1922 United Kingdom general election
The 1922 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 15 November 1922. It was the first general election held after most of Ireland left the United Kingdom to form the Irish Free State, was won by the Conservatives led by Andrew Bonar Law, who gained an overall majority over Labour, led by J. R. Clynes, a divided Liberal Party; this election is considered a realigning election, with the Conservative Party going on to spend all but eight of the next forty-two years as the largest party in Parliament, Labour emerging as the main competition to the Conservatives, the Liberal Party falling to third-party status, never to return. The Liberal Party were split between the "National Liberals" following David Lloyd George, ousted as Prime Minister the previous month, the "Liberals" following former Prime Minister H. H. Asquith; the Conservatives had been in coalition with the National Liberals led by David Lloyd George until the previous month, at which point Bonar Law had formed a Conservative majority government.
Although still leader of the Liberal Party and a frequent public speaker, Asquith was no longer a influential figure in the national political debate, he had played no part in the downfall of the Lloyd George coalition. Most attention was focused on the most recent Prime Ministers. Asquith's daughter Violet Bonham-Carter, a prominent Liberal Party campaigner, likened the election to a contest between a man with sleeping sickness and a man with St Vitus Dance; some Lloyd George National Liberals were not opposed by Conservative candidates whilst many leading Conservatives were not members of Bonar Law's government and hoped to hold the balance of power after the election. Some Liberal candidates stood calling for a reunited Liberal Party whilst others appear to have backed both Asquith and Lloyd George. Few sources are able to agree on exact numbers, in contemporary records held by the two groups, some MPs were claimed for both sides, it was the first election where Labour surpassed the combined strength of both Liberal parties in votes and seats.
By one estimate, there were 29 seats. This is thought to have cost them at least 14 seats, 10 of them to Labour, so in theory a reunited Liberal Party would have been much closer to, even ahead of, Labour in terms of seats. However, in reality the two factions were on poor terms and Lloyd George was still hoping for a renewed coalition with the Conservatives. Neither of the leaders of the two main parties would get to enjoy their success in the election for long; the Conservative Party offered continuity to the electorate. Bonar Law's election address stated: The crying need of the nation have this moment... Is that we should have tranquility and stability both at home and abroad so that the free scope should be given to the initiative and enterprise of our own citizens, for it is in that way, far more than by any action of the Government that we can hope to recover from the economic and social results of the war; the Labour Party proposed to nationalise the mines and railways, to impose a levy on financial capital, to revise the peace treaties.
It promised a higher standard of living for workers, higher wages, better housing. All comparisons are with the 1918 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1922; such circumstances are marked with a †. MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1922 United Kingdom general election, 1922 United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979 1922 Conservative manifesto 1922 Labour manifesto 1922 Liberal manifesto
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Toronto Maple Leafs
The Toronto Maple Leafs are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto, Ontario. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the club is owned by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, Ltd. and are represented by Chairman Larry Tanenbaum. With an estimated value of US $1.45 billion in 2018 according to Forbes, the Maple Leafs are the second most valuable franchise in the NHL, after the New York Rangers. The Maple Leafs' broadcasting rights are split between BCE Rogers Communications. For their first 14 seasons, the club played their home games at the Mutual Street Arena, before moving to Maple Leaf Gardens in 1931; the Maple Leafs moved to their present home, Scotiabank Arena in February 1999. The club was founded in 1917, operating as Toronto and known as the Toronto Arenas. Under new ownership, the club was renamed the Toronto St. Patricks in 1919. In 1927 the club was renamed the Maple Leafs. A member of the "Original Six", the club was one of six NHL teams to have endured through the period of League retrenchment during the Great Depression.
The club has won thirteen Stanley Cup championships, second only to the 24 championships of the Montreal Canadiens. The Maple Leafs history includes two recognized dynasties, from 1947 to 1951. Winning their last championship in 1967, the Maple Leafs' 50-season drought between championships is the longest current drought in the NHL; the Maple Leafs have developed rivalries with three NHL franchises: the Detroit Red Wings, the Montreal Canadiens, the Ottawa Senators. The Maple Leafs have retired the use of thirteen numbers in honour of nineteen players. In addition, a number of individuals who hold an association with the club have been inducted in the Hockey Hall of Fame; the Maple Leafs are presently affiliated with two minor league teams, the Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League, the Newfoundland Growlers of the ECHL. The National Hockey League was formed in 1917 in Montreal by teams belonging to the National Hockey Association that had a dispute with Eddie Livingstone, owner of the Toronto Blueshirts.
The owners of the other four clubs — the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Quebec Bulldogs and the Ottawa Senators — wanted to replace Livingstone, but discovered that the NHA constitution did not allow them to vote him out of the league. Instead, they opted to create a new league, the NHL, did not invite Livingstone to join them, they remained voting members of the NHA, thus had enough votes to suspend the other league's operations leaving Livingstone's league with one team. The NHL had decided that it would operate a four-team circuit, made up of the Canadiens, Maroons and one more club in either Quebec or Toronto. Toronto's inclusion in the NHL's inaugural season was formally announced on November 26, 1917, with concerns over the Bulldog's financial stability surfacing; the League granted temporary franchise rights to the Arena Company, owners of the Arena Gardens. The NHL granted the Arena responsibility of the Toronto franchise for only the inaugural season, with specific instructions to resolve the dispute with Livingstone, or transfer ownership of the Toronto franchise back to the League at the end of the season.
The franchise did not have an official name, but was informally called "the Blueshirts" or "the Torontos" by the fans and press. Although the inaugural roster was made up of players leased from the NHA's Toronto Blueshirts, including Harry Cameron and Reg Noble, the Blueshirts are viewed as a separate franchise. During the inaugural season the club performed the first trade in NHL history, sending Sammy Hebert to the Senators, in return for cash. Under manager Charlie Querrie, head coach Dick Carroll, the team won the Stanley Cup in the inaugural 1917–18 season. For the next season, rather than return the Blueshirts' players to Livingstone as promised, on October 19, 1918, the Arena Company applied to become permanent franchise, the Toronto Arena Hockey Club, granted by the NHL; the Arena Company decided that year that only NHL teams were allowed to play at the Arena Gardens—a move which killed the NHA. Livingstone sued to get his players back. Mounting legal bills from the dispute forced the Arenas to sell some of their stars, resulting in a horrendous five-win season in 1918–19.
With the company facing increasing financial difficulties, the Arenas eliminated from the playoffs, the NHL agreed to let the team forfeit their last two games. Operations halted on February 1919, with the NHL ending its season and starting the playoffs; the Arenas'.278 winning percentage that season remains the worst in franchise history. However, the 1919 Stanley Cup Finals ended without a winner due to the worldwide flu epidemic; the legal dispute forced the Arena Company into bankruptcy, it was forced to sell the team. On December 9, 1919, Querrie brokered the team's purchase by the owners of the St. Patricks Hockey Club, allowing him to maintain an ownership stake in the team; the new owners renamed the team the Toronto St. Patricks, which they used until 1927. Changing the colours of the team from blue to green, the club won their second Stanley Cup championship in 1922. Babe Dye scored four times in the 5–1 Stanley Cup-clinching victory against the Vancouver Millionaires. In 1924 Jack Bickell invested C$25,000 in the St. Pats as a favour to his friend Querrie, who needed to financially reorganize his hockey team.
After a number of financially difficult seasons, the St. Patricks' ownership group consider
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain was a French colonist, cartographer, soldier, geographer, ethnologist and chronicler. He made between 21 and 29 trips across the Atlantic Ocean, founded New France and Quebec City, on July 3, 1608. An important figure in Canadian history, Champlain created the first accurate coastal map during his explorations, founded various colonial settlements. Born into a family of mariners, Champlain began exploring North America in 1603, under the guidance of his uncle, François Gravé Du Pont. From 1604 to 1607, he participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida, Port Royal, Acadia, as well as the first European settlement that would become Saint John, New Brunswick. In 1608, he established the French settlement, now Quebec City, Canada. Champlain was the first European to describe the Great Lakes, published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives, he formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu, with others farther west — tribes of the, with Algonquin and Wendat.
In 1620, Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status, he established trading companies that sent goods fur, to France, oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death, in 1635. Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of Acadia", with many places and structures in northeastern North America bearing his name, most notably Lake Champlain. Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain and Marguerite Le Roy, in either Hiers-Brouage, or the port city of La Rochelle, in the French province of Aunis, he was born on or before August 13, 1574, according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, French genealogist. Although in 1870, the Canadian Catholic priest Laverdière, in the first chapter of his Œuvres de Champlain, accepted Pierre-Damien Rainguet's estimate and tried to justify it, his calculations were based on assumptions now believed, or proven, to be incorrect.
Although Léopold Delayant wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguet's estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to Champlain and is regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, choosing 1570 or 1575 instead of 1567. In 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlain's birth year and concluded, "Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France." Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, preferred years when Brouage was under Catholic control. Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book and to be Saintongeois in the title of his second book, he belonged to either a Protestant family, or a tolerant Roman Catholic one, since Brouage was most of the time a Catholic city in a Protestant region, his Old Testament first name was not given to Catholic children.
The exact location of his birth is thus not known with certainty, but at the time of his birth his parents were living in Brouage. Born into a family of mariners, Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, make nautical charts, write practical reports, his education did not include Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. As each French fleet had to assure its own defense at sea, Champlain sought to learn to fight with the firearms of his time: he acquired this practical knowledge when serving with the army of King Henry IV during the stages of France's religious wars in Brittany from 1594 or 1595 to 1598, beginning as a quartermaster responsible for the feeding and care of horses. During this time he claimed to go on a "certain secret voyage" for the king, saw combat. By 1597 he was a "capitaine d'une compagnie" serving in a garrison near Quimper. In 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was chartered to transport Spanish troops to Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him.
After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose ship was chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West Indies, again offered him a place on the ship. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera, instructed the young Champlain to watch over the ship; this journey lasted two years, gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City. Along the way he took detailed notes, wrote an illustrated report on what he learned on this trip, gave this secret report to King Henry, who rewarded Champlain with an annual pension; this report was published for the first time in 1870, by Laverdière, as Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiag
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Radio was the first medium for sports broadcasts, radio commentators must describe all aspects of the action to listeners who cannot see it for themselves. In the case of televised sports coverage, commentators are presented as a voiceover, with images of the contest shown on viewers' screens and sounds of the action and spectators heard in the background. Television commentators are shown on screen during an event, though some networks choose to feature their announcers on camera either before or after the contest or during breaks in the action; the main commentator called the play-by-play announcer or commentator in North America, blow-by-blow in combat sports coverage or lap-by-lap for motorsports coverage, is the primary speaker on the broadcast. Broadcasters in this role are valued for their articulateness and for their ability to describe each play or event of an fast-moving sporting event.
The ideal play-by-play voice has a vocal timbre, tolerable to hear over the multiple hours of a sports broadcast and yet dynamic enough to convey and enhance the importance of the in-game activity. Because of their skills, some commentators like Al Michaels in the U. S. David Coleman in the UK and Bruce McAvaney in Australia, may have careers in which they call several different sports at one time or another. Other main commentators may, only call one sport; the vast majority of play-by-play announcers are male. Radio and television play-by-play techniques involve different approaches, it is unusual to have radio and television broadcasts share the same play-by-play commentator for the same event, except in cases of low production budgets or when a broadcaster is renowned. The analyst or color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy on the teams and athletes, anecdotes or light humor, they are former athletes or coaches in their respective sports, although there are some exceptions.
The term "color" refers to insight provided by analyst. The most common format for a sports broadcast is to have an analyst/color commentator work alongside the main/play-by-play announcer. An example is NBC Sunday Night Football in the United States, called by color commentator Cris Collinsworth, a former American football receiver, play-by-play commentator Al Michaels, a professional announcer. In the United Kingdom, there is a much less distinct division between play-by-play and color commentary, although two-man commentary teams feature an enthusiast with formal journalistic training but little or no competitive experience leading the commentary, an expert former competitor following up with analysis or summary. There are however exceptions to this — most of the United Kingdom's leading cricket and snooker commentators are former professionals in their sports, while the former Formula One racing commentator Murray Walker had no formal journalistic training and only limited racing experience of his own.
In the United States, George "Pat" Summerall, a former professional kicker, spent most of his broadcasting career as a play-by-play announcer. Although the combination of a play-by-play announcer and a color commentator is standard as of 2014, in the past it was much more common for a broadcast to have no analysts and just have a single play-by-play announcer to work alone. Vin Scully, longtime announcer for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, was one of the few examples of this practice lasting into the 21st century until he retired in 2016. A sideline reporter assists a sports broadcasting crew with sideline coverage of the playing field or court; the sideline reporter makes live updates on injuries and breaking news or conducts player interviews while players are on the field or court because the play-by-play broadcaster and color commentator must remain in their broadcast booth. Sideline reporters are granted inside information about an important update, such as injury, because they have the credentials necessary to do so.
In cases of big events, teams consisting of many sideline reporters are placed strategically so that the main commentator has many sources to turn to. In motorsports, it is typical for there to be multiple pit reporters, covering the event from along pit road, their responsibilities will include covering breaking news trackside, interviewing crew chiefs and other team leaders about strategy, commentating on pit stops from along the pit wall. In British sports broadcasting, the presenter of a sports broadcast is distinct from the commentator, based in a remote broadcast television studio away from the sports venue. In North America, the on-air personality based in the studio is called the studio host. During their shows, the presenter/studio host may be joined by additional analysts or pundits when showing highlights of various other matches. Various sports may have different commentator