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CHUM, broadcasting at 1050 kHz, is a Canadian radio station licensed to Toronto, Ontario. The station is operated by Bell Media. CHUM's studios are co-located with TSN at 9 Channel Nine Court in the Agincourt neighbourhood of Scarborough, with its transmitter array located in the Clarkson neighbourhood of Mississauga. Long known as 1050 CHUM, from the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, the station played current Top 40 hits. In 1986, the station switched to an adult contemporary format. For two decades beginning in 1989, CHUM began playing oldies, featuring music from the 1950s and 1960s, except for a brief stint as a sports radio station, The Team 1050, from 2001-2002. In March 2009, CHUM switched to a news format known as CP24 Radio 1050, which operated as an audio simulcast of CP24 before reverting to a sports format as TSN Radio 1050 in April 2011. CHUM AM has been broadcasting continuously through a variety of format changes; the station's history can be broken into eight distinct eras, as follows: CHUM AM was founded by four Toronto businessmen, including Al Leary, a former sportscaster, the station manager at CKCL for 14 years.

CHUM received its licence in late November 1944 to operate a station with 1000 watts. CHUM launched as a dawn-to-dusk radio station on October 28, 1945, with John H. Q. "Jack" Part, an entrepreneur in the business of patent medicines, as its president. The station, operating from 1947 in studios at 225 Mutual St. broadcast a format typical of the late 1940s, with a combination of information and sports. When CHUM was about to debut, Leary told the press that the new station would be known for community service and in-depth news, in addition to live talent and the most popular phonograph records. CHUM was taken over in December 1954 by Allan Waters, a salesman from Part's patent medicine business. Waters' first major move was to secure a licence for 24-hour-a-day broadcasting for CHUM, along with a power increase to 5,000 watts. Less than three years after Waters acquired the station, soon after bringing the new full-time transmitter online, a major programming change was made. On May 27, 1957, at 6 AM, Waters switched the station to a "Top 50" format that had proven itself popular in some U.

S. cities. "1050 CHUM" pioneered rock and roll radio in Toronto, was noteworthy for hosting many noteworthy rock concerts including, among others, visits to Maple Leaf Gardens by Elvis Presley and the Beatles. The station rose in popularity in Toronto in early 1960s; as the station became more successful, it built yet another new transmitter in Mississauga, Ontario along the Lake Ontario shoreline, raised its power once again to its current 50,000 watts around the clock. In the late 1950s, CHUM was calling itself "Radio One". An important part of CHUM's success was the station's unpredictable morning man Al Boliska, who joined CHUM in October 1957, after working at station CKLC in Kingston, Ontario. By 1959, Boliska had made a name for himself as a disc jockey, he made them laugh, became known for telling what he called the "World's Worst Jokes". Boliska did a number of stunts, such as taking part in a professional wrestling match with Whipper Billy Watson; when he lost, that led to another stunt, where Boliska stayed away from his show for several days, saying he was now too discouraged by the loss to do his show.

A hypnotist was called in, Boliska's self-esteem was restored. Boliska left CHUM in late 1963 to go'across the street' to CKEY, he was replaced by WKBW Buffalo radio & TV personality Jay Nelson, popularly known as "Jungle Jay" from his role as host of a children's show on Buffalo's Channel 7, popular among Toronto youngsters. He would be followed by housewives' jock John Spragge. Additions to the CHUM DJ lineup included Duff Roman and Brian Skinner, both of whom came from rival Toronto rocker CKEY. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, CHUM DJs included Duke Roberts, Johnny Mitchell, J. Michael Wilson, Tom Rivers, Scott Carpenter, Jim Van Horne, John Rode, Don Reagan, John Majhor, Mike Cooper, Daryl B, Terry Steele, Mike Holland and current CHUM-FM morning man Roger Ashby. Among their night-time hosts was J. D. Roberts, who joined CHUM for a time in 1977 becoming known across North America as White House correspondent for CBS News was co-anchor of CNN's morning program American Morning and is White House correspondent again now with Fox News.

Rick Moranis famous for his work on SCTV and Ghostbusters, was a late-night CHUM DJ in the mid-seventies under the name "Rick Allan". CHUM began to have zany contests. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was contests such as'The Walking Man', where listeners had to spot CHUM's mystery walking man using only clues given out on the air; the 1970s' "I Listen to CHUM" promotion had DJs dialing phone numbers at random and awarding $1,000 to anyone who answered the phone with that phrase. In 1976, there was the CHUM Starsign promotion. Listeners wore a button featuring their astrological sign. If CHUM's

Joel Amoroso

Emanuel Joel Amoroso is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a right midfielder for Melgar. Amoroso had a youth spell with Centenario de Venado Tuerto, before beginning his senior career in Torneo Argentino C with Sportivo Rivadavia. In 2011, Amoroso joined fellow Torneo Argentino C team Jorge Newbery, he scored four goals in eighteen matches in his first season, which ended with promotion to Torneo Argentino B. After twenty-four appearances and seven goals in Torneo Argentino B, Amoroso was signed by Primera B Nacional's Ferro Carril Oeste in June 2012. A goalless tie with Olimpo on 13 August saw him make his professional debut, the first of nineteen matches for the club throughout 2012–13. On 21 July 2013, Amoroso joined Unión Mar del Plata of Torneo Argentino A, he went on to scored nine times in forty-three games for Unión Mar del Plata over the course of 2013–14 and 2014. In January 2015, Argentine Primera División side Olimpo signed Amoroso, he made his debut on 7 March against Rosario Central, prior to scoring his first two goals in November during matches versus Banfield and Quilmes.

On 6 July 2016, Amoroso signed for fellow top-flight club Newell's Old Boys. One goal in twenty-eight appearances followed, which preceded Amoroso departing on loan in September 2017 to Belgrano. Amoroso scored his first goal for Belgrano on 17 November, netting an 89th-minute winner away to parent club Newell's Old Boys, he returned to them in June 2018, prior to terminating his contract in the succeeding February to subsequently join San Luis. Amoroso remained for seven months, notching goals against Deportes Melipilla and Deportes Valdivia in the process. On 6 July, Amoroso switched Chile for Peru by agreeing terms with Melgar; as of 9 July 2019. Joel Amoroso at Soccerway

Claude Pithoys

Claude Pithoys was a French professor of philosophy and law at the Academy of Sedan, Protestant convert and librarian for the Duc de Bouillon. He was raised a Franciscan but in 1632 "he renounced his vows, abjured his faith and became a Protestant, throwing himself under the protection of the Duc de Bouillon who secured for him a post in the protestant Academy of Sedan", he is best known for his part in what historian of religion Ioan Culianu called "one of the most famous cases of demonic possession in the seventeenth century" where, in 1618, a young widow of Nancy, Elisabeth de Ranfaing, fell into the hands of the local doctor, Charles Poirot, who proceeded to violate her and give her medicine - intending to cause demonic possession. Pithoys was called to perform an exorcism but refused and instead wrote his Descouverture des faux possedez where he attacked the doctor's evidence against Elisabeth and the doctor himself, claiming he had drugged her into convulsions and insanity - simulating demonic possession.

This was displeasing towards the local clergy and so a less skeptical doctor, Remy Pichard, was brought in to exorcise Ranfaing. The doctor was subsequently burned at the stake in 1622 and Elisabeth was exorcised in 1625, founding a religious order in life; this tale has been argued to be apocryphal in Jean Lhermitte and Étienne Delcambre's assessment, being that the effect of the doctor's drug would be unlikely to persist for the seven years in which Elisabeth was possessed and that Elisabeth would have been trying to escape her parents, join French religious life. He is well known for his skepticism towards superstition and exorcism, something uncommon for his time, he questioned the validity of many popular superstitions but, according to philosopher Brian Copenhaver, "such questioning was rare, alien to the zealots and undeveloped in aspiring rationalists". La Descouverture des faux possedez, tres-utile pour recognoistre et discerner les simulations, feintises et illusions d'avec les vrayes possessions diaboliques L'horoscope, roue de fortune et bonne aventure des predestinez Amorce des ames devotes et religieuses - Sur ce theoreme "Bonum est nos hic esse" Traité curieux de l'astrologie Judiciaire ou Preservatif contre l'astronmantie des Genethliaques Cosmographie ou Doctrine de la Sphere avec un Traité de la Geographie L'Apocalypse de Meliton, Ou Revelation Des Mysteres Cenobitiques

Beatrice Cherrier

Beatrice Cherrier is a historian of economics and assistant professor at the University of Cergy Pontoise, France. Her research interests include the history of economics since World War II, she has been cited in the popular media on several topics in the history of economics, including theories of discrimination, the rise of the MIT economics department, the representation of women in the economics profession. Beatrice Cherrier earned a BS in Economics from the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan and in Management Science from The University Paris XII in 2001, a Master of Arts in the Methodology of Economics from the University of Paris Sorbonne in 2004, a PhD in the History of Economics from the University of Paris X-Nanterre, a Habilitation from the University of Caen in 2016, she was a postdoctoral scholar at Duke University, an Assistant Professor at the University of Caen from 2012-2017, joined the faculty of the CNRS & Théorie Économique, Modélisation, University of Cergy Pontoise as a tenured associate professor.

Professor Cherrier has studied how world events affected the intellectual development of Gunnar Myrdal, Jacob Marschak and Milton Friedman, how economists’ individual visions combined in the development of the MIT economics department. In more recent work, she is studying the rise of applied economics, such as the rise of empirical work in urban economics, public economics, macro econometric modeling, beginning in the mid-1960s, she has studied changes in the classification of economic publications over time. Cherrier, Beatrice. "Classifying economics: A history of the JEL codes." Journal of Economic Literature 55, no. 2: 545-79. Backhouse, Roger E. and Béatrice Cherrier. "The age of the applied economist: the transformation of economics since the 1970s." History of Political Economy 49, no. Supplement: 1-33. Cherrier, Beatrice. "The lucky consistency of Milton Friedman’s science and politics, 1933-1963." Building Chicago Economics: 335-368. Cherrier, Béatrice. "Rationalizing human organization in an uncertain world: Jacob Marschak, from Ukrainian prisons to behavioral science laboratories."

History of political economy 42, no. 3: 443-467. Cherrier, Beatrice. "Toward a History of Economics at MIT, 1940-72." History of Political Economy 46, no. suppl_1: 15-44

James Brodie (botanist)

James Brodie of Brodie, 21st Thane and Chief of Clan Brodie, FRS FLS was a Scottish politician and botanist. He was educated at St. Andrews University, he was returned to parliament in 1796 as MP for Elginshire, serving until 1807. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Nairn; as a botanist, Brodie specialised in cryptogamic flora, i.e. plants which reproduce by spores, such as algae and mosses. He discovered a number of new species both on his own property at Brodie, his collection is now held at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. He corresponded with other eminent botanists of his time, including Sir William Jackson Hooker and Sir James Edward Smith. Brodie was elected a Fellow of the Linnaean Society in 1795, of the Royal Society in 1797; the genus Brodiaea is named in his honour. He married Lady Margaret Duff, sister of James Duff, 2nd Earl Fife, had two sons and two daughters. Charters, Michael L. "Brodiaea". California Plant Names: Latin and Greek Meanings and Derivations: A Dictionary of Botanical Etymology.

Retrieved 17 March 2008. "James Brodie of Brodie". Botanists of Repute. Retrieved 17 March 2008


Acceptability is the characteristic of a thing being subject to acceptance for some purpose. A thing is acceptable if it is sufficient to serve the purpose for which it is provided if it is far less usable for this purpose than the ideal example. A thing is unacceptable if it deviates so far from the ideal that it is no longer sufficient to serve the desired purpose, or if it goes against that purpose. From a logical perspective, a thing can be said to be acceptable if it has no characteristics that make it unacceptable: We say that a theory Δ is acceptable if for any wff α, Δ does not prove both α and ¬α. Hungarian mathematician Imre Lakatos developed a concept of acceptability "taken as a measure of the approximation to the truth"; this concept was criticized in its applicability to philosophy as requiring that better theories first be eliminated. Acceptability is a key premise of negotiation, wherein opposing sides each begin from a point of seeking their ideal solution, compromise until they reach a solution that both sides find acceptable: When a proposal or counter-proposal is received by an agent, it has to decide whether it is acceptable.

If it is, the agent can agree to it. Acceptability is determined by searching the hierarchy. If the proposal is a specification of at least one acceptable goal, the proposal is acceptable. If it is the specification of at least one unacceptable goal, the proposal is unacceptable. Where an unacceptable proposal has been made, "a counterproposal is generated if there are any acceptable ones that have had been explored". Since the acceptability of proposition to a participant in a negotiation is only known to that participant, the participant may act as though a proposal, acceptable to them is not, in order to obtain a more favorable proposal. One concept of acceptability, studied is acceptable risk in situations affecting human health; the idea of not increasing lifetime risk by more than one in a million has become commonplace in public health discourse and policy. It is a heuristic measure, it provides a numerical basis for establishing a negligible increase in risk. Environmental decision making allows some discretion for deeming individual risks "acceptable" if less than one in ten thousand chance of increased lifetime risk.

Low risk criteria such as these provide some protection for a case where individuals may be exposed to multiple chemicals e.g. pollutants, food additives or other chemicals. In practice, a true zero-risk is possible only with the suppression of the risk-causing activity. Stringent requirements of 1 in a million may not be technologically feasible or may be so prohibitively expensive as to render the risk-causing activity unsustainable, resulting in the optimal degree of intervention being a balance between risks vs. benefit. For example, emissions from hospital incinerators result in a certain number of deaths per year. However, this risk must be balanced against the alternatives. There are public health risks, as well as economic costs, associated with all options; the risk associated with no incineration is potential spread of infectious diseases, or no hospitals. Further investigation identifies options such as separating noninfectious from infectious wastes, or air pollution controls on a medical incinerator.

Acceptable variance is the range of variance in any direction from the ideal value that remains acceptable. In project management, variance can be defined as "the difference between what is planned and what is achieved". Degrees of variance "can be classified into negative variance, zero variance, acceptable variance, unacceptable variance". In software testing, for example, "enerally 0-5% is considered as acceptable variance" from an ideal value. Acceptance testing is a practice used in chemical and engineering fields, intended to check ahead of time whether or not a thing will be acceptable