Saks Fifth Avenue
Saks Fifth Avenue is an American chain of luxury department stores owned by the oldest commercial corporation in North America, the Hudson's Bay Company. Its main flagship store is located on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Saks Fifth Avenue is the successor of a business founded by Andrew Saks in 1867 and incorporated in New York in 1902 as Saks & Company. Saks died in 1912, in 1923 Saks & Co. merged with Gimbel Brothers, Inc., owned by a cousin of Horace Saks, Bernard Gimbel, operating as a separate autonomous subsidiary. On September 15, 1924, Horace Saks and Bernard Gimbel opened Saks Fifth Avenue in New York City, with a full-block avenue frontage south of St. Patrick's Cathedral, facing what would become Rockefeller Center; the architects were Starrett & van Vleck, who developed a reticent, genteel Anglophile classicizing facade similar to their Gimbels Department Store in Pittsburgh. When Bernard's brother, Adam Gimbel, became president of Saks Fifth Avenue in 1926 after Horace Saks's sudden passing, the company expanded, opening seasonal resort branches in Palm Beach and Southampton, New York, in 1928.
The first full-line year-round Saks store opened in Chicago, in 1929, followed by another resort store in Miami Beach, Florida. In 1938, Saks expanded to the West Coast, opening in California. By the end of the 1930s, Saks Fifth Avenue had a total of 10 stores, including resort locations such as Sun Valley, Mount Stowe, Newport, Rhode Island. More full-line stores followed with Detroit, Michigan, in 1940 and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1949. In Downtown Pittsburgh, the company moved to its own freestanding location one block from its former home on the fourth floor in the downtown Gimbel's flagship; the San Francisco location opened in 1952, competing locally with I. Magnin. BATUS Inc. acquired Gimbel Bros. Inc. and its Saks Fifth Avenue subsidiary in 1973 as part of its diversification strategy. More expansion followed from the 1960s through the 1990s including the Midwest, the South in Texas. In 1990, BATUS sold Saks to Investcorp S. A. which took Saks public in 1996 as Saks Holdings, Inc. In 1990, "Saks Off 5th" was launched, an outlet store offshoot of the main brand, with 107 stores worldwide by 2016.
In 1998, Proffitt's, Inc. the parent company of Proffitt's and other department stores, acquired Saks Holdings Inc. Upon completing the acquisition, Proffitt's, Inc. changed its name to Inc.. Since 2000 Saks has opened international locations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan and Mexico City. In August 2007, the United States Postal Service began an experimental program selling the plus zip code extension to businesses; the first company to do so was Saks Fifth Avenue, which received the zip code of 10022-7463 for the eighth-floor shoe department in its flagship Fifth Avenue store. During the 2007–2009 recession, Saks Fifth Avenue had to close some stores and to cut prices and profit margins, thus according to Reuters "training shoppers to expect discounts, it took three years before it could start selling at closer to full price". In the following years, the company closed stores in locations including Orange County, Pittsburgh, Chicago and in June 2013 its last Dallas store to implement the "strategy of employing our resources in our most productive locations".
As of 2013, the New York flagship store, whose real estate value was estimated between $800 million and over $1 billion at the time, generated around 20% of Saks' annual sales at $620 million, with other stores being less profitable according to analysts. On July 29, 2013, the Hudson's Bay Company, owner of the competing chain Lord & Taylor, announced it would acquire Saks Fifth Avenue's parent company for US$2.9 billion. Plans called for up to seven Saks Fifth Avenues to open in major Canadian markets. Expansion into Canada is expected to compete with Canadian Holt Renfrew chain and challenge Nordstrom's expansion into Canada, which began in summer 2014 with the opening of a Nordstrom store in Calgary. In January 2014, HBC announced the first Saks store in Canada would occupy 150,000 sq ft in its flagship Queen Street building in downtown Toronto, connected to the Toronto Eaton Centre via sky bridge; the store opened in February 2016 with a second Toronto area location in the Sherway Gardens shopping center opening in spring 2016.
On February 22, 2018, Saks Fifth Avenue opened its third Canadian store in Alberta. Starting in 2015 Saks began a $250 million, three-year restoration of its Fifth Avenue flagship store. In the summer of 2015, it was announced that Saks will debut a new location in Greenwich, Connecticut. In the fall of 2015, Saks was planning to replace its existing store at the Houston Galleria with a new store. In February 2017, Saks was reported to be in advanced talks with Indian retailer Aditya Birla Fashion Retail Ltd. to open two stores in India. The stores are expected to be located at Aerocity in Delhi, the Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai. In September 2017, Saks Fifth Avenue would be introducing new futuristic salon concept at stores through a partnership with the Warren Tricomi. In 2005, vendors filed against Saks alleging unlawful chargebacks; the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigated the complaint for years and, according to the New York Times, "exposed a tangle of illicit tactics that let Saks... keep money it owed to clothing makers", inflating Saks' yearly earnings up to 43% and abusively collecting around $30 million from suppliers over seven years.
Saks settled with the SEC in 2007, after firing three or more executives involved in the fraudulent activities. In 2014, Saks fired transgender employee Leyth Jamal after she was "belittled by cowo
Chapters Inc. is a Canadian big box bookstore banner owned by Indigo Books and Music. A separate company competing with Indigo, the combined company has continued to operate both banners since their merger in 2001; as of July 2017, it operated 89 superstores under the banners Chapters and Indigo, 122 small format stores under the banners Coles, SmithBooks and The Book Company. Chapters Inc. was created in 1994 when founder and CEO, Lawrence Stevenson led the buyout and merger of Canada's two largest book chains at the time: Coles and SmithBooks. SmithBooks was acquired from Federal Industries and Coles was acquired from Southam Inc. Canadian General Capital and Pathfinder Capital bought these two chains to build large-format book superstores comparable to those of the American bookstore chains Barnes & Noble and Borders; the new company was created in April 1995 and the first two book superstores were opened in November 1995. The original superstores were in Burlington and Burnaby, British Columbia.
Chapters changed the face of Canada's book selling industry. Companies like Coles and Smithbooks had many small stores. Chapters built large box stores with a much larger product selection. Chapters provided chairs and couches for their customers, as well as Starbucks coffee shops, did not discourage reading inside the store; the company became Canada's largest book retailer, with 77 superstores branded as Chapters and more than 280 mall-based stores under the names Coles, SmithBooks, Classic Bookshops, the Book Company, Active Minds. However, the SmithBooks, the Book Company, Classic Bookshops names have been phased and locations rebranded as Coles stores in recent years. Canada's first book superstore, Toronto's World's Biggest Bookstore, once part of the Coles chain, was owned by Chapters and had continued to operate under its original name. Chapters grew quickly, it was criticized, for several reasons. It was blamed for the demise of several independent bookstores across Canada alternative stores carrying obscure or controversial titles.
Although it was said that Chapters built its business around moving massive numbers of a few bestsellers, the majority of its sales came from backlist titles. As the company's market share grew it represented the lion's share of many publishers' sales. Chapters did not keep the box book store market to itself, with the opening of Indigo. Headed by Heather Reisman, Indigo began to compete with Chapters in select markets and opened 14 stores. Chapters aggressively expanded into online bookselling with chapters.ca to compete with Amazon and was a majority investor in Pegasus, a book wholesaler. Pegasus was needed to be able to serve the online sales but the business was resisted by Canadian publishers and was not successful. In the autumn of 2000 Indigo launched a hostile takeover. Indigo was able to convince the Competition Bureau that Indigo was not a viable standalone business given the enormous losses that it was sustaining and thus had to be able to merge with the profitable Chapters retail chain.
By early 2001, Indigo had been successful in purchasing Chapters, but kept both the Chapters and Indigo brands. In some cases and SmithBooks stores were shut down if they were too close to a Chapters site. Although there are still some aesthetic differences between the store designs of the Chapters and Indigo banners, they now share many common elements. Moreover, aside from Indigo's larger focus on music, product selection and special offers are not distinguishable from one to the other. Indigo has adopted the Starbucks cafes that were in Chapters stores and has reduced the seating areas in Chapters stores and introduced a wide range of non-book products, carried at Indigo. On January 1, 2018, the Chapters location in Bayview Village Shopping Centre was closed 18 years after its opening; the Starbucks cafe that appears in all Chapters and Indigo locations was relocated and reopened in the mall. The shuttered location is expected to reopen in Summer/Fall 2018 in the nearby Fairview Mall, utilizing the void left by Sears Canada.
This may include shutting down the Coles. Since its takeover by Indigo, Chapters has been involved in several controversies tied to censorship concerns, or the strong support for Israel by the owner Heather Reisman and her husband Gerry Schwartz. Reisman and Schwartz head the HESEG Foundation, which provides scholarships for discharged lone-soldiers who served in the Israel Defense Forces; the book "Mein Kampf" by Adolf Hitler was removed from the shelves of Chapters. There was controversy in the fact that the book is sometimes used in a historical context and some university or high school courses have the book on their syllabus. Chapters Inc The Canadian Encyclopedia: Chapters Bid The Canadian Encyclopedia: Chapters Struggles to Survive Donney's Cafe: Hot sip Publishers Weekly: Heather Reisman: "Cautiously, Respectfully Adore"
CF Champlain Place
Champlain Place known as Champlain Mall and corporately styled as CF Champlain, is a shopping centre located in Dieppe, New Brunswick, Canada. It is the largest single-building shopping centre in Atlantic Canada by floor space; the mall has over 150 services. The anchor tenants are: Walmart Sobeys Toys "R" Us Sport Chek H&M Urban Planet Linen Chest Victoria's Secret The site began as Sears store; until September 2008, customers of Champlain Place were allowed to bring their shopping carts with them anywhere within the common areas of the mall. Carts have since been banned from use in the common areas, restricted to grocery and large department stores. Champlain Place is named after a French explorer of the region. List of largest enclosed shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Canada Bass Pro Complex Champlain Place Website
CF Chinook Centre
Chinook Centre is the largest shopping mall in Calgary, Canada. It is located near the geographic centre of the city on Macleod Trail, north of Glenmore Trail about 5 km south of downtown, three blocks west of the Chinook C-Train station; the mall is operated by Cadillac Fairview. CF Chinook Centre covers of space, includes three major anchor stores and 250 stores and restaurants; as the largest shopping destination in Calgary, it offers a range of mid-priced retailers as well as higher-end offerings in a luxury wing anchored by Saks Fifth Avenue. Junior anchors include Sport Chek, H&M, Old Navy, Chapters; the centre includes a professional tower, bowling alley, 900-seat Dining Hall, the 16-screen Scotiabank Theatre Chinook. An enclosed pedestrian bridge spanning Macleod Trail helps funnel traffic from the C-Train directly into the property; the focal point of the mall is a four-storey-high rotunda, including a time capsule at the centre's axis, set to be opened on December 31, 2999. In 1960, with Calgary's population and city limits expanding, the first section of Chinook Centre was opened August 16 on the site of the Chinook Drive-In Theatre and the adjacent Skyline drive-in and driving range.
Designed as an open-air complex, the mall was anchored by Woodward's, Holt Renfrew, a bowling alley, a branch of the Calgary Public Library. In the mid-1960s, a separate mall, was opened across the street from Chinook. Built to be a competing centre with Sears and 30 other stores, Southridge operated separately until 1974, when the malls came under common ownership and an expansion was built to bridge the centres together; the new, larger mall was renamed Chinook Ridge Shopping Centre, included a major enclosed parking structure, a movie theatre, an office tower, a food court. In the 1980s, a two-storey wing of specialty retailers was added leading to a new anchor store and a new food court; this expansion brought the mall's store count to 300. In the late 1990s, Chinook Centre underwent a $300 million, three-year renovation; the complex was rebuilt in three phases, added new stores for Sears, The Bay and Zellers, as well as the south parkade and theatre complex. The move to larger format retailers reduced the number of stores to 200.
This re-merchandising program was unkind to smaller, locally owned businesses who were squeezed out by the'upscaling' of the property. On September 29, 2010, a major 180,000-square-foot 2-level expansion was opened; the new wing added 60 new retailers, many of which were new to the Calgary market or considered high-end luxury brand stores. The expansion increased the number of retailers to 250, added two levels of underground parking. Former Anchors: Sears Canada Target Canada Zellers CF Chinook Centre is working on designs to add 2.3 million square feet of retail and mixed-use space. List of largest shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Canada
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Zellers Inc. was a major Canadian chain discount department retailer based in Brampton, Ontario. It was founded in 1931, was acquired by Hudson's Bay Company in 1978. A series of acquisitions and expansions allowed Zellers to reach its peak in the 1990s, with 350 stores across the country in 1999. However, fierce competition by Walmart Canada and an inability to adjust to the volatile retailing industry resulted in Zellers losing significant ground in the 2000s. At the same time, HBC's new owner NRDC Equity Partners was focusing on bolstering and re-positioning Zellers' sister chain, The Bay, with an upscale and fashion-oriented direction, saw Zellers as a determent to the turnaround. In January 2011, HBC announced that it would sell the lease agreements for up to 220 Zellers stores to the U. S. chain Target for $1.825 billion. In turn, Target announced its intent to convert a large number of them to Canadian locations of Target, re-sell the remainder to other parties such as Walmart Canada, resulting in their liquidation and eventual closure.
While HBC retained 64 Zellers locations, it announced on July 26, 2012 that the majority of them would be liquidated and closed by March 31, 2013 due to their lack of profitability. Two Zellers-branded stores continue to operate in Ontario, which operate as liquidation stores for HBC's other banners. "On Saturday August 4th, 1928 Zellers Ltd was born in London. Walter P. Zeller, its founder, opened his new store & head office at 176 Dundas St after working for years for Metropolitan Department Stores, F. W. Woolworth Company & Kresges; this new store was to be a part of a chain of "Canadian Superstores". The plan at the start was to have stores opened in London, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Fort Williams & St. John N. B; the London store had a depth of 137 feet. It had a total of 7,000 sq ft of space on the ground floor with 2,000 ft of counter space spread out around the store. 60 girls were hired for the opening day working in 21 different departments. Within months Zellers was doing such good business they were bought out by the American firm Schulte-United Ltd.
Within two years the rebranded stores went bankrupt. Walter Zeller promptly bought most of the failed Schulte stores & relaunched Zellers in late 1931. Zellers Department Store remained at 176 Dundas St until the late 1980s.""info source - London Free Press August 3rd, 1928 edition, http://torontoist.com/2015/01/vintage-toronto-ads-zellers/ & http://www.hbcheritage.ca/…/hist…/people/builders/zeller.asp The company was founded in 1931 by Walter P. Zeller as "stores for thrifty Canadians"; the chain began with the purchase of the fourteen Canadian locations of American retailer Schulte-United, all of which were in Southern Ontario. Zellers initiated an aggressive expansion strategy. Within 25 years, Zellers employed 3,000 people. In 1952, in a move to expand into Atlantic Canada, it acquired the Federal Stores chain of variety stores, adding more than 12 new Zellers locations. During this period of expansion, Zellers concluded a deal with W. T. Grant, a similar chain of American mass merchandise department stores.
This arrangement allowed W. T. Grant to purchase 10% of Zellers shares, a 51% ownership in 1959. In exchange, the Grant Company made available to Zellers its experience in merchandising, real estate, store development, general administration. Zellers' employees were sent to Grant stores and head office for training and the two companies made common buying trips to east Asia. In the 1950s, the chain again began opening new locations and, in 1956, opened its first self-serve location at the Norgate shopping centre in Saint-Laurent, Quebec. Stores opened in 1960 employed many new innovations, including the first in-store restaurant, the first automotive centre, the first suburban location. In 1975, Zellers adopted its final logo. By 1976, Zellers had grown with annual sales of $407 million. Although Zellers was prospering, W. T. Grant was facing intense competition in the United States, was forced to withdraw from its Canadian operations. In 1976, Fields, a clothing retailer based in Vancouver, British Columbia, offered to purchase a 50.1% stake in Zellers for $32,675,000.
Zellers' shareholders, unhappy with the idea of Zellers becoming a subsidiary of Fields, reversed the takeover, purchased Fields and its hardware store division, Marshall Wells. This sale added 162 franchised Marshall Wells stores to the company. Fields' President and founder, Joseph Segal, was appointed as President of Zellers. In June 1978, Zellers presented a bid to acquire 100% ownership of the Hudson's Bay Company, owner of The Bay department stores. HBC management, recognizing Zellers' profitability and the potential to enter a new retail segment, decided to purchase Zellers instead. Zellers and Fields, operating in different retail segments from HBC, were kept intact, established as separate divisions of the company. HBC acquired full ownership of Zellers and Fields in 1981 and Marshall Wells in 1982. By 1985, HBC had sold Marshall Wells for $20 million, because it was not relevant to its department store business. Counterfeit video games for the Atari 2600 were sold by Zellers in the 1980s.
All games were clones of titles created either by Atari itself or by third-party developers, such as Activision. Zellers was forced by Atari to stop selling these games. Zellers released 18 games for the Atari 2600 in the early 1980s. In 1990, Hudson's Bay Company acquired the 51 stores of the Towers/Bonimart chain from the Oshawa Group, converted most of them to Zellers outlets, including its flagship location in Toronto. Zellers' advertisements at the time featured both the Towers ma