Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, outside Cincinnati. GE Aviation is among the top aircraft engine suppliers, offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, one of the world's largest corporations; the division operated under the name of General Electric Aircraft Engines until September 2005. GE Aviation's main competitors in the engine market are Pratt & Whitney. GE operates two joint ventures with Safran Aircraft Engines of France, CFM International and CFM Materials. General Electric had a long history in steam turbine work. In 1903 they hired Sanford Alexander Moss, who started the development of turbosuperchargers at GE; this led to a series of record-breaking flights over the next ten years. At first the role of high-altitude flight was limited, but in the years prior to WWII they became standard equipment on all military aircraft. GE was a world leader in this technology; this work made them the natural industrial partner to develop jet engines when Frank Whittle's W.1 engine was demonstrated to Hap Arnold in 1941.
A production license was arranged in September, several of the existing W.1 test engines shipped to the US for study, where they were converted to US manufacture as the I-A. GE started production of improved versions. Early jet engine work took place at GE's Syracuse, NY and Lynn, MA plants, but soon concentrated at the Lynn plants. On 31 July 1945 the Lynn plant became the "Aircraft Gas Turbine Division". GE was unable to deliver enough engines for Army and Navy demand, production of the I-40 was handed to Allison Engines in 1944. After the war ended, the Army canceled its orders for GE-built J33s and turned the entire production over to Allison, the Syracuse plant closed; these changes in fortune led to debate within the company about carrying on in the aircraft engine market. However, the engineers at Lynn pressed ahead with development of a new engine, the TG-180, designated J35 by the US military. Development funds were allotted in 1946 for a more powerful version of the same design, the TG-190.
This engine emerged as the famed General Electric J47, which saw great demand for several military aircraft. J47 production ran to 30,000 engines by the time the lines closed down in 1956. Further development of the J47 by Patrick Clarke in 1957 led to the J73, from there into the much more powerful J79; the J79 was GE's second "hit", leading to a production run of 17,000 in several different countries. The GE and Lockheed team that developed the J79 and the F-104 Mach 2 fighter aircraft received the 1958 Collier Trophy for outstanding technical achievement in aviation. Other successes followed, including the T58, T64 turboshaft engines, J85 and F404 turbojets; the TF39 was the first high-bypass turbofan engine. Entered into the C-5 Galaxy contest in 1964 against similar designs from Curtiss-Wright and Pratt & Whitney, GE's entry was selected as the winner during the final down-select in 1965; this led to a civilian model, the CF6, offered for the Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 projects.
Although Lockheed changed their engine to the Rolls-Royce RB211, the DC-10 continued with the CF6, this success led to widespread sales on many large aircraft including the Boeing 747. Another military-to-civilian success followed when GE was selected to supply engines for the S-3 Viking and Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, developing a small high-bypass engine using technologies from the TF39; the resulting TF34 was adapted to become the CF34, whose wide variety of models powers many of the regional jets flying today. In the early 1970s, GE was selected to develop a modern turboshaft engine for helicopter use, the T700, it has been further developed as the CT7 turboprop engine for regional transports. In 1974 GE entered into an agreement with Snecma of France, forming CFM International to jointly produce a new mid-sized turbofan, which emerged as the CFM56. A 50/50 joint partnership was formed with a new plant in OH to produce the design. At first sales were difficult to come by, the project was due to be cancelled.
Only two weeks before this was to happen, in March 1979, several companies selected the CFM56 to re-engine their existing Douglas DC-8 fleets. By July 2010, CFM International had delivered their 21,000th engine of the CFM56 family, with an ongoing production rate of 1250 per year, against a four-year production backlog; the success of the CFM led GE to join in several similar partnerships, including Garrett AiResearch for the CFE CFE738, Pratt & Whitney on the Engine Alliance GP7000, more Honda for the GE Honda Aero Engines small turbofan project. GE continued development of their own lines, introducing new civilian models like the GE90, military designs like the General Electric F110. Then-GEAE were selected by Boeing to power its new 787. GE Aviation's offering is the GEnx, a development of the GE90. GE Aviation has a two-year exclusivity on the Boeing 747-8; the Lynn facility continues to assemble jet engines for the United States Department of Defense
General Electric CF700
The General Electric CF700 is an aft-fan turbofan development of the CJ610 turbojet. The fan blades are an extension of the low-pressure turbine blades. CF700-2B Baseline aft-fan CJ610 variant rated at 4,200 lbf for take-off CF700-2V The 2B modified for continuous vertical operation on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle and Lunar Landing Training Vehicle TF37-GE-1 Military version of the CF700-2V Dassault Falcon 20 North American Sabreliner Series 75A and 80 Lunar Landing Research Vehicle/Lunar Landing Training Vehicle Data from Type: Two-spool aft-fan turbofan Length: 75.5 in Diameter: 33 in Dry weight: 735 lb with optional thrust reverser Compressor: 8 stage high pressure compressor + 1 stage fan directly driven by the free LP turbine Turbine: 2 stage high pressure turbine, 1 stage low pressure turbine Fuel type: Aviation kerosene Maximum thrust: 4,200 lbf Bypass ratio: 2.0:1 Air mass flow: 84 lb /s through the fan Specific fuel consumption: 0.67 lb/lbf·hr at maximum cruising speed Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.6:1 Related development General Electric CJ610 General Electric J85 Comparable engines General Electric CJ805-23Related lists List of aircraft engines Taylor, John W.
R. FRHistS. ARAeS. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63. London: Sampson, Marston & Co Ltd. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. GE CF700 web page Cutaway CF700 Turbofan Engine Model AE-06-700 Aft-fan CF700 cutaway
General Electric GE4
The General Electric GE4 turbojet engine was designed in the late 1960s as the powerplant for the Boeing 2707 supersonic transport. The GE4 was a nine-stage, single-shaft, axial-flow turbojet based on the General Electric YJ93 which powered the North American XB-70 bomber; the GE4 was the most powerful engine of its era, producing 50,000 lbf dry, 65,000 lbf with afterburner. The Boeing 2707 was cancelled in 1971, putting an end to further work on the GE4. Data from Type: Turbojet Length: 27ft 4 in Diameter: 5ft 11 in Dry weight: 11,300 lb Compressor: Nine-stage axial Combustors: Annular straight-through-flow Turbine: Two-stage axial Fuel type: Special high-temperature JP-6 Fuel Maximum thrust: 50,000 lbf Overall pressure ratio: 12.5:1 Turbine inlet temperature: 2,200 °F Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.02 Compressor inlet diameter: 60.6 in Exhaust nozzle diameter: 74.2 in Core airflow: 620 lb per second Noise: Takeoff: 104 dB Sideline: 117 dB Approach: 107 dB Related development General Electric J79 General Electric YJ93 Comparable engines Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593Related lists List of aircraft engines
General Electric F110
The General Electric F110 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine produced by GE Aviation. The F110 engine uses the same engine core design as the General Electric F101; the F118 is a non-afterburning variant. The engine is license-built in Eskisehir, Turkey by TUSAŞ Engine Industries; the F-14A entered service with the United States Navy in 1973 powered by Whitney TF30s. By the end of the decade, following numerous problems with the original engine, the DoD began procuring the upgraded TF30-P-414As. While these engines solved the serviceability problems, the fuel consumption and thrust was comparable to the initial model–considerably less than what the F-14 had been designed for. In 1979, a derivative of the GE F101 turbofan called the F101-X was selected to power the F-14 and was designated the F110-GE-400; the primary difference between the F110-GE-400 and the F110-GE-100 is length - the F110-GE-400 has a 50-inch tailpipe extension to suit the F-14 airframe, fitted downstream of the augmentor.
The F110-GE-400 engine produced 23,400 lbf of thrust with afterburner at sea level, which rose to 30,200 lbf at Mach 0.9. This provided a significant increase over the TF30's maximum thrust of 20,900 lbf; these upgraded jets were known as F-14Bs, as were production aircraft powered by the F110. The same engine powers the final variant of the aircraft, the F-14D; the F-16 Fighting Falcon entered service powered by the Whitney F100 afterburning turbofan. Seeking a way to drive unit costs down, the USAF implemented the Alternative Fighter Engine program in 1984, under which the engine contract would be awarded through competition; the F110 powers 86% of the USAF F-16C/Ds. The F110-GE-100 provides around 4,000 lbf more thrust than the F100-PW-200 and requires more air, which led to the increase in the area of the engine intake; the F-16C/D Block 30/32s were the first to be built with a common engine bay, able to accept both engines, with block 30s having the bigger intake and block 32s retaining the standard intake.
Initial orders were for the F110-GE-100 rated at 28,000 lbf. Versions of the F110 include the F110-GE-129 delivering 29,400 lbf thrust and the F110-GE-132 delivering 32,000 lbf The United Arab Emirates’ Block 60 is powered by the General Electric F110-GE-132 turbofan, rated at a maximum thrust of 32,500 lbf, the most powerful variant of General Electric F110 engine. F110-GE-129 engines, with 29,400 lbf of thrust, power 40 F-15 fighters of South Korea; this is the first time production F-15s will be powered by a GE engine, since all previous F-15 models were powered by Pratt and Whitney. The GE engines will be manufactured through a joint licensing agreement with Samsung Techwin Company, it has been chosen by the Republic of Singapore Air Force to power its F-15SG, Saudi Arabia to power its F-15SA. General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon General Dynamics F-16XL Grumman F-14B/D Super Tomcat McDonnell Douglas F-15K/F-15S/ F-15SA/F-15SG Strike Eagle Mitsubishi F-2 Data from GE Aviation F110-GE-129/F110-GE-132 Type: Afterburning turbofan Length: 182.3 - 232.3 in Diameter: 46.5 in Dry weight: 3,920 - 4,400 lb Compressor: 2 spool: 3 fan and 9 high pressure compressor stages Combustors: annular Turbine: 2 low-pressure and 1 high-pressure stages Maximum thrust: Dry thrust: 16,610 lbf F110-GE-129: 29,500 pounds.
General Electric J85
The General Electric J85 is a small single-shaft turbojet engine. Military versions produce up to 2,950 lbf of thrust dry, afterburning variants can reach up to 5,000 lbf; the engine, depending upon specific model, weighs from 300 to 500 pounds. It is one of GE's most successful and longest in service military jet engines, with the civilian versions having logged over 16.5 million hours of operation. The United States Air Force plans to continue using the J85 in aircraft through 2040. Civilian models, known as the CJ610, are similar but supplied without an afterburner, while the CF700 adds a rear-mounted fan for improved fuel economy; the J85 was designed to power a large decoy missile, the McDonnell ADM-20 Quail. The Quail was designed to be released from a B-52 Stratofortress in-flight and fly for long distances in formation with the launch aircraft, multiplying the number of targets facing the SA-2 surface-to-air missile operators on the ground; this mission demanded a small engine that could provide enough power to keep up with the jet bomber.
Like the similar Armstrong Siddeley Viper being built in England, the engine on a Quail drone had no need to last for extended periods of time, so therefore could be built of low-quality materials. The fit was a success on the Quail, but again like the Viper it was built with normal grade materials and subsequently used to power small jet aircraft, including the Northrop T-38 Talon, Northrop F-5, Canadair CT-114 Tutor, Cessna A-37 Dragonfly light attack aircraft. More J85s have powered the Scaled Composites White Knight aircraft, the carrier for the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne spacecraft, the Me 262 Project; the basic engine design is quite small, about 18 inches in diameter, 45 inches long. It features an eight-stage axial-flow compressor powered by two turbine stages, is capable of generating up to 2,950 lbf of dry thrust, or more with an afterburner. At full throttle at sea level, this engine, without afterburner, consumes 400 US gallons of fuel per hour. At cruise altitude and power, it consumes 100 US gal per hour.
Several variants were produced. The J85-21 variant added a stage ahead of the base 8-stage compressor for a total of 9 stages, improving thrust. More than 12,000 J85 engines had been built by the time production ended in 1988; the Iranian Ministry of Defense constructed a new engine based on the General Electric J85 named "OWJ". The engine was presented at a defense exhibition on 22 August 2016. J85-GE-1 2,600 lbf thrust J85-GE-2 2,850 lbf thrust J85-GE-3 2,450 lbf thrust J85-GE-4 2,950 lbf thrust J85-GE-5 2,400 lbf thrust, 3,600 lbf afterburning thrust J85-GE-5A 3,850 lbf afterburning thrust J85-GE-7 2,450 lbf thrust J85-GE-12 J85-GE-13 4,080 lbf, 4,850 lbf thrust J85-GE-15 4,300 lbf thrust J85-CAN-15 Orenda manufactured J85-GE-15 for the Canadair CF-116 4,300 lbf thrust J85-GE-17A 2,850 lbf thrust J85-GE-19 J85-GE-21 3,500 lbf military thrust. J85-GE-J1A 5,000 lbf thrust J85-GE-J2 military version of the CJ610, similar to the GE-7, 2,850 lbf thrust. J85-GE-J4 J85-CAN-40 Manufactured by Orenda for the Canadair CT-114 Tutor, 2,650 lbf thrust Boom Technology XB-1 "Baby Boom" demonstrator Canadair CL-41 Tutor Canadair CF-5 Cessna A-37 Dragonfly Fairchild C-123 Provider Fairchild AC-119K Fiat G.91Y McDonnell ADM-20 Quail decoy missile Ryan MQM-34D Mod II target drone North American OV-10B Bronco North American T-2 Buckeye Northrop F-5 Northrop T-38 Talon Ryan XV-5 Vertifan Saab 105Ö Scaled Composites White Knight Viper Aircraft Viperjet MKII American Challenge water speed record jet-powered boat - Two J85-GE-21s Data from Type: Turbojet engine Length: 45.4–51.1 in without afterburner Diameter: 17.7 in Dry weight: 396–421 lb Compressor: 8 stages axial Combustors: annular Turbine: 2 stages Fuel type: jet fuel Maximum thrust: 2,850–3,100 lbf Overall pressure ratio: 8.3 Air mass flow: 45 lb per second Turbine inlet temperature: 1,470°F Specific fuel consumption: 0.96 - 0.97 lb/ Thrust-to-weight ratio: 7.5, 6.6, 6.8, 7 Related development General Electric CJ610 General Electric CF700 Comparable engines Armstrong Siddeley Viper Continental J69 Fairchild J83 Rolls-Royce SoarRelated lists List of aircraft engines Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. GE J85 product page J85 picture "G. E.'s Small Turbojet" a 1959 Flight article
Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work.
For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation are among the major global players