Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
PSX (digital video recorder)
The PSX is a Sony digital video recorder with a integrated PlayStation 2 video game console. It was released in Japan on December 13, 2003. Since it was designed to be a general-purpose consumer video device, it was marketed by the main Sony Corporation instead of Sony Computer Entertainment and does not carry the usual PlayStation branding, its high cost resulted in poor sales, meaning that the PSX was never released outside Japan, making it a commercial failure. The device is a functional digital video recorder with an included Infrared remote control and S-Video, composite video, RF inputs, it is able to tune analog VHF and CATV. It can be linked with a PlayStation Portable to transfer photos and music via USB ports, features software for non-linear video editing, image editing and audio editing. DVD+R support was to be introduced in a future update, it was the first device to use Sony's XrossMediaBar graphical user interface, used on the PlayStation Portable, PlayStation 3, 2008-era BRAVIA TVs.
The PSX supports both PlayStation and PlayStation 2 software by its slot-loading DVD drive, as the onboard EE+GS chip is a unification of the PS2's Emotion Engine and Graphics Synthesizer chips. Online game compatibility is available using the broadband connection; the PSX is not supplied with any game controllers, but there are two controller ports on the back of the device. While the PSX is compatible with standard PS/PS2 controllers and memory cards, a variant of the DualShock 2 controller marketed for the PSX was sold that featured a 4-meter long cord. Two PlayStation memory card ports were behind a panel cover; because of the different placement of the memory card slots, the PSX is incompatible with the PlayStation Multitap and its PS2 counterpart, no PSX-compatible multitap was produced. Games that require the use of two or more USB ports are incompatible with the PSX. Like standard PS2 consoles, the PSX stood up vertically; the PSX was released in eight retail configurations during its lifespan.
Software updates were made available by download. The 7500/7700 models added a Ghost Reduction Tuner; the inclusion of BS and UHF/VHF connectors varied by model. Only the final revision of each series supported the PlayStation Portable for video export via Memory Stick. All models have two sets of power lights and Infrared receivers. The'Disk Rec' indicator is only on the front of the device in models. Before being known as the PS1, the first PlayStation console came to be known colloquially by its provisional codename of PSX; this can cause some confusion as to. The PSX was displayed at CEATEC in white, yellow and blue; the white variant was released commercially, with a limited edition silver model made available in 2004. Panasonic Q Official PSX Website
CeBIT was the largest and most internationally representative computer expo. The trade fair was held each year on the Hanover fairground, the world's largest fairground, in Hanover, Germany. In its day, it was considered a barometer of current trends and a measure of the state of the art in information technology, it was organized by Deutsche Messe AG. With an exhibition area of 450,000 m² and a peak attendance of 850,000 visitors during the dot-com boom, it was larger both in area and attendance than its Asian counterpart COMPUTEX and its no-longer held American equivalent COMDEX. CeBIT is a German language acronym for Centrum für Büroautomation, Informationstechnologie und Telekommunikation, which translates as "Center for Office Automation, Information Technology and Telecommunication"; the final CeBIT took place from June 11 to 15, 2018. CeBIT was traditionally the computing part of the Hanover Fair, a big industry trade show held every year, it was established in 1970, with the opening of the Hanover fairground's new Hall 1 the largest exhibition hall in the world.
However, in the 1980s the information technology and telecommunications part was straining the resources of the trade fair so much that it was given a separate trade show starting in 1986, held four weeks earlier than the main Hanover Fair. The number of visitors for the new exhibition increased to 830,000 in 2001, but by 2007 the CeBIT expo attendance had shrunk to around 200,000 attendance rebounded to 334,000 by 2010; the 2008 expo was marred by police raids of 51 exhibitors for patent infringement. In 2009, the U. S. state of California became official Partner State of Germany's IT and telecommunications industry association, BITKOM, of CeBIT 2009. Focusing on environmentally-friendly technologies. On November 28, 2018, Deutsche Messe AG announcedthat due to declining visitor and exhibitioner attendance, CeBIT would be canceled for the foreseeable future; this makes CeBIT 2018 the final event. As CeBIT continued to grow and was becoming too big on its own, it was decided to concentrate on the professional market, while the home and entertainment market was given a separate show, CeBIT Home, during summer, planned to be biennial.
However, after being held twice, the 2000 CeBIT Home was cancelled and the project was abandoned. Since 1999 the CeBIT sponsor Deutsche Messe AG has organized trade shows outside of Germany bearing the CeBIT name: CeBIT Asia, in Shanghai, China CeBIT Australia, in Sydney CeBIT Eurasia Bilişim, in Istanbul, Turkey CeBIT America/USA in New York City, United States, it was held in 2003 and 2004, but subsequently cancelled in 2005. CeBIT India, in Bangalore, India BITS Mexico powered by CeBIT. México City. Running over a five-day period in Hanover, the CeBIT Global Conferences are staged congruently with the CeBIT exhibition; the conferences are dedicated to providing a 360° overview of the digital industry’s four core markets: IT, Telecommunications, Digital Media and Consumer Electronics. Noted industry figures and researchers from across the globe are invited to speak on the latest relevant trends and innovations as well as their impact on society and the working world; the conference is divided up into keynote speeches and panel discussions.
The CGC conferences are produced by Deutsche Messe AG, with the German BITKOM association acting as the CGC patron since 2009. In 2014, the CGC were staged with 140 speakers on three stages with a program of 70 conference hours and 3000 participants. Target groups of the conference are CXOs, experts and out-of-the-box thinkers, Conference languages are English and German. Recent conferences have featured the following keynote themes: 2008: "Improving Life in the Global Village"; this installment of CGC attracted 1900 visitors and 43 speakers attending the keynotes and discussion sessions. 2009: "How Will We Be Working and Communicating in the Coming Years?" This CGC drew 3,133 visitors from 88 nations, with some 2,200 guests following the conference via live streaming. 2010: "The Challenges of a Changing World - ICT for Better Lives and Better Business", attracting some 4,000 guests from more than 100 nations. Just under 4,000 guests visited the conference via live streaming; the motto of the CeBIT Global Conferences for 2011 was "The Power of Creativity and Innovation".
Steve Wozniak, co-founder Apple Computer Jimmy Wales, founder Wikipedia Eugene Kaspersky, CEO and Chairman, Kaspersky Lab Mark Shuttleworth, Canonical Neelie Kroes, Vice President, European Commission Sir Nigel Shadbolt, Chairman and co-founder, Open Data Institute Dean Douglas, CEO Unify Cristina Riesen, General Manager Europe, Evernote Mikko Hyppönen, Chief Research Officer, F-SecureOver the past years, speakers at the CeBIT Global Conferences have included Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor of California. CeBIT was a platform for recognising achievement by ICT businesses in Australia; the awards include the Excellence in Communications Award, the Advanced Retail Technology Award, the Innovative IT Security Award, the Early Innovators Award. Notable past winners include Motorola, McAfee and eWAY. CES COMPUTEX Official website The history of CeBIT CeBIT Australia offici
COMDEX was a computer expo trade show held in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada, USA, each November from 1979 to 2003. It was one of the largest computer trade shows in the world second only to the German CeBIT, one of the largest trade shows in any industry sector. COMDEX exhibitions were held in many other countries with 185 shows altogether; the first COMDEX was held in 1979 with 167 exhibitors and 3904 attendees. In 1981, the first COMDEX/Spring was held in New York City. COMDEX was started by The Interface Group, whose organizers included Sheldon Adelson, Robert Lively and Richard Katzeff. In 1995, they sold the show to the Japanese technology conglomerate Softbank Corp. In 2001, Softbank sold the show to a spin-off of Ziff Davis. After entering Chapter 11 bankruptcy in February 2003, Key3Media resurfaced as Medialive International with a cash infusion from Thomas Weisel Capital Partners, which had invested in the company. In November 2006, Forbes magazine reported that United Business Media PLC had purchased the events assets of MediaLive International Inc.
COMDEX was restricted to those directly involved in the computer industry. It was the one show where all levels of manufacturers and developers of computers, software and accessories met with distributors, retailers and their competitors. Colloquially known as "Geek Week", COMDEX evolved into a major technical convention, with the industry making major product announcements and releases there. Numerous small companies from around the world rose to prominence following appearance at COMDEX, industry leaders sought opportunities to make keynote addresses, they discussed the computer industry, history and future potential. The first COMDEX Conference, attracted 4000 paying attendees and grew to over 100,000, becoming a launch platform for key technologies. Bluetooth and USB had conference programming and associated exhibition floor pavilions to help these technologies and start up companies be seen in such a large event and marketplace. In 1999, Linus Torvalds attended the exhibition to talk about the Linux family of operating system.
A Linux conference and exhibition hall was a co-located event, helping elevate the open source products. In the late 1980s, COMDEX was opened to the general public, causing an explosion in attendance, but diluting COMDEX's wholesale industry focus. Retailers and consultants complained that'leading edge' customers, upon whom they relied for early adoption of new technology, were buying products at'show specials' and expecting the dealers to support those products.. The broadening of audience criteria came about as IT departments decentralized and purchasing of technology products shifted from a central corporate IT budget to departments and company divisions, mirroring the shift from mainframes to decentralized networks and local area networking, the Internet as the corporate backbone. After the Spring 1981 show in New York City and 1982 in Atlantic City, COMDEX began regular spring shows in Atlanta, Georgia from 1983 through 1988. Alternated sites between Atlanta and Chicago; the final Atlanta Spring COMDEX was held in 1997.
The first COMDEX show outside the US was held in Amsterdam 1982. In the record years 1998 and 2000, 21 exhibitions were arranged yearly all over the World: Europe, Africa and other parts of America. 69% of the 185 shows took place outside the US. When the US shows were cancelled, they kept on for short time, e.g. Gothenburg and São Paulo 2004 and the last in Athens in November 2005; the decline occurred globally: the 2000 show in Basel with 1400 exhibitors drew 79000 attendees, but 2001 17% less. Following COMDEX Fall 1999, organizers made major changes to their criteria for admission of mass media, adjusting criteria to accommodate bloggers with significant market reach, but restricting simple and open access to anyone declaring themselves'media', it offered regular public attendance for the general public. In 2000, major companies such as IBM, Compaq decided to discontinue their involvement with COMDEX to allocate resources more efficiently through their own corporate events or other direct-to-consumer selling, the dot-com bubble caused a decline on the IT market.
To reduce costs following the market downturns after the 9/11 attacks many would-be exhibitors stopped renting out or scaled back official COMDEX booths on the convention center floors, set up invitation-only suites in various Las Vegas hotels. This allowed exhibitors to concentrate their efforts on industry attendees rather than the general public. COMDEX/Fall 2001 organizers at Los Angeles-based Key3Media Group Inc. said they expected attendance to fall from the previous year's 200,000 to 150,000. They expected the number of exhibitors to decline from 2,350 to 2,000 and the square footage of exhibitor space to slide from just over 1 million to 750,000; the last Las Vegas show in November 2003 attracted 40,000 visitors. In June 2004, COMDEX cancelled the 2004 exhibition in Las Vegas making the Consumer Electronics Show its replacement in Las Vegas. By 2004 the personal computer had become a commodity item priced at levels individual departments and consumers overall could buy without needing much corporate oversight, so "computers" became just one of many products in the consumer electronics channels and the Consumer Electronics Show.
A COMDEX event was designed to exist only on the internet without a physical meeting location. It was announced to com
A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, examine recent market trends and opportunities. In contrast to consumer fairs, only some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives and members of the press, therefore trade shows are classified as either "public" or "trade only". A few fairs are hybrids of the two, they are held on a continuing basis in all markets and attract companies from around the globe. For example, in the U. S. there are over 10,000 trade shows held every year, several online directories have been established to help organizers and marketers identify appropriate events. Modern trade fairs follow in the tradition of trade fairs established in late medieval Europe, in the era of merchant capitalism. In this era and craft producers visited towns for trading fairs, to sell and showcase products.
From the late eighteenth century, industrial exhibitions in Europe and North America became more common reflecting the technological dynamism of the Industrial Revolution. In the late 19th century, the concept of annual industry-wide trade shows gained traction, spreading from European manufacturing centers to North America. By the 20th century, specialized companies came into existence to manage the trade-show industry, permanent trade show grounds or convention centers were established as venues that featured a rotating calendar of trade shows. In the 21st century, with the rapid industrialization of Asia, trade shows and exhibitions are now commonplace throughout the Asian continent, with China dominating the exhibitions industry in Asia, accounting for more than 55 per cent of all space sold in the region in 2011. Trade fairs play important roles in marketing as well as business networking in market sectors that use them. People will seek to meet people and companies at their own level in the supply chain, as well as potential suppliers and potential buyers.
There will be a central trade show floor with booths where people exhibit their goods or services, throughout the day there will be seminars for continuing education on matters relevant to the industry, like best practices and regulation. There will be some shared meals with keynote speakers, social events in the evenings. Booths range from simple tables to elaborate constructions. Trade fairs involve a considerable investment in time and money by participating companies; the planning includes arranging meetings with other attendees beforehand and resources to follow up on opportunities that are created at the fair. Costs include space rental, booth design and construction of trade show displays, telecommunications, travel and promotional literature and items to give to attendees. In addition, costs are incurred at the show for services such as electrical, booth cleaning, internet services, drayage; this local spending on logistics leads cities to promote trade shows as a means of local economic development, as well as providing opportunities for local businesses to grow, attract new businesses to come.
Agricultural show Buyers Market of American Craft County fair Lead retrieval List of world's fairs Rodeo State fair World's fair Media related to Trade fairs at Wikimedia Commons Trade show at Encyclopædia Britannica
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
NTT Docomo Inc. is the predominant mobile phone operator in Japan. The name is an abbreviation of the phrase, "do communications over the mobile network", is from a compound word dokomo, meaning "everywhere" in Japanese. Docomo provides phone, video phone, i-mode, mail services; the company's headquarters are in the Sanno Park Tower, Nagatachō, Tokyo. Docomo was spun off from Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in August 1991 to take over the mobile cellular operations, it provides 3G W-CDMA services and 4G LTE services. Its businesses included PHS, satellite. Docomo ceased offering a PHS service on January 7, 2008. NTT Docomo is a subsidiary of Japan's incumbent telephone operator, NTT; the majority of NTT Docomo's shares are owned by NTT. While some NTT shares are publicly traded, control of the company by Japanese interests is guaranteed by the number of shares available to buyers, it provides wireless voice and data communications to subscribers in Japan. NTT Docomo is the creator of W-CDMA technology as well as mobile i-mode service.
In late 1995, Docomo CEO hired the consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers for strategy development, at that time worked on the first design of data services on mobile for NTT Docomo CEO. NTT Docomo has more than 53 million customers, more than half of Japan's cellular market; the company provides a wide variety of mobile multimedia services. These include i-mode which provides e-mail and internet access to over 50 million subscribers, FOMA, launched in 2001 as the world's first 3G mobile service based on W-CDMA, Xi, a 4G LTE mobile service, launched on December 24, 2010, Premium 4G, a LTE Advanced service, launched on March 27, 2015. In addition to wholly owned subsidiaries in Europe and North America, the company is expanding its global reach through strategic alliances with mobile and multimedia service providers in Asia-Pacific and Europe. NTT Docomo is listed on the Tokyo and New York stock exchanges. On April 19, 2008, it was announced that Ryuji Yamada, the current co-president of NTT Docomo, will be promoted as the president of NTT Docomo in June 2008.
Masao Nakamura will stay in NTT Docomo as a director and the senior adviser. Since October 2006, when the introduction to the service which allows the user to carry their original phone number with a new provider was made, NTT Docomo has lost many users to KDDI and SoftBank; this promotion was made in order to get more users for NTT Docomo. The company was the last major global mobile carrier to offer Apple's iPhone, which it did with the release of the iPhone 5s and 5c; this has been cited as one of the reasons for the steady stream of its customers switching for competing networks. In June 2011, the company announced that they were teaming up with McAfee to provide McAfee VirusScan Mobile for its Android mobile users. In July 2012, NTT Docomo acquired Italy's Buongiorno in a deal worth 209 million euros. On October 2007, the prototype Wellness mobile phone of Japan's NTT Docomo Inc. and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. was launched at CEATEC. It checks health with a motion sensor that detects body movement and measures calories, includes a breathalyzer.
On January 24, 2008, NTT Docomo announced a partnership with Google, which allowed all models after the FOMA904i models to view YouTube videos. NTT Docomo is a founding member of the Symbian Foundation. From 2008, Docomo began offering a service called the "Area Mail Disaster Information Service" which broadcasts Earthquake Early Warning messages produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency to its subscribers with compatible handsets; this service is provided free of charge and messages are limited to those areas affected by each particular alert. These alerts have a unique ring tone so they can be distinguished from incoming calls or messages. From 2014, under Civil Protection Law of Japan, Docomo began offering a service called the "Area Mail Disaster and Evacuation Information Service" which broadcasts J-Alert messages produced by the Japan Fire and Disaster Management Agency to its subscribers with compatible handsets; the message is broadcast when the military threat is imminent, volcanic eruptions, or approaching tsunami.
The company's mascot is Docomodake, a mushroom, quite a celebrity in Japan. He is the hero of a Nintendo DS puzzle and platforming video game, Boing! Docomodake DS on 2007 and 2009, he has a wide variety of merchandising such as cell phone straps and plush dolls. As one type of advertising method, there are many types of Docomodakes such as mother and father, which symbolizes the plans that NTT Docomo offers. Emoji, a pictographic language being adopted around the world was first created by NTT DoCoMo; the first emoji was created in 1998 or 1999 by Shigetaka Kurita, part of the team working on NTT DoCoMo's i-mode mobile Internet platform. The first set of 176 12×12 pixel emoji was created as part of i-mode's messaging features to help facilitate electronic communication, to serve as a distinguishing feature from other services. NTT Docomo has a wide range of foreign investments. However, NTT Docomo was not successful in investing in foreign carriers. Docomo had invested large multibillion-dolla