The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
Neelie Kroes is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. Kroes a businesswoman by occupation, was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives on 3 August 1971 after the election of 1971. After the election of 1977 a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Van Agt-Wiegel with Kroes asked to become State Secretary for Transport and Water Management taking office on 28 December 1977. After the election of 1981 she returned as a Member of the House of Representatives on 25 August 1981. After the election of 1982 a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Lubbers I with Kroes asked to become Minister of Transport and Water Management taking office on 4 November 1982. Kroes remained Minister of Transport and Water Management in the Cabinet Lubbers II following the election of 1986.
Kroes semi-retired from active politics and became Chancellor of the Nyenrode Business University serving from 1 June 1991 until 1 September 2000. In 2004 Kroes was selected as European Commissioner for Competition in the First Barroso Commission taking office on 22 November 2004. On 9 February 2010 she became European Commissioner for Digital Agenda and a Vice President in the Second Barroso Commission serving until 1 November 2014. At age 73, Kroes retired from active politics. Following the end of her active political career, Kroes occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world and several international non-governmental organizations. Kroes is known for her abilities as negotiator. Kroes has been active as an advocate and lobbyist in promoting startup companies. Neelie Kroes was born on 19 July 1941 in Netherlands, her father owned the transport company Zwatra. Kroes attended a Protestant grammar school in Rotterdam, she continued to a Protestant high school.
In 1958 she went to study economics at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. In 1961, Kroes was praeses of the R. V. S. V.. She was elected as a member of the University Council. After obtaining a Bachelor of Economics and a Master of Economics degree in 1965, she became a research fellow at the economic faculty at that university. During this period Kroes was involved in the women's organisation within the VVD. In this period she was member of the board of heavy transporting company "ZwaTra", the company of her father. Neelie Kroes was first elected member of the Rotterdam city council for the VVD in 1970. In 1971 she was elected to the House of Representatives. In parliament, she became spokesperson for education, she remained a member of parliament until 1977, when she became State Secretary for Transport, Public Works and Water Management in the First Van Agt Cabinet, responsible for Postal and Telephone Services and Transport. In 1981 she returned to the House of Representatives, while her party, VVD, was in the opposition.
In 1982 she returned to office in the First and Second Lubbers Cabinets, now as the Minister of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, a post that she held until 1989. As a minister she was responsible for the privatisation of the Postgiro, the Post and Telephone Services, the Harbour Pilotage services, as well as the commissioning of the Betuwe Railway. Kroes refused to become Minister of Defence in 1988. During her tenure as minister, she was involved in the so-called TCR affair, about the illegal sale of warships, she had a business relationship with a tank cleaning company, which illegally received governmental subsidies. After her time as minister Kroes became a member of the Rotterdam Chamber of Commerce, furthermore she served as a board member for Ballast Nedam, ABP-PGGM Capital Holdings N. V. NIB, McDonald's Netherlands and Nederlandse Spoorwegen. In 1991 she became chairperson of a private business school. During this period Kroes was a member of the Advisory Board of the Prof.
Mr. B. M. Teldersstichting, the scientific bureau of VVD. According to her husband, Bram Peper, from 1993 to 2001 Kroes relied on astrologers and clairvoyants for personal and business advice; until 2004 Kroes maintained an office in the castle of Jan-Dirk Paarlberg, a real estate mogul, convicted to four and a half years in prison for money-laundering and extortion. One of the astrologers advising Kroes during that time was Lenie Drent, providing business advice to Paarlberg for decades. Kroes has held and still holds many side offices in cultural and social organisations, she is chairperson of Poets of all Nations, the Delta Psychiatric Hospital and of the board of the Rembrandt House Museum. She was a member of several boards of commissioners, for instance at Nedlloyd and Lucent Technologies. In 2004 Neelie Kroes was appointed the European Commissioner for Competition, her nomination was criticised because of her ties to big business and alleged involvement in shady arms deals. Kroes has tried to uphold her integrity.
Evernote is application software designed for note taking, task lists, archiving. It is developed by the Evernote Corporation, headquartered in California; the app allows users to create notes, which can be formatted text, web pages or web page excerpts, voice memos, or handwritten "ink" notes. Notes can have file attachments, they can be sorted into notebooks, annotated, given comments and exported. Evernote is cross-platform, including support for iOS, Microsoft Windows and macOS. Evernote is free to use with monthly usage limits, offers paid plans for expanded or lifted limits. Founded by Stepan Pachikov, the Evernote Web service launched into open beta on June 24, 2008 and reached 11 million users in July 2011. In October 2010, under former CEO Phil Libin, the company raised a US$20 million funding round led by DoCoMo Capital with participation from Morgenthaler Ventures and Sequoia Capital. Since the company raised an additional $50 million in funding led by Sequoia Capital and Morgenthaler Ventures, another $70 million in funding led by Meritech Capital and CBC Capital.
On November 30, 2012, Evernote raised another $85 million in funding led by AGC Equity Partners/m8 Capital and Valiant Capital Partners. On November 9, 2014, Evernote raised an additional $20 million in funding from Inc.. On May 7, 2013, TechCrunch reported that Evernote launched Yinxiang Biji Business into the Chinese market at the Global Mobile Internet Conference. Linda Kozlowski was named the Chief Operating Officer of Evernote in June 2015, after more than two years with the company, but left before the end of the year. Libin stepped down as CEO in July 2015 and was replaced by former Google Glass executive Chris O'Neill. In October 2015, the Evernote Corp. announced that the company was laying off 18 percent of its workforce and would be closing three out of 10 global offices. In February 2017, CEO O'Neill stated in a blog post. Sequoia Capital, one of Evernote's equity owners, said, "It's great when a company starts to raise non-dilutive capital every day, called revenue."In August 2018, Chief Technical Officer Anirban Kundu, Chief Financial Officer Vincent Toolan, Chief Product Officer Erik Wrobel, head of HR Michelle Wagner left the company.
Wrobel and Wagner both joined in 2016. On September 18, 2018, 54 employees—about 15 percent of the workforce—were laid off. In a blog post, O'Neill said, "After a successful 2017, I set aggressive goals for Evernote in 2018. Though we have grown, we committed too many resources too quickly. We built up areas of our business in ways. Going forward, we are streamlining certain functions, like sales, so we can continue to speed up and scale others, like product development and engineering."On October 29, 2018, Evernote announced that Ian Small, former CEO of TokBox, would replace O'Neill as CEO of Evernote. In 2010, the coding language for the suite was changed from C# for version 3.5 to C++ in version 4.0 to improve performance. As well as the keyboard entry of typed notes, Evernote supports image capture from cameras on supported devices, the recording of voice notes. In some situations, text that appears in captured images can be recognized using annotated. Evernote supports touch and tablet screens with handwriting recognition.
Evernote web-clipping plugins are available for the most popular Internet browsers that allow marked sections of webpages to be captured and clipped to Evernote. If no section of a webpage has been highlighted, Evernote can clip the full page. Evernote supports the ability to e-mail notes to the service, allowing for automated note entry via e-mail rules or filters. Where suitable hardware is available, Evernote can automatically add geolocation tags to notes; as of November 2018, Evernote Pro integrates directly with Google Drive, Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Teams, Slack, Evernote Pro adds an integration with Salesforce. All versions of Evernote support integrations through IFTTT and Zapier. In 2013, Evernote deprecated its direct integration with Twitter in favor of these third-party services. On supported operating systems, Evernote allows users to store and edit notes on their local machine, using a SQLite database in Windows. Users with Internet access and an Evernote account can have their notes automatically synchronized with a master copy held on Evernote's servers.
This approach lets a user access and edit their data across multiple machines and operating system platforms, but still view and edit data when an Internet connection is not available. However, notes stored on Evernote servers are not encrypted. Where Evernote client software is not available, online account-holders can access their note archive via a web interface or through a media device; the service allows selected files to be shared for viewing and editing by other users. The Evernote software can be downloaded and used as "stand-alone" software without using the online portion of an Evernote account, but it will not be able to upload files to the Evernote server, or use the server to synchronize or share files between different Evernote installations. No image or Image-PDF recognition and indexing will take place if the software is used offline. Evernote is a free online service that allows users to upgrade to Plus*, Premium, or a Business account. Free, Plus * and Premium Evernote accounts have a maximum limit of 250 notebooks.
Basic customers can upload 60 MB of data each month. Plus* customers get a 1 GB upload limit, offline notes on mobile devices, as well as passcode lock for mobile devices. Ema
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
The Hanover Fairground is an exhibition area in the Mittelfeld district of Hanover, Germany. Featuring 496,000 m² of covered indoor space, 58,000 m² of open-air space, 27 halls and pavilions and a convention centre with 35 function rooms, it is the largest exhibition ground in the world; the area of the fairground was an aircraft works. After World War II, the British military government in Allied-occupied Germany wanted to hold a trade fair and sought for a good place, since Leipzig, the traditional fairground of Germany, was unavailable, being in the Soviet occupation zone; the hangars in Laatzen, south of Hanover, were deemed suitable for this purpose, so the Hanover Fair named Exportmesse 1947 was first held in 1947 to promote the economic recovery in the Bizone. The concept proved to be successful, so a permanent fairground was established, growing over the years. 1947: Exportmesse held for the first time. 1948: First intercontinental telephone call between Hanover and New York City. 1950: Exportmesse is renamed to Deutsche Industrie-Messe 1956-1958: Hermesturm erected.
1961: The Deutsche Industrie-Messe is renamed to Hannover Messe. 1970: Hall 1 is opened the largest exhibition hall in the world. It becomes permanent home to a subdivision of the Hanover Industry Fair. 1986: The CeBIT computer expo is held independently for the first time, after outgrowing the Industry Fair. 1990s: The fairground undergoes extensive remodeling in preparation for the Expo 2000. Hall 13 is constructed, at its time of completion the largest hall in the world without internal structural columns. 2000, June–October: The Expo 2000 world exhibition is held at the fairground and the surrounding areas. 2000: The Messehochhaus at the northern end of the area becomes the new home of the Deutsche Messe AG, the fairground's operator. It is a 20-floor highrise; the Hermesturm is a tower built of two concrete tubes on the fairground. The building was constructed between 1956 and 1958, its total height, including the antenna, is 88.8 m, an observation deck at 65 m can be reached with an elevator.
The fairground has been linked to the city's tramway network since 1949. The original terminus, called Messegelände, has been moved several times, the last time in 1982, when the line was upgraded to become part of the Hanover Stadtbahn, is now situated at the entrance Nord 2, between halls 1 and 18. Service to the city centre is provided by the regular line 8 as well as the peak line 18. During the large fairs, like CeBIT or Hannover Messe, there is a special peak hour express service, denoted by the letter E, which only stops at the stations Hauptbahnhof, Kröpcke and Aegidientorplatz. By employing efficient dispatching methods, trains can run in intervals as little as 90 seconds, each train able up to carry as many as 700 passengers. For the Expo 2000, a new line was built, it is served by the line 6. When there are fairs or other large-scale events on the fairground, the additional line 16 increases the number of services. There are no express trains; as soon as the line was completed, the old terminus at Hall 1 was renamed to EXPO/Nord whilst the new terminus carried the name of EXPO/Ost.
After the Expo, the terminuses were renamed to Messe/Ost respectively. In the 1960s, a railway station was built near the halls, however this was soon found to be impractical, as the station was constructed as a terminal of a branch line, making connections to and from main line trains difficult. However, it found its uses for dedicated services to the fairground. For the Expo 2000, an new railway station was constructed some 500 metres west of the fairground on the Hanoverian Southern Railway and the Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway, it is linked by a people mover that works like a horizontal escalator. The railway station is named Hannover Messe/Laatzen after the suburb of Laatzen, which has a common border with Hanover near the fairground, it is only notably used during CeBIT,Hannover Messe and Agritechnica, outside of this period only regional services stop at the station. Since December 2008 the station has been connected to the Hanover S-Bahn, the city's suburban railway system. Deutsche Messe AG, operator of the fairground Private home page about the fairground's railway stations Hermesturm at Structurae
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did