchesse conference centre in 1956. Together with the Ohlin Report the Spaak Report would provide the basis for the Treaty of Rome. In 1956, Paul Henri Spaak led the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Val Duchesse conference centre, which prepared for the Treaty of Rome in 1957.
The conference led to the signature, on 25 March 1957, of the Treaty of Rome establishing a European Economic Community. The resulting communities were the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; these were markedly less supranational than the previous communities, due to protests from some countries that their sovereignty was being infringed. The first formal meeting of the Hallstein Commission was held on 16 January 1958 at the Chateau de Val-Duchesse; the EEC was to create a customs union while Euratom would promote co-operation in the nuclear power sphere. The EEC became the most important of these and expanded its activities. One of the first important accomplishments of the EEC was the establishment of common price levels for agricultural products. In 1968, internal tariffs were removed on certain products. Another crisis was triggered in regard to proposals for the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy, which came into force in 1962; the transitional period whereby decisions were made by unanimity had come to an end, majority-voting in the Council had taken effect.
Then-French President Charles de Gaulle's opposition to supranationalism and fear of the other members challenging the CAP led to an "empty chair policy" whereby French representatives were withdrawn from the European institutions until the French veto was reinstated. A compromise was reached with the Luxembourg compromise on 29 January 1966 whereby a gentlemen's agreement permitted members to use a veto on areas of national interest. On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC, they shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts. Collectively they were known as the European Communities; the Communities still had independent personalities although were integrated. Future treaties granted the community new powers beyond simple economic matters which had achieved a high level of integration; as it got closer to the goal of political integration and a peaceful and united Europe, what Mikhail Gorbachev described as a Common European Home.
The 1960s saw the first attempts at enlargement. In 1961, Ireland and the United Kingdom applied to join the three Communities. However, Presi
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Cerium is a soft and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series, while it shows the +3 oxidation state characteristic of the series, it exceptionally has a stable +4 state that does not oxidize water, it is considered one of the rare-earth elements. Cerium has no biological role and is not toxic. Despite always occurring in combination with the other rare-earth elements in minerals such as those of the monazite and bastnäsite groups, cerium is easy to extract from its ores, as it can be distinguished among the lanthanides by its unique ability to be oxidized to the +4 state, it is the most common of the lanthanides, followed by neodymium and praseodymium. It is the 26th-most abundant element, making up 66 ppm of the Earth's crust, half as much as chlorine and five times as much as lead. Cerium was the first of the lanthanides to be discovered, in Bastnäs, Sweden by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger in 1803, independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in Germany in the same year.
In 1839 Carl Gustaf Mosander became the first to isolate the metal. Today and its compounds have a variety of uses: for example, cerium oxide is used to polish glass and is an important part of catalytic converters. Cerium metal is used in ferrocerium lighters for its pyrophoric properties. Cerium-doped YAG phosphor is used in conjunction with blue light-emitting diodes to produce white light in most commercial white LED light sources. Cerium is the second element of the lanthanide series. In the periodic table, it appears between the lanthanides lanthanum to its left and praseodymium to its right, above the actinide thorium, it is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of silver. Its 58 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4f15d16s2, of which the four outer electrons are valence electrons. After lanthanum, the 4f orbitals contract and are lowered in energy to the point that they participate in chemical reactions. Most lanthanides can use only three electrons as valence electrons, as afterwards the remaining 4f electrons are too bound: cerium is an exception because of the stability of the empty f-shell in Ce4+ and the fact that it comes early in the lanthanide series, where the nuclear charge is still low enough until neodymium to allow the removal of the fourth valence electron by chemical means.
Four allotropic forms of cerium are known to exist at standard pressure, are given the common labels of α to δ: The high-temperature form, δ-cerium, has a bcc crystal structure and exists above 726 °C. The stable form below 726 °C to room temperature is γ-cerium, with an fcc crystal structure; the dhcp form β-cerium is the equilibrium structure from room temperature to −150 °C. The fcc form α-cerium is stable below about −150 °C. Other solid phases occurring only at high pressures are shown on the phase diagram. Both γ and β forms are quite stable at room temperature, although the equilibrium transformation temperature is estimated at around 75 °C. Cerium has a variable electronic structure; the energy of the 4f electron is nearly the same as that of the outer 5d and 6s electrons that are delocalized in the metallic state, only a small amount of energy is required to change the relative occupancy of these electronic levels. This gives rise to dual valence states. For example, a volume change of about 10% occurs when cerium is subjected to high pressures or low temperatures.
It appears that the valence changes from about 3 to 4 when it is compressed. At lower temperatures the behavior of cerium is complicated by the slow rates of transformation. Transformation temperatures are subject to substantial hysteresis and values quoted here are approximate. Upon cooling below −15 °C, γ-cerium starts to change to β-cerium, but the transformation involves a volume increase and, as more β forms, the internal stresses build up and suppress further transformation. Cooling below −160 °C will start formation of α-cerium but this is only from remaining γ-cerium. Β-cerium does not transform to α-cerium except in the presence of stress or deformation. At atmospheric pressure, liquid cerium is more dense than its solid form at the melting point. Occurring cerium is made up of four isotopes: 136Ce, 138Ce, 140Ce, 142Ce. All four are observationally stable, though the light isotopes 136Ce and 138Ce are theoretically expected to undergo inverse double beta decay to isotopes of barium, the heaviest isotope 142Ce is expected to undergo double beta decay to 142Nd or alpha decay to 138Ba.
Additionally, 140Ce would release energy upon spontaneous fission. None of these decay modes have yet been observed, though the double beta decay of 136Ce, 138Ce, 142Ce has been experimentally searched for; the current experimental limits for their half-lives are: 136Ce: >3.8×1016 y 138Ce: >1.5×1014 y 142Ce: >5×1016 yAll other cerium isotopes are synthetic and radioactive. The most stable of them are 144Ce with a half-life of 284.9 days, 139Ce with a half-life of 137.6 days, 143Ce with a half-life of 33.04 days, 141Ce with a half-life of 32.5 days. All other radioactive cerium isotopes have half-lives under four days, most of them have half-lives under ten minutes; the isotopes between 140Ce and 144Ce inclusive occur as fission products of uranium. The primary decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 140Ce is inverse bet
CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area. The CE marking is found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA; this makes the CE marking recognizable worldwide to people who are not familiar with the European Economic Area. It is in that sense similar to the FCC Declaration of Conformity used on certain electronic devices sold in the United States; the CE marking is the manufacturer's declaration that the product meets the requirements of the applicable EC directives. The mark consists of the CE logo and, if applicable, the four digit identification number of the Notified Body involved in the conformity assessment procedure. "CE" originated in 1985 as an abbreviation of Conformité Européenne, meaning European Conformity, but is not defined as such in the relevant legislation. The CE marking is a symbol of free marketability in the European Economic Area.
Existing in its present form since 1985, the CE marking indicates that the manufacturer or importer claims compliance with the relevant EU legislation applicable to a product, regardless of the place of manufacture. By affixing the CE marking on a product, a manufacturer declares, at its sole responsibility, conformity with all of the legal requirements to achieve CE marking which allows free movement and sale of the product throughout the European Economic Area. For example, most electrical products must comply with the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive; the marking does not indicate EEA manufacture or that the EU or another authority has approved a product as safe or conformant. The EU requirements may include safety and environmental protection, and, if stipulated in any EU product legislation, assessment by a Notified Body or manufacture according to a certified production quality system; the CE marking indicates that the product complies with directives in relation to "Electro Magnetic Compatibility" - meaning the device will work as intended, without interfering with the use or function of any other device.
Not all products need CE marking to be traded in the EEA. Most CE-marked products can be placed on the market subject only to an internal production control by the manufacturer, with no independent check of the conformity of the product with EU legislation. CE marking involves self-certification only in case of minimal risks products. In most cases a notified body must be involved. In these cases the CE mark is followed by the registration number of the Notified body involved in conformity assessment. CE marking is mandatory for certain product groups within the European Economic Area plus Switzerland and Turkey; the manufacturer of products made within the EEA and the importer of goods made in other countries must ensure that CE-marked goods conform to standards. As of 2013, CE marking was not required by countries of the Central European Free Trade Agreement, but members North Macedonia and Montenegro had applied for membership of the European Union, were adopting many of its standards within their legislation.
Responsibility for CE marking lies with whoever puts the product on the market in the EU, i.e. an EU-based manufacturer, the importer or distributor of a product made outside the EU, or an EU-based office of a non-EU manufacturer. The manufacturer of a product affixes the CE marking to it but has to take certain obligatory steps before the product can bear CE marking; the manufacturer must carry out a conformity assessment, set up a technical file and sign a Declaration stipulated by the leading legislation for the product. The documentation has to be made available to authorities on request. Importers of products have to verify that the manufacturer outside the EU has undertaken the necessary steps and that the documentation is available upon request. Importers should make sure that contact with the manufacturer can always be established. Distributors must be able to demonstrate to national authorities that they have acted with due care and they must have affirmation from the manufacturer or importer that the necessary measures have been taken.
If importers or distributors market the products under their own name, they take over the manufacturer's responsibilities. In this case they must have sufficient information on the design and production of the product, as they will be assuming the legal responsibility when they affix the CE marking. There are certain rules underlying the procedure to affix the marking: Products subject to certain EU directives or EU regulations providing for CE marking have to be affixed with the CE marking before they can be placed on the market. Manufacturers have to check, on their sole responsibility, which EU legislation they need to apply for their products; the product may be placed on the market only if it complies with the provisions of all applicable directives and regulations and if the conformity assessment procedure has been carried out accordingly. The manufacturer draws up an EU declaration of conformity or a declaration of performance and affixes the CE marking on the product. If stipulated in the directive or regulation, an authorized third party must be involv
The terms special edition, limited edition, variants such as deluxe edition, or collector's edition, are used as a marketing incentive for various kinds of products published products related to the arts, such as books, video games or recorded music and films, but now including clothing, fine wine, whisky, among other products. A limited edition is restricted in the number of copies produced, although in fact the number may be low or high. Suzuki defines limited edition products as those “sold in a state that makes them difficult to obtain because of companies limiting their availability to a certain period, region, or channel". A special edition implies; the term is used on DVD film releases when the so-called "special" edition is the only version released. Collector's edition may just be another term for special edition and limited edition products that include additional features or items that regular versions do not have. Speaking about books, collector's edition products may refer to books in special limited and numbered editions, sometimes hand-bound, signed by the artist and containing one or more original works or prints produced directly from their work and printed under their supervision.
Whatever these extra features or items are, they must represent additional value to collectors of these products. Popular culture employs Special, Deluxe and Limited Edition in marketing, releasing subsequent, improved versions of film DVDs, video games. Companies use special editions and incremental improvements to sell the same products to consumers multiple times; this has been seen in the 10th Anniversary edition of Titanic, which consists of the first two discs of the previous Special Collector's edition, only with new packaging, on CD with the 30 Year Anniversary Edition of Bob Marley's Exodus, which has the same content as the original album, but in new packaging. In many cases, successful film releases have had items made in limited numbers; these "limited editions" contain the best DVD edition possible of a film with special items in a box set, sometimes containing items available only in the limited edition. Items marked thus are released for a shorter time and in lower quantity than common editions with a running number printed on the products to boost the rarity feel, as the company implies not to manufacture more.
It is common to have such items packaged with unique designs. With the success of DVDs, special editions of films themselves have become common. Sharing similarities with the concept of a director's cut; these feature additional in-movie material. The material may be footage deleted from the final cut, or new digitally-created, interpolated content. Unlike true director's cuts, the directors may not have had part in such projects, such as in Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut, in which Richard Donner did not help create the new version, just supply the material; the Doctor Who television movie The Five Doctors was edited, amongst various other changes, to make the "Special Edition" in 1999 for the first DVD release of the episode. Limited edition prints known as LEs, have been standard in printmaking from the nineteenth century onwards. A limit to the print run is crucial, as many traditional printmaking techniques can only produce a limited number of best quality impressions; this can be as few as ten or twenty for a technique like drypoint, but more would be in the low hundreds - print runs of over a thousand are regarded as dubious by the serious art market for original prints though with many techniques there is no loss of quality.
Edition sizes higher than about 500 are to be of print reproductions of paintings, of much less value, though some modern techniques blur this traditional distinction. As in other fields, the use of the concept has become driven by marketing imperatives, has been misused in parts of the market. In particular, photogravure and giclee reproductions of prints, derived from photographs of an original print, which are most unlikely to have any investment value, are issued in limited editions implying that they will have such value; these need to be distinguished from the original artist's print produced directly from his work, printed under the artist's supervision. In UK and New Zealand the Fine Art Trade Guild ensures the quality and verification of limited edition prints by employing a number of administered regulations for all processes and aspects related to them. In the United States limited editions are regulated under state consumer protections laws. California became the first state to regulate the sale of limited edition art prints with the "California Print Law" of 1971.
The state of Illinois expanded on the California statute. However, it was not until 1986 that more comprehensive provisions, still in place today, were enacted with the passage of the "Georgia Print Law"; that law became the template for statutes subsequently enacted by other states.. The Georgia Print Law written by State Representative Chesley V. Morton, became effective July 1, 1986; the law requires art dealers, artists, or auctioneers to supply information to perspective purchasers about the nature of the print, the number of prints and editions produced, the involvement of the artist in the creation of the print. The penalty for violation of the law ranges from simple reimbursement to treble damages, in the case of