CIA cryptonyms are code names or code words used by the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency to refer to projects, persons, etc; each CIA cryptonym contains a two character prefix called a digraph, which designates a geographical or functional area. Certain digraphs were changed over time; the rest is either an arbitrary dictionary word, or the digraph and the cryptonym combine to form a dictionary word or can be read out as a simple phrase. Cryptonyms are sometimes written with a slash after the digraph, e.g. ZR/RIFLE, sometimes in one sequence, e.g. ZRRIFLE; the latter format is the more common style in CIA documents. Examples from publications by former CIA personnel show that the terms "code name" and "cryptonym" can refer to the names of operations as well as to individual persons. TRIGON, for example, was the code name for Aleksandr Ogorodnik, a member of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in what was the Soviet Union, whom the CIA developed as a spy. According to former CIA Director Richard M. Helms: "The code names for most Agency operations are picked in sequence from a sterile list, with care taken not to use any word that might give a clue to the activity it covers.
On some large projects, code names are specially chosen—GOLD, SILVER, PBSUCCESS, CORONA. When Bob Kennedy requested a code name for the government-wide plan that Richard Goodwin was drafting, an exception was made. Goodwin was on the White House staff, the plan concerned Cuba; the special code names come close to the nerve, as did MONGOOSE." A secret joint program between the Mexico City CIA station and the Mexican secret police to wiretap the Soviet and Cuban embassies was code-named ENVOY. Some cryptonyms relate to more than one subject. In this case, the basic cryptonym, e.g. LICOZY, will designate the whole group, while each group member is designated by a sequence number, e.g. LICOZY/3, which can be written LICOZY-3, or just L-3. DT, ER, FJ, HB*, HO, HT, JU, KM, KO, QK, SC, SE, SG, WO, WS, ZI HB has been rumored to refer to Germany Secret Service codename List of U. S. government and military acronyms Callsign#Military call signs 00 Agent#Origin of nomenclature List of military operations Agee, Philip.
1975. Inside the Company: CIA Diary. Stonehill Publishing ISBN 0-14-004007-2, p. 48 Carl, Leo D. 1990. The International Dictionary of Intelligence. Mavin Books, p. 107 DPD Contracting Officer, Change of Project Funds Obligated under Contract No. SS-100. CIA DPD-2827-59, 30 April 1959. Helms and Hood, William. 2003. A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. Random House, pp. 378–379 Pedlow, Gregory W. and Welzenbach, Donald E. 1992. The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and OXCART Programs, 1954–1974. CIA History Staff Sharp, David; the CIA's Greatest Covert Operation: Inside the Daring Mission to Recover a Nuclear-Armed Soviet Sub. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. P. 344. ISBN 978-0-7006-1834-7. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-05-15. Smith W. Thomas. 2003. Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency. Checkmark Books ISBN 0-8160-4666-2 Stockwell, John. 1978. In Search of Enemies Waldron and Hartmann, Thom. 2009. Legacy of Secrecy: The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination.
Counterpoint Waldron and Hartmann, Thom. 2005. Ultimate Sacrifice: John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for a Coup in Cuba, the Murder of JFK Carroll & Graf Publishers Wallace and Melton, H. Keith. 2008. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs from Communism to Al-Qaeda. Dutton Weiner, Tim. 2008. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. Anchor Books Wise, David. 1992. Molehunt. Random House, p. 19 Mary Ferrell CIA Cryptonyms Research Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files
South Dos Palos is a census-designated place in Merced County, United States. South Dos Palos is located 2 miles southwest of Dos Palos, at an elevation of 118 feet; the population was 1,620 at the 2010 census, up from 1,385 at the 2000 census. South Dos Palos is located at 36°57′52″N 120°39′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.5 square miles, all of it land. The South Dos Palos post office opened in 1906, it is home to Koda Farms, a Japanese rice company known for its innovative practices. The 2010 United States Census reported that South Dos Palos had a population of 1,620; the population density was 1,055.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of South Dos Palos was 809 White, 135 African American, 21 Native American, 36 Asian, 10 Pacific Islander, 552 from other races, 57 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,262 persons; the Census reported that 1,620 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 426 households, out of which 257 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 228 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 106 had a female householder with no husband present, 36 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 36 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 47 households were made up of individuals and 14 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.80. There were 370 families; the population was spread out with 601 people under the age of 18, 197 people aged 18 to 24, 403 people aged 25 to 44, 315 people aged 45 to 64, 104 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. There were 488 housing units at an average density of 318.0 per square mile, of which 242 were owner-occupied, 184 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%.
966 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 654 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,385 people, 342 households, 286 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 922.0 people per square mile. There were 365 housing units at an average density of 243.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 45.78% White, 16.03% African American, 1.95% Native American, 31.62% from other races, 4.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 74.15% of the population. There were 342 households out of which 55.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 24.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.1% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.05 and the average family size was 4.41. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 41.7% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 14.1% from 45 to 64, 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $18,500, the median income for a family was $23,365. Males had a median income of $20,417 versus $12,357 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $7,170. About 44.6% of families and 42.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.0% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature South Dos Palos is located in the 12th Senate District, represented by Republican Anthony Cannella, in the 17th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Cathleen Galgiani. In the United States House of Representatives, South Dos Palos is in California's 16th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jim Costa
Brenda Sue Baker is an American computer scientist. She is known for Baker's technique for approximation algorithms on planar graphs, for her early work on duplicate code detection, for her research on two-dimensional bin packing problems. Baker did her undergraduate studies at Radcliffe College, she earned a Ph. D. from Harvard University in 1973. She worked at Bell Laboratories, becoming a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff there. Baker married another Bell Labs computer scientist, Eric Grosse, who would become Google's Vice President for Security & Privacy Engineering, their son, Roger Baker Grosse, is a computer science researcher. Baker, Brenda S.. Baker, Brenda S.. Baker, Brenda S. "Approximation algorithms for NP-complete problems on planar graphs", Journal of the ACM, 41: 153–180, doi:10.1145/174644.174650, MR 1369197. Baker, Brenda S. "On finding duplication and near-duplication in large software systems", Proceedings of 2nd Working Conference on Reverse Engineering, Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, pp. 86–95, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.133.6440, doi:10.1109/wcre.1995.514697, ISBN 978-0-8186-7111-1
Perusahaan Otobus Lorena or PO Lorena'is an autobus company providing inter-city transport buses with long distance routes in Indonesia. PO Lorena was founded by GT Soerbakti in 1970 under the name CV Lorena. At the beginning of its establishment CV Lorena only had 2 bus fleets with short distance routes namely Bogor - Jakarta PP. Long distance routes were opened by PO Lorena in 1984 starting with the route Jakarta - Surabaya PP, followed by other cities on Java, Madura and Sumatra; as transportation between Interprovincial buses | inter-city inter-provincial buses PO Lorena has long-distance routes that extend from Bali, Java to Sumatra served by 500 bus fleets class executive and business single bus or level bus, these routes are. Note: All routes are round trip. PO Lorena was the operator of a rapid bus in 2008 to 2018. With a fleet of 47 buses gas fuel with details 13 articulated buses for the route corridor 5 34 single buses for the route corridor 7. PO Lorena has received several awards among other things.
Best Land Transportation & Depot Management Award in DKI Jakarta from the Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia. "Golden Asia Award" For Hong Kong. "New Millennium Award" International Transportation Award, Brussels - Belgium. "Lifetime Achievement Award" from Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 Indonesia to the President of LORENA Group. Best National Autobody Company Performance Award Award from Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia Recipient of the Best AKAP Bus award] in DKI Jakarta and Indonesia from the Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia
2169 Taiwan, provisional designation 1964 VP1, is a carbonaceous Astridian asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt 17 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 9 November 1964, by astronomers at the Purple Mountain Observatory near Nanking, China, it was named for Taiwan. Taiwan is a member of the Astrid family, a smaller asteroid family of nearly 500 carbonaceous asteroids; the family is located in the outermost central main-belt, near a prominent Kirkwood gap, that marks the 5:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter, divides the asteroid belt into a central and outer part. Taiwan orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.7 -- 2.9 AU once 8 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 2 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the body's observation arc begins with its first identification as 1938 DV1 at Heidelberg Observatory in February 1938 27 years prior to its official discovery observation at Nanking. In the SMASS classification, according to PanSTARRS photometric survey, Taiwan is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid.
In September 2010, a rotational lightcurve of Taiwan was obtained from photometric observations in the R-band by astronomers at the Palomar Transient Factory in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 7.252 hours with a brightness variation of 0.17 magnitude. According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Taiwan measures between 16.52 and 19.263 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.042 and 0.085. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 14.39 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.94. This minor planet was named after the Island of Taiwan. Taiwan, or the Republic of China, is a country southeast of mainland China; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 February 1980. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 2169 Taiwan at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 2169 Taiwan at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Werner Erhard and his courses have been referenced in popular culture in various forms of fictional media including literature, film and theatre. The original course, known as est, was delivered by the company Erhard Seminars Training. Under the name The Forum, they were delivered by Werner Erhard and Associates; the Landmark Forum, a program created by Erhard's former employees after purchasing his intellectual property, has had an influence on popular culture. Some of these works have taken a comedic tack, parodying Erhard and satirizing the methodology used in these courses. Both est and The Forum have been depicted more in film and television than in literary works; the 1977 film Semi-Tough satirized Erhard and the est Training, through the fictional "Bismark Earthwalk Action Training," in which Bert Convy portrayed a character said to have been a parody of Erhard. Diana Ross and Joel Schumacher, who had both taken the est training, incorporated Werner Erhard's teachings into the 1978 musical film, The Wiz.
The 1990 film The Spirit of'76 parodied est, with Rob Reiner portraying a trainer for the est-like "Be, Inc. Seminars." Movie critics have drawn parallels to est and Werner Erhard, in reviews of the films Fight Club and Magnolia. Concepts from the Landmark Forum were utilized by The Wachowskis in their film The Matrix Revolutions. Werner Erhard's training programs have been parodied in television; the 1979 episode of Mork & Mindy, "Mork Goes Erk", the 2002 episode of Six Feet Under, "The Plan", are the most notable. In the Mork & Mindy episode, the Erhard parody character was played by David Letterman. Madison, Wisconsin's Broom Street Theater produced a play about Werner Erhard and The Forum in 1995, called Devil In Paradise, The Fall and Rise of Werner Erhard; this piece presented a fictionalized version of controversial issues surrounding Erhard. The third and fourth season of the FX series "The Americans" contains a story line in which several recurring characters attend the EST training in or near Washington, DC.
In a recreation of the est Training the lead character and Russian spy, begins to confront his past and to question his purpose. The est Training was a two-weekend, 60-hour course offered from late 1971 to late 1984; the purpose of the seminar was "to transform one's ability to experience living so that the situations one had been trying to change or had been putting up with, clear up just in the process of life itself." It "brought to the forefront the ideas of transformation, personal responsibility and possibility." John Denver wrote the song "Looking for Space", dedicated to Erhard, became a theme song for EST. Depictions of est and The Forum in literature have dealt with direct references to these trainings, through such books as 60 Hours that Transform Your Life, by Adelaide Bry. Est was parodied in the March 1980 issue of the Marvel Comics Howard the Duck series, titled: "The Dreadcliff Cuckoos". In "The Dreadcliff Cuckoos", the character "Werner Blowhard" heads the organization "Bozoes Eagerly Serving Tyrants", abbreviated B.
E. S. T. In his first appearance in the comic, Blowhard states "I've got It, Have you got It?". The "Werner Blowhard" character was referenced in D. Keith Mano's 1982 novel, Take Five. In Pressure Points, a 2001 novel by Larry Brooks, one of the book's protagonists asserts that the programs developed by Werner Erhard, William Penn Patrick, Alexander Everett all came from the same source; the Program, a 2004 novel by Hurwitz, quotes Erhard prior to the opening of the prologue. Werner Erhard and his est Training programs and The Forum have been parodied in films, both directly and through more subtle references. Still in other films that did not directly intend to parody the subject matter, other reviewers have found elements of the est movement as applied to the genre of fictional self-help films; the 1977 movie Semi-Tough, starring Burt Reynolds, parodied the est training. Bert Convy played "Friedrich Bismark," a caricature of Werner Erhard. Bismark's organization and its training went by the name "B.
E. A. T.", which stands for: "Bismark Earthwalk Action Training." In real life, Erhard had a Mercedes Benz with a llicense plate that said "SO WHUT", in the film, Bismark rode in a limousine that said: "BEAT IT". A form of Rolfing was parodied in the film, Lotte Lenya's character "Clara Pelf", called PELFING", was described as: "a Rolf like masseuse." The press caught on to this satire of Erhard in the film, gave these sections of the film positive reviews. The Wall Street Journal did not give an overall positive review, but did appreciate the portions where Werner Erhard was parodied: "The movie isn't much - an erratic ramble - But it has some pleasant moments, a delicious send-up of The self-improvement guru Werner Erhard." The Charlotte Observer praised Bert Convy's portrayal of the self-help guru Frederick Bismark, writing: "Bert Convy is a hilariously smug consciousness-raiser with a more than passing resemblance to EST's Werner Erhard." After the film's release, Bert Convy appeared on The Tonight Show and discussed his experiences when he attended an est training seminar in preparation for his role as Frederick Bismark.
During actual filming on Semi-Tough, Convy received a late-night phone call from actress Valerie Harper, known in Hollywood as a devoted student of Werner Erhard. She related to Convy that Erhard was "pleased" with the role, she wished him success in the film. However, Convy suspected that her real reason for calling was to subtly pressure him to go easy on his parody of Erhard in the film. However, several