Order of the Indian Empire
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since 1947, the year that India and Pakistan became independent from the British Raj. With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010; the motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India. The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the British Indian Empire; the British founded the Order in 1878 to reward native officials who served in India. The Order had only one class, but expanded to comprise two classes in 1887; the British authorities intended the Order of the Indian Empire as a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India. On 15 February 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire formally became "The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire" and was divided into two classes: Knights Commander and Companions, with the following first Knights Commander: General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Edward Drummond Sir Alfred Comyns Lyall Bhagvat Singh Robert Anstruther Dalyell Maxwell Melvill Alexander Cunningham Rana Shankar Baksh Singh Dietrich Brandis Sir Monier Williams Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, Maharaja of Vizianagram Donald Campbell Macnabb Nawab Munir ud-Daula Salar Jang, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood Ranjit Singh, Raja of Ratlam Surgeon-General Benjamin Simpson Albert James Leppoc Cappel Sayyid Hassan Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Murshidabad Lachmessur Singh, Maharaja of Darbhanga Sir Nawab Imam Buksh Khan Mazari Sir Nawab Bahram Khan Mazari Sir Parashuram Bhausaheb Patwardhan Rai Sahib Madan Mukund Shuja ul-Mulk, the Mehtar of Chitral Bapu Sahib Avar Donald Mackenzie Wallace Alfred Woodley Croft Bradford Leslie James Houssemayne Du Boulay Baba Sir Khem Singh Bedi, Spiritual Head of the SikhsHowever, on 21 June 1887, a further proclamation regarding the Order was made.
Seven Knights Grand Commander were created, namely: HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duke of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn HRH The Duke of Cambridge Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay Lord Connemara, Governor of Madras General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Appointments to both Orders ceased after 14 August 1947. The Orders have never been formally abolished, as of 2012 Queen Elizabeth II remains the Sovereign of the Orders. There are no living members of the order; the last Grand Master of the Order was Rear Admiral The 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy of India. Lord Mountbatten was killed in an IRA bombing in County Sligo on 27 August 1979; the last surviving GCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore, died on 19 July 1991 in Trivandrum; the last surviving KCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, died at Dhrangadhra on 1 August 2010; the last surviving CIE, Sir Ian Dixon Scott, died on 3 March 2002.
The fictional characters Purun Dass and Harry Paget Flashman each held a KCIE. The British Sovereign serves as the Sovereign of the Order; the Grand Master held the next-most senior rank. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commanders" rather than "Knights Grand Cross" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. At the time of foundation in 1878 the order had only one class, that of Companion, with no quota imposed. In 1886, the Order was divided into the two classes of Knights Companions; the following year the class of Knight Grand Commander was added. The statute provided that it was "competent for Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, at Her or their pleasure, to appoint any Princes of the Blood Royal, being descendants of His late Majesty King George the First, as Extra Knights Grand Commanders". By Letters Patent of 2 Aug 1886, the number of Knights Commander was increased to 82, while Commanders were limited to 20 nominations per year. Membership was expanded by Letters Patent of 10 June 1897, which permitted up to 32 Knights Grand Commander.
A special statute of 21 October 1902 permitted up to 92 Knights Commander, but continued to limit the number of nominations of Commanders to 20 in any successive year. On 21 December 1911, in connection with the Delhi Durbar, the limits were increased to 40 Knights Grand Commander, 120 Knights Commander, 40 nominations of companions in any successive year. British officials and soldiers were eligible for appointment, as were rulers of Indian Princely States; the rulers of the more important states were appointed Knights Grand Commanders of the Order of the Star of India, rather than of the Order of the Indian Empire. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order. Female princely rulers were admitted as "Knights" rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". Other Asian and Middle Eas
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan, it borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south. Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé; the area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011.
In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is market-based and still relies on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant; the official language is French, with local indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims and various indigenous religions. Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies.
The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, Lower Guinea. There was a Pepper Coast known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory. Other names included the Côte de Dents "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory. One can find the name Cote de Dents used in older works, it was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire; the coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and, thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast.
It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated into other languages, which the post-independence government considered troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, since officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings. Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" is still used in English by various media outlets and publications; the first human presence in Ivory Coast has been difficult to determine because human remains have not been well preserved in the country's humid climate. However, newly found weapon and tool fragments have been interpreted as a possible indication of a large human presence during the Upper Paleolithic period, or at the minimum, the Neolithic period.
The earliest known inhabitants of Ivory Coast have left traces scattered throughout the territory. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present indigenous inhabitants, who migrated south into the area before the 16th century; such groups included the Kotrowou, Zéhiri, Ega and Diès. The first recorded history appears in the chronicles of North African traders, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves and other goods; the southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centres around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able
International Commission on Illumination
The International Commission on Illumination is the international authority on light, illumination and colour spaces. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie and is today based in Vienna, Austria; the President from 2015 is Yoshihiro Ohno from the US. The CIE has eight divisions, each of which establishes technical committees to carry out its program under the supervision of the division's director: Vision and Colour Measurement of Light and Radiation Interior Environment and Lighting Design Lighting and Signalling for Transport Exterior Lighting and Other Applications Photobiology and Photochemistry General Aspects of Lighting Image Technology In 1924 it established the standard photopic observer defined by the spectral luminous efficiency function V, followed in 1951 by the standard scotopic observer defined by the function V’. Building on the Optical Society of America's report on colorimetry in 1922, the CIE convened its eighth session in 1931, with the intention of establishing an international agreement on colorimetric specifications and updating the OSA's 1922 recommendations based on the developments during the past decade.
The meeting, held in Cambridge, United Kingdom, concluded with the formalization of the CIE 1931 XYZ colour space and definitions of the 1931 CIE 2° standard observer with the corresponding colour matching functions, standard illuminants A, B, C. In 1964 the 10° CIE standard observer and its corresponding colour matching functions as well as the new standard daylight illuminant D6500 were added, as well as a method for calculating daylight illuminants at correlated colour temperatures other than 6500 kelvins. In 1976, the commission developed the CIELAB and CIELUV colour spaces, which are used today. Based on CIELAB, colour difference formulas CIEDE94 and CIEDE2000 were recommended in the corresponding years. International Color Consortium International Colour Association International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization CIE Web site List of CIE publications and standards Inter-Society Color Council