Couchiching First Nation
The Couchiching First Nation is a Saulteaux First Nation band government in the Canadian province of Ontario, who live on the Couchiching 16A and Agency 1 reserves in the Rainy River District near Fort Frances. Ancestors of the Couchiching First Nation were collectively known as Gojijiwininiwag or as Rainy Lake and River Bands of Saulteaux—"couchiching" being the Ojibwe word meaning "At the Inlet", referring to Rainy Lake known in Ojibwe as Gojiji-zaaga'igan. Members of the Couchiching First Nation resided further west and others were voyageurs from the east until they moved to the Fort Frances area in the late 19th century to avoid the Louis Riel Rebellion; the Department of Indian Affairs allocated them a tract of land north of the town but this was considered too far from the trading post by the band members. They ended up on Little Eagle land and changed it to Couchiching; the current band chief is Brian Perrault, Chief Perrault was re-elected in the February 2018 band election process.
A council of six band members governs the band, are as follows: David Bruyere, Bill Perrault, Lucille Morrisseau, Ron Archie, Joan Mainville and Sandy Bruyere. The current term of Chief & Council runs from 2018-2020. Couchiching First Nations administers over a dozen programs within the reserve. Couchiching First Nation had early residences in the Wasaw area north of Frog Creek/Frog Lake and this area was regarded in the busy forestry and wild rice harvests in the nineteenth century. After 1909, flooding impacts and expropriation of land for the railway and highway forced the community to move south of Frog Creek and along Sand Bay; the Wasaw companies include Wasaw Project Inc.. Wasaw Construction Ltd. Wasaw Developments, Wasaw Food Services, Inc; these companies are meant to create own source revenue for the community in order to build an economic base for the community. Wasaw in the Ojibwe, the language of Couchiching, means "Far"; the artist Susan Blight is a member of the Couchiching First Nation.
Couchiching First Nation official website Couchiching First Nation profile from AANDC Couchiching First Nation profile from Chiefs of Ontario our Economic Development website
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
The Dominion Network was the second English-language radio network of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from January 1, 1944 to 1962. It consisted of the CBC-owned CJBC radio station in Toronto and a series of 34 owned affiliates from coast-to-coast; the Dominion Network was set up as a complementary network to the CBC's main English service which became known as the Trans-Canada Network. While the Trans-Canada Network focus was on public affairs and cultural programs, the Dominion Network's broadcast schedule consisted of lighter programming fare than that of the Trans-Canada Network and carried more American programming; as well, the Dominion Network operated in the evenings, freeing affiliates to air local programming during the day. The Dominion Network was launched on January 1, 1944 after a request by private affiliates asking to set up their own radio network in order to carry American programming was turned down. CBC became concerned that the private stations might succeed in pressuring the government to permit such a private radio network.
As a result, the CBC set up its own second network to appease demands by owned CBC affiliates for popular programming that would provide more commercial revenue. The network was managed by Spence Caldwell, who became a founder of CTV. Shows carried by the network included Duffy's Fibber McGee and Molly. There is an urban legend that a CBC announcer once accidentally gave a station identification as "the Dominion Network of the Canadian Broadcorping Castration", popularized when US TV producer Kermit Schaefer included a recreation of this incident on one of his best-selling Pardon My Blooper record albums in the 1950s. Canadian political pundit Mark Steyn refers to the CBC as such in his columns; the network was dissolved in 1962 and most of the private stations became independent. CJBC became a French-language station and is now the Southern Ontario owned-and-operated station of Radio-Canada's Première Chaîne. Calgary - CFCN Edmonton - CFRN Medicine Hat - CHAT Chilliwack - CHWK Penticton - CKOK Vancouver - CJOR Vernon - CJIB Victoria - CJVI Brandon - CKX Winnipeg - CKRC Saint John - CFBC Halifax - CHNS Sydney - CJCB Fort Frances - CKFI Hamilton - CHML Kingston - CKLC/CKLC-FM Kitchener - CKCR London - CFPL Orillia - CFOR Ottawa - CKCO Peterborough - CHEX Stratford - CJCS Sudbury - CHNO Thunder Bay - CFPA Toronto - CJBC Windsor - CKLW Charlottetown - CFCY Montreal - CFCF Quebec City - CJQC Moose Jaw - CHAB Regina - CKRM Saskatoon - CFQC History of Canadian Broadcasting: CBC Radio Networks
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul