Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,657 in 2016. The city is on the River Lee which splits into two channels at the western end and divides the city centre into islands, they reconverge at the eastern end where the quays and docks along the river banks lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. A monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915; the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. Cork city was once walled, the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets; the third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Corkonians refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War. Cork was a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.
Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network; the ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship. The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185; the city was once walled, some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city; the present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City. Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south.
The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt and wine. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people, it suffered a severe blow in 1349 when half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England; the mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her Royal visit to the city. Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party.
O'Brien published the Cork Free Press. In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea; the climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild oceanic and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city; the airport is at an altitude of 151 metres and temperatures can differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Due to its position along the west coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below 0 °C or above 25 °C are rare.
Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of, rain. The airport records sleet a year; the low altitude of the city, moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year, of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain". Cork is a foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, Cork is one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine" during and around winter. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork. Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame.
Grand Canal (Ireland)
The Grand Canal is the southernmost of a pair of canals that connect Dublin, in the east of Ireland, with the River Shannon in the west, via Tullamore and a number of other villages and towns, the two canals nearly encircling Dublin's inner city. Its sister canal on the Northside of Dublin is the Royal Canal; the last working cargo barge passed through the Grand Canal in 1960. Main line to Grand Canal Harbour near St. James's Gate Most of the route is now used by the Luas. While this section was in use, the canal from Crumlin to the Liffey in Ringsend, which forms part of the current main line, was considered to be a branch. Naas/Corbally Navigable to Naas, but a low bridge prevents access to Corbally Barrow, joining the River Barrow at Athy Milltown feeder The Mountmellick Line, which left the Barrow Line at Monasterevin and passed through Portarlington Blackwood feeder Lough Boora feeder Kilbeggan Ballinasloe The idea of connecting Dublin to the Shannon was proposed as early as 1715, in 1757 the Irish Parliament granted Thomas Omer £20,000 to start construction of a canal.
By 1759 he reported that 3 km in the Bog of Allen and 13 km of canal from the River Liffey near Sallins towards Dublin were complete. By 1763 he had completed 3 locks and 6 bridges towards Dublin and was concentrating on establishing a water supply from the Morell River near Sallins. At this point the Corporation of Dublin realised that the canal could be used to improve the water supply to the city, put up the money to complete the canal into the city, but when the canal was filled, the banks gave the city didn't obtain its water. By 1768, £77,000 had been spent on the project and little more was forthcoming. In 1772 the Grand Canal Company was established by a group of noblemen and merchants, including public subscription, to ensure the future of the canal and to tackle the biggest barrier to the canal, the Bog of Allen; this was a new venture for canals. The company invited John Smeaton and his assistant William Jessop to Ireland for two weeks to advise them. Smeaton made a recommendation to skirt round the bog but to build the canal at the full height, in contrast to Omer's efforts which attempted to drain parts of the bog and build at a lower level.
This was to prove an expensive mistake, although he advised reducing the generous locks that Omer had built to 18m by 4m, which would bring about considerable savings in the total cost of the canal. The canal from Sallins was opened to traffic in 1779 and a twice-weekly passenger service from Sallins to Dublin started in 1780; the canal was extended to Robertstown in 1784, including the Leinster Aqueduct across the Liffey, constructed by Richard Evans, to a junction with the River Barrow at Athy by 1791. The circular line through Dublin from Portobello to Ringsend, where large docks adjacent to the Liffey were constructed, was started in 1790 and opened in 1796; the company had by turned its attention to completing the link with the Shannon. Getting across the Bog of Allen took more than five years of struggle under the guidance of Jessop, who attempted to use walls of clay to support the walls of the canal. Though the canal was opened to Daingean in 1797, serious breaches occurred and Jessop was forced to abandon this method.
The continuation to the Shannon continued under the leadership of John Killaly, who succeeded in crossing another bog by carrying out drainage works for several years before construction. The work was completed in 1803, but because of leakages and a dry summer the official opening had to be delayed until April 1804; the canal had taken 47 years to build. The whole work had cost in the region of £877,000 and it was some years before it began to make a profit, although regular dividends had been paid to shareholders. Trade increased from 100,000 tons in 1800 to double that in 1810. Revenues from passenger boats increased to £90,000 by that date, but the long saga had prompted a rival venture, the Royal Canal, which started construction in 1790 and was opened in 1817 after the government had stepped in to resolve disputes between the two companies. Apart from the breaches during construction, there were breaches on a branch of the canal in 1833, due to which one child drowned, another in 1846. In 1855 the main canal breached at the same location as in 1797.
In 1916 again 300 yards of canal was displaced. The last breach was between the Blundell Aqueduct and Downshire bridge. 18 miles of canal drained into the surroundings. The Grand Canal begins in Grand Canal Dock at the River Liffey, continues through to the River Shannon, it passes through Ringsend and traverses the southside, delineating the northern extremities of Ballsbridge, Rathmines, Harolds Cross and Crumlin. This section, known as the Circular Line, has seven locks; the path of the original main line, which serviced the Grand Canal Harbour, the City Basin and Guinness brewery, can be seen at Inchicore. Most of the route of this line now runs alongside the Red Luas Line. From Suir Road Bridge, the lock numbering starts again at 1 as the canal heads west through the suburbs of Dublin West and into Kildare. At Sallins the Naas/Corbally branch diverts southwards, while the Grand Canal continues west passing Caragh and Robertstown, its highest point. Just outside Sallins
Heuston railway station
Heuston Station known as Dublin Heuston, is one of Ireland's main railway stations, linking the capital with the south and west. It is operated by the national railway operator, it houses the head office of its parent company - Córas Iompair Éireann. The station is named in honour of Seán Heuston, an executed leader of the 1916 Easter Rising, who had worked in the station's offices; the station opened on 4 August 1846 as the terminus and headquarters of the Great Southern and Western Railway. It was called Kingsbridge Station after the nearby Kings Bridge over the River Liffey. In 1966, on the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising, it was renamed "Heuston Station" in honour of Seán Heuston, a young railway worker who commanded a nearby post in the 1916 Easter Rising. Heuston was one of the 16 executed by the British after that Rising, had worked in the station's offices; the passenger terminal and buildings were built to designs by London-born architect Sancton Wood, the train sheds and infrastructure were designed by Irish-born railway engineer John MacNeill.
When first constructed the station had only two platforms separated by 5 carriage lines. Two of the lines were subsequently replaced by a two-sided platform and the remaining carriage line removed. An additional platform was created in 1872 on the south side of the station beyond the station roof, this was known as the "military platform" and was intended that military personnel could be kept separate from the rest of the station. Due to the need to cater for increased demand and reduce delays, three new platforms were incorporated in August 2002 as part of a €170,000,000 development incorporating improved signalling and approach track-work. Since its renewal it includes two branches of Eason's, a Marks & Spencer Simply Food store, as well as some dining facilities, including a Supermacs and a pub. A maintenance depot at the Inchicore railway works is located three kilometres away and, as with Heuston Station itself, was opened in 1846. InterCity services from Heuston go to and from Cork, Waterford, Galway and Kerry.
Commuter services stop at all stations to Portlaoise Mondays to Saturdays, on Sundays at all stations to Kildare. All services leave the station on a triple line as far as Inchicore, quadruple line until Hazelhatch, thereafter only double line. Heuston is the terminus for the main line to Cork, there are key service and transfer points in the Cork-bound direction at: Kildare Portarlington Portlaoise Ballybrophy, Limerick Junction Mallow. Before 2016, the physical rail link between Connolly Station and Heuston via the Phoenix Park Tunnel was only used for freight and rolling stock movements. Once or twice a year special trains operated from Cork to Connolly for Gaelic Athletic Association matches at Croke Park. A more regular service along this route began on 21 November 2016; the Luas light rail red line connects the two stations. Dublin Bus has a direct service to Connolly, but this operates as a special service for Dublin Airport so fares are not at commuter level. There are nine platforms: one through platform.
Platform 1 is an extension to Platform 2, reachable only via that platform. Prior to Heuston's 2002-2004 upgrade, there were five terminal platforms; the through platform is numbered Platform 10, is situated on the Phoenix Park Tunnel line, which connects to Connolly Station. There is no platform nine. Platform 10 is some distance from the main concourse, is not used for any regular scheduled trains. A 2018 consultation paper for the proposed Dublin MetroLink project included a reference to a potential future station, labelled "Heuston West", with connections via the Phoenix Park Tunnel to Cabra. Other plans, first published in the 1970s, suggested that a proposed DART Underground project would link underground stations at Heuston and Pearse Street via a tunnel; as of 2015, these plans were subject to review, as of mid-2018, the DART Underground project was not funded. List of railway stations in Ireland History of rail transport in Ireland Irish Rail Dublin Heuston Station Website Luas Heuston Stop information Eiretrains - Heuston Station
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas
Government of Ireland
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland. The Constitution of Ireland vests executive authority in a government, headed by the Taoiseach, the head of government; the government is composed of government ministers, all of whom must be members of the Irish parliament. The Taoiseach must be nominated and approved by the Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Following the nomination of the Dáil, the President of Ireland appoints the Taoiseach to his role; the President appoints members of the government, including the Tánaiste, the deputy head of government, on nomination of the Taoiseach. The government is dependent upon the Oireachtas to make primary legislation and as such, the government needs to command a majority in the Dáil in order to ensure support and confidence for budgets and government bills to pass; the Government is known as the cabinet. The current Taoiseach is Leo Varadkar who took office on 14 June 2017.
He is the leader of the party with the highest number of seats in the Dáil. Varadkar's government is a minority coalition, made up of independent members, his Tánaiste is Simon Coveney who took office on 30 November 2017. Membership of the cabinet is regulated by Article 28 of the Constitution of Ireland and by the Ministers and Secretaries Acts 1924 to 2017; the Irish constitution requires the government to consist of between seven and fifteen members, all of whom must be a member of the Oireachtas. Since the formation of the 12th Government of Ireland in 1966, all Irish cabinets have been formed with the constitutional maximum of fifteen ministers; the total sometimes falls below this number for brief periods following the resignation of individual ministers or the withdrawal of a party from a coalition. No more than two members of the cabinet may be members of Seanad Éireann. All other members of the cabinet must be members of the house of representatives; the Taoiseach, Tánaiste and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil.
In practice, the members of the cabinet are invariably members of the Dáil. Since the adoption of the 1937 constitution, only two ministers have been appointed from the Seanad: Seán Moylan who served in 1957 as Minister for Agriculture and James Dooge who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1982. Members of the government in charge of Department of State are designated Ministers of Government. For distinction, Ministers of State — informally called junior ministers — are not members of the Government, but assist the Government Ministers in their Departments. A minister without portfolio may be appointed to the Government, not the head of a Department of State. Non members have no voting rights at Cabinet but may otherwise participate and receive circulated cabinet papers on the same basis as a full member of Government. Votes are rare, with the cabinet following the Taoiseach or working by consensus; the Government is advised by the Attorney General, not formally a member of the Government, but who participates in cabinet meetings as part of their role as legal advisor to the Government.
The Chief Whip is not a member of the Government. In addition, the Government can choose other Ministers of State; this person is informally known as a "super junior minister". The current super junior ministers are Mary Mitchell O'Connor and Finian McGrath; the Government continues in office until the nomination of a new Taoiseach by Dáil Éireann. This will either be after a general election, or after the nomination of a Taoiseach during the lifetime of a Dáil term. A Dáil term may last no longer than five years by law. Most governments in recent years have served 4 to 5 years; the Government must enjoy the confidence of Dáil Éireann. If the Taoiseach ceases "to retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann", either Dáil Éireann must be dissolved or the Taoiseach must resign; this applies only in cases of a no-confidence vote or loss of supply, rather than a government bill being rejected. The President may refuse to grant a dissolution to a Taoiseach who does not enjoy the support of the Dáil, thus forcing the resignation of the Taoiseach.
When the Taoiseach resigns, the entire Government is deemed to have resigned as a collective. However, in such a scenario, according to the Constitution, "the Taoiseach and the other members of the Government shall continue to carry on their duties until their successors shall have been appointed"; the Taoiseach can direct the President to dismiss or accept the resignation of individual ministers. Upon the dissolution of Dáil Éireann, ministers are no longer members of the Oireachtas, therefore at first glance ineligible for office. However, under a different clause in the Constitution, they "shall continue to hold office until their successors shall have been appointed". Unlike the cabinets in other parliamentary systems, the Government is both the de jure and de facto executive authority in Ireland. In most other parliamentary regimes, the head of state is the nominal chief executive, though bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabi
Bus Éireann is a bus and coach operator providing services throughout the Republic of Ireland with the exception of Dublin Region bus services, which are provided by sister company Dublin Bus. It is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann; the company's primary hub is Busáras -- Central Bus Station, located in Central Dublin. Bus Éireann was established in February 1987; the logo of Bus Éireann incorporates a breed of dog which originated in Ireland. During 2016, it was reported that Bus Éireann amassed losses of around €6 million and that these losses were set to rise throughout 2017; as a result, Shane Ross, TD, the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Transport and Sport, mentioned the company "faces insolvency within 18 months". Bus Éireann concluded an all out strike on Thursday 13 April that lasted since Friday 24 March 2017. Bus Éireann's main services in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland in association with Ulsterbus include: expressway, commuter and school services. Additional services within Ireland include city services in Cork, Galway and Waterford and town services in Athlone, Drogheda, Dundalk and Sligo.
Bus Éireann operate international services to Great Britain and Europe are provided via the ports at Dublin and Rosslare Europort. Cities served include London, Manchester and Leeds; these are operated under the Eurolines brand. Expressway is a division of Bus Éireann; the National Development Plan included a large expansion in commuter services in the greater Dublin area, so the company increased services on routes such as Dublin/Drogheda/Dundalk, Dublin/Ashbourne, Dublin/Ratoath, Dublin/Dunshaughlin/Navan/Kells/Cavan. Bus Éireann has introduced regular clockface schedules on popular Expressway routes, such as hourly services on the routes Dublin/Athlone/Galway, Dublin/Belfast, Tralee/Killarney/Cork/Waterford, Cork/Limerick/Shannon Airport/Galway; the Dublin/Dublin Airport/Newry/Belfast route is jointly operated by Bus Ulsterbus. At the time of the establishment of the company in February 1987, there were no bus services between Dublin and Belfast. Now there is an hourly service each way, from 06:00 to 21:00.
In October 2006, further services were introduced on this route, departing at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00, 23:00, thus the route became the first "24-hour service" in the country. The service has since been upgraded to 24 hours a day. A similar service has been implemented on the 002 route between Dublin Airport and Wexford, started on 18 January 2009. Services depart Dublin Airport for Wexford on the hour from 05:00 to 23:00, with services during the night at 01:00 and 03:00; as with the Dublin/Belfast route, the Dublin/Derry route is jointly operated. On 4 September 2006 a new timetable on the Dublin/Derry route was launched, increasing the service level up to nine trips per day, including night-time services. Bus Éireann has stated that they intend to develop similar services to the 24-hour Dublin-Belfast route on the following routes: Donegal-Dublin, Ballina-Dublin, Sligo-Dublin and Drogheda-Balbriggan-Dublin Airport-Dublin. On 20 January 2009, Bus Éireann announced that it was to let 320 staff go and withdraw 150 buses due to the economic crisis.
Some services are being reduced due to the cutbacks. Bus Éireann operates special one-day sightseeing tours from Dublin to locations such as Glendalough, Newgrange. RTPI It is being run by the National Transport Authority under the brand Transport for Ireland, a single portal providing information on public transport in Ireland. Real Time Information is available across the majority of Bus Éireann's services; the service provide up to the minute information regarding arrival of a bus at a specific stop. It is calculated using GPS location of a bus and estimated and changed with current traffic conditions. Real time information is available to passengers on the Bus Éireann website and via the Real Time Ireland App. Many stops across Ireland have real time information available at bus stops that allows the customer to see when the bus will arrive. Bus Éireann's bus stations have been upgraded in many locations around the country; the prime example is Cork bus station, located at Parnell Place in the city centre, remodelled as part of the city's preparation for being European Capital of Culture, 2005.
Other new bus stations include Sligo and Letterkenny. Bus Éireann has had a few fatal incidents in recent years, with those involving school buses being scrutinised. After the death of five schoolgirls in a fatal accident in County Meath in 2005 involving a DAF MB230/Van Hool school bus. All school buses are fitted with seatbelts from 31 October 2011; some non-fatal incidents have been quite serious, for example, an off-duty bus plunging into the River Liffey in Dublin, after a collision with another vehicle. The company has posted notices to encourage orderly queuing at bus stops after a series of incidents where pedestrians on the footpath were struck on the head by the wing mirrors of city buses. Bus Éireann introduced the first NGV on 17 July 2012 in Cork, it operated on the 216 Cork City centre to Mount Oval, route until mid-August 2012 on a trial, undertaken in partnership with Ervia. The Eco-city bus is made by MAN; as at January 2018 the fleet consists of coaches. The company us
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la