CCTV International Russian is a Russian language international news and education television channel which is owned by China Central Television. The Russian-language channel was launched on September 10,2009 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of ties between Beijing and Moscow. CCTV Russian is broadcast through Chinasat 6B and EB-9A, which cover the Asian-Pacific Region, Middle East, the channel is aimed about 300 million viewers in 12 Commonwealth of Independent States members, Eastern Europe and three Baltic Sea nations. Since 2016 the CCTV Russian is present in the SPB TV online translation in the Belt, the channel broadcasts entirely in Russian, with 16 programs in the form of news, feature stories and educational programs. Its daily schedule consists of 6-hour blocks, news broadcasts will be updated more often, while all feature programs air four times daily. CCTV-4 CCTV-Français CCTV-Español CCTV-العربية CCTV-NEWS CNTV International Official Site Complete Schedule
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17,1994, transmits digital television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America. Its primary competitors are Dish Network and cable television providers, DirecTV provides television and audio services to subscribers through satellite transmissions. Services include the equivalent of local television stations, broadcast television networks, subscription television services, satellite radio services. Subscribers have access to hundreds of channels, so its competitors are cable television service, most subscribers use reception antennas which are much smaller than the first generation antennas, which were typically a few yards across. Advances in antenna technology, including fractal antennas, have allowed a reduction in antenna size across all industries. Receiving equipment includes a dish, an integrated receiver/decoder and a DirecTV access card.
Consumers who purchase DirecTV subscribe to various packages of DirecTV programming for which the subscriber pays a monthly fee, additional monthly fees may include a protection plan, DVR, additional receivers, HD channels, and other premium channel packages. A subscriber can order pay-per-view and video on demand events, all programming distributed by DirecTV is delivered to its broadcast centers in Castle Rock and Los Angeles, where it is digitized and compressed. The resulting signal is encrypted by DirecTV to prevent its unauthorized reception, DirecTV transmits these signals to several satellites located in geostationary orbit. As of the quarter ended September 30,2012, DirecTV U. S. had 19.981 million subscribers, for the same period, DirecTV Latin America ended with 9.666 million subscribers and revenues of US$1.577 billion. In addition to serving residences, DirecTV offers service to bars, hotels, the company offered mobile service for cars, and RVs as well as aircraft in cooperation with Connexion by Boeing.
On November 30,2016, DirecTV Now, an internet streaming TV service was launched, in 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, in 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20,1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation, the new subsidiary was initially composed of four units, Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, and Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States.
USSB was awarded five frequencies by the FCC, at the coveted 101 degree west satellite location, Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location
China Network Television
China Network Television is a national web-based TV broadcaster officially launched on December 28,2009. CNTV International offers 6 local language services and 6 foreign language services and they provide viewers with a host of news and feature programs from China National Televisions foreign channels. CNTV has multiple specialty channels which focus on a variety of subjects, including news, business. As of December 2014 according to Alexa Internet, the website was rank 71 in the world. CCTV News CCTV-E CCTV-F CCTV-Русский CNTV Official Website
AT&T U-verse, commonly called U-verse, is an AT&T brand of triple-play telecommunications services, although the brand is now only used in reference to the television portion of the services. Launched on June 26,2006, using the FTTP, VDSL, and ADSL communication protocols, U-verse included broadband Internet, IP telephone, and IPTV services in 21 states. On March 27,2017, it was revealed that AT&T is seriously considering closing down the TV service website Uverse. com on May 30,2017. SBC announced its plans for a network and Internet Protocol television deployment in 2004. Beta testing began in San Antonio in 2005 and AT&T U-verse was commercially launched June 26,2006, a few months on November 30,2006, the service was launched in Houston. In December 2006, the product launched in Chicago, San Francisco, Hartford, Indianapolis, in February 2007, U-verse was launched in Milwaukee. One month service was initiated in Dallas and Kansas City, in May 2007, U-verse launched in Detroit, Los Angeles, and surrounding areas.
Launch continued in Cleveland and San Diego in June 2007, the Oklahoma City and Sacramento launches occurred in August 2007. In November 2007, service was started in Austin, in December 2007, U-verse was launched in Orlando and St. Louis. A controlled launch was initiated in Atlanta that month marking the first launch in the Southeastern United States. On December 22,2008, the product debuted in Birmingham, on January 25,2010, AT&T announced that U-verse was available to over 2.8 million households. AT&T Phone was added on January 22,2008, and was first available in Detroit, in 2008, U-verse availability approached 8 million households and over 225,000 customers had been enrolled, with new installations reaching 12,000 per week. By 2009,1 million Phone customers and 2.1 million U-verse TV customers had been enrolled, at the end of 2011, U-verse was available to more than 30 million living units in 22 states and U-verse TV had 3.8 million customers. By mid-2012, AT&T had 4.1 million U-Verse TV subscribers,2.6 million Phone subscribers, by the third quarter of 2012, AT&T had 4.3 million TV subscribers,2.7 million Phone subscribers and 7.1 million Internet.
This represents 7% growth quarter on quarter, the actual number of customers is lower, as most customers subscribe to a bundle and so are counted in both categories. On March 29,2016, AT&T announced that it will increase data caps on its Internet service on May 23,2016, the integration of AT&T and DirecTV is set to begin by the fourth quarter of 2016. On May 16,2016, AT&T announced that it will acquire Quickplay Media, on September 19,2016, AT&T announced that the U-verse brand would no longer apply to its broadband and phone services, renaming them AT&T Internet and AT&T Phone, respectively. AT&T delivers most U-verse service over a fiber-to-the-node or fiber-to-the-premises communications network, in the more common FTTN deployment, fiber-optic connections carry all data between the service provider and a distribution node
MHz Networks is a Northern Virginia based independent, non-commercial educational broadcaster that serves the Washington, D. C. area with 12 digital broadcast channels. The legal broadcast callsigns for the two stations are WNVC and WNVT, rebranded as MHz Networks, WNVC is licensed to Fairfax, Virginia with studios in Falls Church, Virginia and WNVT is licensed in Goldvein, Virginia. C. WNVT first signed on March 1,1972 on Channel 53 as a public broadcaster independent of Public Broadcasting Service, on June 6,1981 Channel 56 signed on as a similar station and in 1982, changed its call letters to WNVC. Since channel 56 signed on, the two stations were operated from the same Northern Virginia studios, and were run as sister stations, the WNVT studios were originally at Northern Virginia Community College. When the station was under construction, the school offered an associate of arts in broadcast engineering technology, prior to WNVT, channel 53 had a brief experimental transmission from somewhere in downtown Washington, D. C.
In 2001, the two became known as MHz Networks, with WNVC becoming MHz and WNVT becoming MHz2. In 2003, WNVT became digital-only on channel 30, on September 1,2008, WNVC ceased broadcasting in analog permanently and took the digital broadcast silent to perform technical modifications. WNVC has a permit to relocate its digital signal to channel 24. TV stations became a test market for Mobile DTV, and WNVT was one of the participating stations, like all of the DC-area Mobile DTV broadcasters, WNVC-TV commenced ATSC-M/H broadcasting on February 27,2011. WNVC-TV has two Mobile DTV feeds, one of subchannel 30.1, labelled MHz 1, commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation owns the licenses for WNVC and WNVT, which MHz programs under contract. CPBC announced on March 31,2017 that it had sold the licenses in the Federal Communications Commissions ongoing spectrum reallocation auction for $182 million. The two stations will go off the air in the future and have their channel space turned over to the FCC for sale to wireless companies.
Although access to MHz Worldview in the Washington, D. C. market will be lost, Channel numbers given are digital virtual channels, with six being transmitted by each station. Both stations feature international programming 24 hours daily, mHz3, Metro Chinese Network, replaced by CCTV News. MHz5, Beste van Vlaanderen en Nederland, replaced by Al Jazeera English, mHz5, Al Jazeera English, replaced by Blue Ocean Network on August 20,2013 when Al Jazeera English was pulled from US distribution with the inception of Al Jazeera America. MHz6, SABC News International, replaced by MHz Native, MHz6, MHz Native, replaced by CCTV Documentary. MHz8, Macroview TV, replaced by Nigerian Television Authority, mHz8, Nigerian Television Authority, replaced by Ethiopian Television. MHz8, Ethiopian Television, replaced by RT Spanish and returned to MHz10, mHz8, RT Spanish MHz9, VTV4, replaced by Arirang, moved to a 12-hour slot on MHz6 and to MHz11
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974