Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a metal, like copper, etc. and an insulator, such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, behaviour opposite to that of a metal, their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created; the behavior of charge carriers which include electrons and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon and gallium arsenide. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave frequency integrated circuits, others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits. Semiconductor devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, sensitivity to light or heat.
Because the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by doping, or by the application of electrical fields or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification and energy conversion. The conductivity of silicon is increased by adding a small amount of trivalent atoms; this process is known as doping and resulting semiconductors are known as doped or extrinsic semiconductors. Apart from doping, the conductivity of a semiconductor can be improved by increasing its temperature; this is contrary to the behaviour of a metal in which conductivity decreases with increase in temperature. The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of charge carriers in a crystal lattice. Doping increases the number of charge carriers within the crystal; when a doped semiconductor contains free holes it is called "p-type", when it contains free electrons it is known as "n-type". The semiconductor materials used in electronic devices are doped under precise conditions to control the concentration and regions of p- and n-type dopants.
A single semiconductor crystal can have many p- and n-type regions. Although some pure elements and many compounds display semiconductor properties, silicon and compounds of gallium are the most used in electronic devices. Elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase", where the metalloids are located on the periodic table, are used as semiconductors; some of the properties of semiconductor materials were observed throughout the mid 19th and first decades of the 20th century. The first practical application of semiconductors in electronics was the 1904 development of the cat's-whisker detector, a primitive semiconductor diode used in early radio receivers. Developments in quantum physics in turn allowed the development of the transistor in 1947 and the integrated circuit in 1958. Variable electrical conductivity Semiconductors in their natural state are poor conductors because a current requires the flow of electrons, semiconductors have their valence bands filled, preventing the entry flow of new electrons.
There are several developed techniques that allow semiconducting materials to behave like conducting materials, such as doping or gating. These modifications have two outcomes: p-type; these refer to the shortage of electrons, respectively. An unbalanced number of electrons would cause a current to flow through the material. Heterojunctions Heterojunctions occur when two differently doped semiconducting materials are joined together. For example, a configuration could consist of n-doped germanium; this results in an exchange of electrons and holes between the differently doped semiconducting materials. The n-doped germanium would have an excess of electrons, the p-doped germanium would have an excess of holes; the transfer occurs until equilibrium is reached by a process called recombination, which causes the migrating electrons from the n-type to come in contact with the migrating holes from the p-type. A product of this process is charged ions. Excited electrons A difference in electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation.
This introduces electrons and holes to the system, which interact via a process called ambipolar diffusion. Whenever thermal equilibrium is disturbed in a semiconducting material, the number of holes and electrons changes; such disruptions can occur as a result of a temperature difference or photons, which can enter the system and create electrons and holes. The process that creates and annihilates electrons and holes are called generation and recombination. Light emission In certain semiconductors, excited electrons can relax by emitting light instead of producing heat; these semiconductors are used in the construction of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent quantum dots. High thermal conductivitySemiconductors with high thermal conductivity can be used for heat dissipation and improving thermal management of electronics. Thermal energy conversion Semiconductors have large thermoelectric power factors making them useful in thermoelectric generators, as well as high thermoelectric figures of merit making them useful in thermoelectric coolers.
A large number of elements and compounds have semiconducting properties, including: Certain pure elements are found in Group 14 of the p
Tectoy is a Brazilian toy and electronics company headquartered in São Paulo. It is best known for producing and distributing Sega consoles and video games in Brazil; the company was founded by Daniel Dazcal, Leo Kryss, Abe Kryss in 1987 because Dazcal saw an opportunity to develop a market for electronic toys and video games, product categories that competitors did not sell in Brazil at the time. The company stock is traded on the Bovespa. Soon after its founding, Tectoy completed a licensing agreement with Sega allowing it to market a laser gun game based on the Japanese anime Zillion, which sold more units in Brazil than in Japan. Tectoy would bring the Master System and Mega Drive to the region, as well as Sega's video game consoles and the Sega Meganet service. Other products developed by Tectoy include educational toys such as the Pense Bem, karaoke machines, original Master System and Mega Drive games released in Brazil, such as Férias Frustradas do Pica-Pau and Portuguese translations and alternate versions of video games.
Over its history, Tectoy has diversified to include more electronic products, such as DVD and Blu-ray players and the Zeebo console. While successful at times, the company has undergone debt restructuring in 2000 and actions to consolidate its two public stock offerings into one. Tectoy is credited with the continued success of Sega consoles in Brazil far past their lifetimes worldwide. At one point, Tectoy held an 80% market share of video games in Brazil; the Master System and Mega Drive are still produced in Brazil decades after their cancellation in the rest of the world, Tectoy's consoles continue to rival more modern systems by Microsoft and Sony in popularity. Tectoy was founded in September 1987 by Daniel Dazcal, Leo Kryss, Abe Kryss. Dazcal was associated with Sharp Corporation in Brazil, while the Kryss brothers were the owners of Evadin, a Brazilian TV manufacturer associated with Mitsubishi; the new startup company sought to create "intelligent toys" designed for the Brazilian market.
At the time, Brazil's most dominant toy manufacturer was Estrela, which held 55% of the market share but did not have any interest in electronics. This gave Dazcal an area to focus the new company. In order to give the company an advantage in marketing costs, Tectoy set its factory in the Free Economic Zone of Manaus to leverage tax incentives. One of the primary goals of the founders of the company was to enter the video game market. Relying on individual previous experiences in working with Japanese companies, Tectoy executives reached out to Sega, which showed reluctance to partner with Tectoy given the failure of Tonka in merchandising Sega products in the United States; the company built trust with Sega and was granted total liberty to manage Sega products in the Brazilian market. The first Sega product released by Tectoy was the Zillion infrared laser tag gun, based on the phaser featured in the anime of the same name; the success of Zillion led Sega to have Tectoy distribute its 8-bit video game console, the Master System, in Brazil as well.
Launched in Brazil in September 1989, the Master System achieved success. Tectoy's revenue in 1989 was Cz $66 million; some of this success is attributed to the company's strong advertising investments: the launch campaign, which lasted until Christmas 1989, was at an expense of Cz$2 million. By the end of 1990, the Master System install; the company introduced a telephone service with tips for games, created a Master System club, presented the program Master Tips during commercial breaks of the television show Sessão Aventura of Rede Globo. Over a year after the launch of the Master System, Tectoy brought Sega's 16-bit console, the Mega Drive, to Brazil in December 1990. Sega's handheld console, Game Gear, was released in August 1991. Like the Master System, the two products were assembled by Tectoy in Manaus, Game Gear was the first portable console manufactured in Brazil. Sega's primary competition, did not arrive in Brazil until 1993. By the time Nintendo arrived in the region, they were unable to compete with pirated NES systems available in the region and Tectoy's established following.
Mega Drive surpassed the SNES in market share in Brazil, Tectoy claimed 80% of the local video game market. By 1996, Tectoy had sold 2 million video game consoles and was receiving 50,000 calls a month to their video game tip line. On May 26, 1994, Dazcal died at the age of 42, he was replaced as CEO by Stefano Arnhold, who had worked for Dazcal at Sharp and became one of Tectoy's earliest employees in December 1987. Arnhold continued Tectoy's partnership with Sega and released the Sega Saturn on August 30, 1995, at a price of R$899.99. With the increase in the number of commercial Internet users in Brazil, Tectoy invested in content and Internet access by introducing a Brazilian version of Internet service provider CompuServe, at the time the second largest US subscriber number. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte were the first cities to receive the service; the service began in April 1997 and was part of a strategy to diversify the company's interests away from being a seasonal industry.
In 1997, Tectoy saw financial losses of R$35.9 million and saw a 32% drop in revenue compared to 1996, a year in which the company failed to meet its revenue goal. The company still saw a net loss of R$10.8 million. During this period, the company launched the Dr
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Radio-frequency identification uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture. RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Since RFID tags can be attached to cash and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns; these concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability and reader authentication, over-the-air privacy.
ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can be used in shops to expedite checkout, to prevent theft by customers and employees. In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags and software/services for RFID cards, labels and all other form factors; the market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026. In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Though this device was a covert listening device, rather than an identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID because it was passive, being energized and activated by waves from an outside source.
Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder, was used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, who predicted that "... considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, before the field of useful applications is explored." Mario Cardullo's device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users, it consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, light as transmission media; the original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation, banking and medical.
An early demonstration of reflected power RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags; this technique is used by the majority of today's microwave RFID tags. The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. RFID tags can be either active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is smaller because it has no battery. However, to operate a passive tag, it must be illuminated with a power level a thousand times stronger than for signal transmission.
That makes a difference in exposure to radiation. Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number, used as a key into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple. RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit that stores and processes information and that modulates and demodulates radio-frequency signals; the tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively. An RFID reader transmits an e
Federal government of Brazil
The Federal Government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district. The Brazilian federal government is divided in three branches: the executive, headed by the President and the cabinet; the seat of the federal government is located in Brasília. This has led to "Brasília" being used as a metonym for the federal government of Brazil. Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on a representative democracy; the federal government has three independent branches: executive and judicial. The Federal Constitution is the supreme law of Brazil, it is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government. It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, to all people within Brazil. Executive power is exercised by the executive, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet of Ministers.
The President is both the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the regional federal courts; the bicameral National Congress consists of: The Federal Senate, which has 81 seats — three members from each States and the Federal District, elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms. One-third are elected after a four-year period, two-thirds are elected after the next four-year period. Federal deputies are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. There are no limits on the number of terms; the seats are allotted proportionally to each state's population, but each state is eligible for a minimum of eight seats and a maximum of 70 seats. The result is a system weighted in favor of smaller states that are part of the Brazilian federation.
15 political parties are represented in Congress. Since it is common for politicians to switch parties, the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. To avoid that, the Supreme Federal Court ruled in 2007 that the term belongs to the parties, not to the representatives. Brazilian courts function under civil law adversarial system; the Judicial branch is organized in federal systems with different jurisdictions. The judges of the courts of first instance take office after public competitive examination; the second instance judges are promoted among the first instance judges. The Justices of the superior courts are appointed by the President for life and approved by the Senate. All the judges and justices must be graduated in law. Brazilian judges must retire at the age of 70; the national territory is divided into five Regions. Each region is divided in Judiciary Sections, coterminous with the territory of each state, subdivided in Judiciary Subsections, each with a territory that may not correspond to the states' comarcas.
The Judiciary subsections have federal courts of first instance and each Region has a Federal Regional Tribunal as a court of second instance. There are special federal court systems, such as Labour Court for labor or employment-related matters and disputes, Election Justice for electoral matters, Military Justice for martial criminal cases, each of them with its own courts. There are two national superior courts that grant writs of certiorari in civil and criminal cases: the Superior Justice Tribunal and the federal supreme court, called the Supreme Federal Court; the STJ grants a Special Appeal when a judgement of a court of second instance offends a federal statute disposition or when two or more second instance courts make different rulings on the same federal statute. There are parallel courts for electoral law and military law; the STF grants Extraordinary Appeals when judgments of second instance courts violate the constitution. The STF is the last instance for the writ of habeas corpus and for reviews of judgments from the STJ.
The superior courts do not analyze any factual questions in their judgments, but only the application of the law and the constitution. Facts and evidences are judged by the courts of second instance, except in specific cases such as writs of habeas corpus. Politics of Brazil Official website of the Presidency of Brazil