CGR 1st Class 4-4-0TT

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CGR 1st Class 4-4-0TT
OVGS 1st Class 4-4-0TT
South African Class 01 4-4-0TT
Cape 1st Class (4-4-0TT) 1881.jpg
Works picture of CGR 1st Class 4-4-0TT, c. 1881
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Robert Stephenson and Company
Builder Neilson and Company
Serial number 2680-2685
Build date 1881
Total produced 6
 • Whyte 4-4-0TT (American)
 • UIC 2'Bn2t
Driver 1st coupled axle
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge
Leading dia. 27 in (686 mm)
Coupled dia. 48 in (1,219 mm)
Tender wheels 36 in (914 mm)
Wheelbase 33 ft 2 34 in (10,128 mm)
 • Engine 17 ft 4 in (5,283 mm)
 • Leading 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm)
 • Coupled 6 ft 6 in (1,981 mm)
 • Tender 8 ft (2,438 mm)
 • Over couplers 40 ft 8 78 in (12,417 mm)
Width 6 ft 10 in (2,083 mm)
Height 12 ft (3,658 mm)
Frame type Plate
Axle load 8 LT 1 cwt (8,179 kg)
 • Leading 7 LT 3 cwt (7,265 kg)
 • 1st coupled 7 LT 19 cwt 1 qtr (8,090 kg)
 • 2nd coupled 8 LT 1 cwt (8,179 kg)
 • Tender axle 5 LT 16 cwt (5,893 kg)
Adhesive weight 16 LT (16,260 kg)
Loco weight 23 LT 3 cwt (23,520 kg)
Tender weight 17 LT 8 cwt (17,680 kg)
Total weight 40 LT 11 cwt (41,200 kg)
Tender type 3-axle
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 2 LT 10 cwt (2.5 t)
Water cap 450 imp gal (2,050 l) engine
Tender cap. 1,700 imp gal (7,730 l)
Firebox type Round-top
 • Firegrate area 10.5 sq ft (0.98 m2)
 • Pitch 5 ft 10 in (1,778 mm)
 • Tube plates 9 ft (2,743 mm)
Boiler pressure 130 psi (896 kPa)
Safety valve Salter
Heating surface 549.7 sq ft (51.07 m2)
 • Tubes 494.7 sq ft (45.96 m2)
 • Firebox 55 sq ft (5.1 m2)
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 14 in (356 mm) bore
18 in (457 mm) stroke
Valve gear Stephenson
Couplers Johnston link-and-pin
Performance figures
Tractive effort 7,167 lbf (31.88 kN) @ 75%
Operators Cape Government Railways
South African Railways
Class CGR 1st Class, SAR Class 01
Number in class 6
Numbers M44-M49
Delivered 1881
First run 1881

The Cape Government Railways 1st Class 4-4-0TT of 1881 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

In 1881, the Cape Government Railways placed six more 1st Class tank-and-tender locomotives with a 4-4-0 American type wheel arrangement in service on the Midland System. These engines were built as tender locomotives, without on-board coal bunkers and with permanently attached coal and water tenders.[1]


Six 4-4-0 side-tank-and-tender passenger locomotives were built for the Cape Government Railways (CGR) by Neilson and Company in 1881, numbered in the range from M44 to M49 in the Midland System's number range. They were built to the same specifications as the eleven 1st Class 4-4-0T locomotives of 1875, but without the onboard coal bunker and with the plate frame shortened accordingly. Instead, they were equipped with permanently attached six-wheeled tenders with an estimated capacity of 1,700 imperial gallons (7,730 litres) water and 2 long tons 10 hundredweight (2.5 tonnes) coal.[1][2]

They were also designated 1st Class when a locomotive classification system was introduced by the CGR.[1]


Cape Government Railways[edit]

Cape Government Railways map - 1882 - Cape Archives.jpg

At the time these locomotives entered service, the two Midland lines from Port Elizabeth were open as far as Graaff Reinet and Cradock respectively.[3]

One of these locomotives, no. M48, later became known as the Colesberg Buster during the years it worked on the line between Colesberg Junction and Colesberg town. In this role, it was equipped with one of the older small four-wheeled tenders.[1]

According to some sources, one of these locomotives, no. 445, was sold to the Nyasaland Railways at some stage.[1][4] This has since been proven untrue, since no evidence of such a sale have come to light and the particular locomotive is referred to in the South African Railways (SAR) renumbering and classification lists of 1912 as being at Uitenhage and recommended for scrapping.[5][6]

Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment-Spoorwegen[edit]

The Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment-Spoorwegen (OVGS) acquired its first locomotives second-hand from the CGR towards the end of 1896. The OVGS 1st Class was, according to the original engine power chart of that railway, a 4-4-0 tank-and-tender locomotive with a three-axle tender. One source proposed that these engines were from the CGR 1st Class 4-4-0T of 1875, which had their optional two-axle tenders replaced with three-axle tenders and their cylinder bore increased from 13 inches (330 millimetres) to 14 inches (356 millimetres), amongst other modifications.[7]

More likely candidates which better fit the description on the OVGS engine power chart in respect of cylinder bore, tender and lack of onboard coal bunker, may be one or more of these 1st Class 4-4-0TT engines of 1881, numbers 444, 446 and 447, which were last reflected on the CGR roster in 1896.[7]

South African Railways[edit]

When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways (CGR, Natal Government Railways and Central South African Railways) were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways, ports and harbours of the Union. Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways was only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912.[3][6]

By 1912, only three of these locomotives survived. One was locomotive no. 445, which had allegedly earlier been sold to Nyasaland and which, at the time, was found to be rostered at Uitenhage on the Midland system. It was considered obsolete by the SAR and was excluded from the classification and renumbering schedules. The other two, numbers 448 and 449, were also considered obsolete and were therefore designated Class 01 and renumbered to 0448 and 0449 respectively. They were all withdrawn from service in 1913.[5][6][8]


All these locomotives were renumbered at least three times during the CGR era, whenever a new numbering system was adopted. By 1886, the system prefixes had been done away with, the "M" having been replaced by the numeral "1". Further renumbering was applied by 1890 and again by 1896, when first the leading numeral "1" was replaced by the numeral "2" by 1890, and the leading numeral "2" was, in turn, replaced by the numeral "4" by 1896.[1][5]

The works numbers, original numbers and renumbering of the Cape 1st Class 4-4-0TT are listed in the table.[1][5][6]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. 
  2. ^ Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1943). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter II - The Cape Government Railways (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, September 1943. p. 658 (drawing).
  3. ^ a b The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, pp. 12, 25.
  4. ^ Dulez, Jean A. (2012). Railways of Southern Africa 150 Years (Commemorating One Hundred and Fifty Years of Railways on the Sub-Continent – Complete Motive Power Classifications and Famous Trains – 1860–2011) (1st ed.). Garden View, Johannesburg, South Africa: Vidrail Productions. p. 36. ISBN 9 780620 512282. 
  5. ^ a b c d C.G.R. Numbering Revised, Article by Dave Littley, SA Rail May–June 1993, pp. 94-95.
  6. ^ a b c d Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office, Pretoria, January 1912, p. 2. (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
  7. ^ a b Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter V - Other Transvaal and O.F.S. Railways. South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, December 1944. pp. 925, 927.
  8. ^ Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. p. 15. ISBN 0869772112.