Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important innovations in consumer products; the Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area.
Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low jobless rate. Rochester is a Global city with Sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Maj. Charles Carroll, Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney; the revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed.
Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean; the North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchi
Marion Blue Racers
The Marion Blue Racers were a professional indoor football team based in Marion, Ohio. The Blue Racers began play as an expansion team in the Continental Indoor Football League in 2011, before moving to the United Indoor Football League for the 2012 season; the Blue Racers returned to the CIFL in 2013. The team had announced that it would be joining the Xtreme Indoor Football League for the 2014, but re-signed with the CIFL. During the 2015 season, the Blue Racers played as members of X-League Indoor Football; the Blue Racers were the second indoor football team to be based in Marion, the first being CIFL charter members the Marion Mayhem from 2006 to 2010. The owners of the Blue Racers are Shavonne Coleman; the Blue Racers played their home games at the Veterans Memorial Coliseum. The franchise couldn't have asked for a more exciting start than their first game on March 5, 2011. Marion entered the 4th quarter trailing 37-23 to the Port Huron Predators, they started their comeback by scoring a touchdown with 10:31 left in the game.
Mike Tatum caught a nine-yard touchdown pass from Josh Harris and Tyler Lorenz added the extra point, cutting Port Huron's lead was cut to 37-30. With 3:27 left in the game, Harris ran in from three yards out to tie the game; the game winning score came on an eight-yard run by Harris with 27 seconds to play. Port Huron quarterback Jim Roth was intercepted by Bryan Williams as time expired to secure the victory. On April 2, 2011, the Blue Racers set a CIFL record with 8 rushing touchdowns in a single game, against the Indianapolis Enforcers. After the Blue Racers got off to a 3-1 start, Demetrius Ross stepped down from his head coaching position, citing personal reasons, his Defensive Coordinator, Ryan Terry took over as head coach, just 2 days before the Blue Racers played their first road game at the Dayton Silverbacks. The Blue Racers went on to an 8-2 regular season record; the team defeated the Dayton Silverbacks 53-18 in the league Semi-Finals, before being defeated by the Commandos again in the 2011 CIFL Championship Game 44-29.
On July 5, 2011, the Blue Racers announced they were leaving the CIFL to join the Ultimate Indoor Football League. The Blue Racers were added as a member of the Northern Conference, re-uniting with, their arch-rivals, the Cincinnati Commandos. On August 17, 2011, Lorenzo Styles was named the 3rd head coach in franchise history. In February, team CEO and General Manager, LaMonte Coleman, took a coaching position with the Pittsburgh Power of the Arena Football League; the following day, Ryan Sawyer was named the team's interim general manager while Coleman was coaching in Pittsburgh. On March 30, 2012, Styles resigned as the head coach of the Blue Racers after compiling a 3-1 record, citing personal reason as the reason for his resignation. Offensive Coordinator Marc Huddleston, took over as the team's head coach; the team remained a strong pipeline for the Pittsburgh Power, as both the team's kickers, Trey Kramer and Seth Burkholder, signed with the team. The Blue Racers finished the season with a 7-4 record, earning the 3rd seed in the UIFL North playoff.
The team traveled to play the second seeded Erie Explosion, where the game was played at a high school field, where the team had built walls for the playing field. It is the first time; the Explosion went on to defeat the Blue Racers 56-47, after the Blue Racers had led 22-0 early in the game. The Blue Racers announced they would be leaving the UIFL following the conclusion of the 2012 season. A few days the franchise returned to the CIFL. On September 18, 2012, the Blue Racers name, CEO and General Manager, LaMonte Coleman, as the team's 5th head coach in franchise history. Three weeks before the start of the season, the Blue Racers announced that offensive coordinator, Martino Theus, had been promoted to head coach for the 2013 season. Theus was removed as the head coach in Marion after a 1-4 start. Marc Huddleston finish the season as the Blue Racers head coach, as the team finish the season 2-8; every home game of the 2013 season was shown on WMNO Marion TV 22, available via broadcast on UHF channel 22 and on Time Warner Cable channel 3.
In May 2013, the Blue Racers announced that they were leaving the CIFL again, this time to join the Xtreme Indoor Football League. The league was supposed to be run by LaMonte Coleman. However, in August 2013, the Blue Racers re-signed with the CIFL to a multi-year contract. Coleman has hired Marc Huddleston as the 2014 Head Director of Football Operations. After a 2-1 start, the Blue Racers announced that owner LaMonte Coleman would be taking over as the team's head coach; the Blue Racers recovered from a down season in 2013, by winning the CIFL's new South Division title, clinching them homefield advantage in the South Division playoffs. The Blue Racers faced off against the Northern Kentucky River Monsters in the South Division title game and won 56-40. With the win over Northern Kentucky, the Blue Racers clinched their 2nd berth in the CIFL Championship Game. After 3 quarters of play, the Blue Racers were tied at 26 with the Erie Explosion in the 2014 CIFL Championship Game when Aaron Smentanka found Evan Twombly for a score.
After Marion turned over the ball on downs, Richard Stokes scored again for the Explosion, which turned out to be the final score of the game, making the game 38-26. In October 2014, as the CIFL disbanded, Marion announced they would be joining the X-League Indoor Football. After a sluggish 2-2 start, Coleman fired Rick Kranz as head coach, once again named himself as the interim head coach of the Blue Racers. On August 23, 2015, the Blue Racers announced that they would rejoin the revived CIFL, which became a member of the I
The Sears Centre is an 11,000-seat multi-purpose arena in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, a northwest suburb, 25 miles from Chicago. The arena has 43 luxury suites on two separate levels, it was estimated to attract over 750,000 visitors annually. The arena is home to the Windy City Bulls, the Chicago Bulls' affiliate in the NBA G League; the Sears Centre is located near the former site of the Poplar Creek Music Theater. Food services are provided by Levy Restaurants. In 2011, the Village of Hoffman Estates took over ownership of the arena after Ryan Companies US, Inc. walked away from the arena due to the arena's lack of success. However, since the village took over the arena and hired Global Spectrum to manage it, the arena has shown improvements; the venue opened on October 2006, with performances by Duran Duran and Bob Dylan. In 2008 and from 2010 until present, the Illinois Recreational Cheerleading Association hold their annual state championship at the facility; the fourth annual TNA Bound for Glory Professional wrestling pay-per-view event – October 12, 2008, TNA's first PPV event in the Chicago area.
The arena was the venue which featured TNA's first Impact Wrestling outside of Orlando, Florida, on March 14, 2013. On May 19 and 20, 2011, it played host to the Chicago audition stages in the first season of the Fox singer search program The X Factor. In 2009 and 2011, it played host to Strikeforce events. September 12–14, 2014: Played host to the Davis Cup, hosting matches between the United States and Slovakia. 2014 Skate America The 2017 and 2018 Ken Kraft Midlands Championships, hosted by Northwestern University's wrestling program, have been hosted at the Sears Centre. September 1, 2018: All In, the largest independent professional wrestling event presented by Cody Rhodes and The Young Bucks, featuring the top names in the indies and certain wrestlers from NJPW, like Kenny Omega and Kazuchika Okada. USA Gymnastics 2013 U. S. Challenge 2013 U. S. Classic 2014 U. S. Classic 2015 U. S. Classic 2017 U. S. Classic Sears Centre Chicago Sears Centre Arena Chicago show guide to Chicago
Cincinnati Gardens was an indoor arena located in Cincinnati, Ohio that opened in 1949. It was sold by the Robinson Family in 2016 to the Port of Greater Cincinnati Development Authority; the 25,000 square foot brick and limestone building, whose entrance was decorated with six three-dimensional carved athletic figures. When it opened, its seating capacity of 11,000+ made it the seventh largest indoor arena in the United States; the Cincinnati Gardens' first event was an exhibition hockey game. It has been the home of six league championship hockey teams, most was the home of the Cincinnati Mighty Ducks of the American Hockey League, but it has been host to numerous other sporting events, stage shows and political rallies; the Gardens' final primary tenant was the Cincinnati Rollergirls of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. On June 16, 2016, the Port of Greater Cincinnati Development Authority approved a contract to acquire the property, located at 2250 Seymour Ave. in Bond Hill, for $1.75 million, from the Robinson Family.
The 19-acre site will be repurposed, for future light manufacturing. The deal brings to close a multi-year search by the Gardens' owners for a new buyer – and ends a 67-year legacy. Demolition took place in March 2018. Cincinnati Gardens has been known as a venue for ice hockey and boxing; the Gardens' first event was an exhibition hockey game on February 22, 1949, between the Dallas Texans of the United States Hockey League and their parent National Hockey League team, the Montreal Canadiens. Several of the Texans' players would soon seed the first professional hockey team in Cincinnati, the Cincinnati Mohawks, who played at the Gardens from 1949 through 1958—three seasons in the AHL and six in the International Hockey League. Three NHL Hall of Famers played for the Mohawks — Harry Howell, Buddy O'Connor and Clint Smith — and from 1952 through 1957, the team won an IHL record five consecutive Turner Cup championships. Cincinnati Gardens was home to the Cincinnati Mohawks of the Midwest Amateur Hockey League in 1966, 1968, 1969.
Most of the Mohawks games were held in the annex. The Xavier University Ice Hockey Program began using the Cincinnati Gardens as its home facility for the 2007-2008 season. During the summer before the 2009-2010 season the team constructed its own permanent home inside the arena; the Chuck Stout Locker Room now serves as the home of the Xavier ice hockey team. Complete with 22 individual stalls, shower facilities, coaches room and equipment and workout area the Chuck Stout Locker Room is a great asset to the Xavier program; the Cincinnati Swords played in the AHL as an affiliate of the NHL Buffalo Sabres from 1971 through 1974 and won the Calder Cup as AHL champions in 1973. The Cincinnati Wings played the 1963-64 season at the Gardens, relocating from Indianapolis after their home arena, the Indiana State Fairgrounds Coliseum, was damaged in a propane explosion on October 31, 1963 which killed 74 people; the Cincinnati Cyclones played in the East Coast Hockey League for two seasons and the IHL for five seasons at the Cincinnati Gardens.
When the Cyclones moved to U. S. Bank Arena in 1997, the AHL returned to the building for the third time with the creation of the Cincinnati Mighty Ducks, an affiliate of the NHL Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and Detroit Red Wings, who played in the building until 2005; the Cincinnati Thunder of the NA3HL moved to the Gardens beginning with the 2015-16 season, making the team the Gardens' newest hockey tenant. Though having no pro-hockey team, the Gardens still acted as the home rink for several area high school teams; the Gardens was home to the Cincinnati Royals of the National Basketball Association from 1957 through 1972. Hall of Famer Oscar Robertson played for the Royals from 1960 through 1970; the arena hosted the NBA All-Star Game in January 1966, Royals' guard Adrian Smith was named the game's Most Valuable Player. College basketball, including 42 "Crosstown Shootout" games between the University of Cincinnati and Xavier University, has been played at the Gardens since its first week in 1949.
The arena has served as the home court for both schools at various times, lastly for Xavier from 1983 until their move to the on-campus Cintas Center in 2000. From 1984 through 1987, the Cincinnati Slammers of the Continental Basketball Association played their home games at the Gardens. High school basketball has used the Gardens over the years, both for regular season games – such as contests matching Middletown & Hamilton Highs – as well as post-season tournaments including the state tourney in 1953 & 1955; the Gardens has hosted a number of boxing matches several featuring prominent local & international fighters. Eventual Heavyweight champion and Hall of Famer Ezzard Charles of Cincinnati defeated Joey Maxim in a heavyweight title contender fight on February 28, 1949, in the arena's first week. Cincinnatian Wallace "Bud" Smith defended his World Lightweight crown there on October 19, 1955. Numerous Golden Gloves competitions have drawn as many as 10,000+ fans, a "Super Brawl Sunday" event was held in 2002.
On August 30, 2008, Relentless Events packed over 6000 fans into the arena for former heavyweight champion Lamon Brewster's comeback fight against Danny Batchelder. Brewster won by fifth-round knockout. Local favorites Rashad Holloway and Aaron Pryor Jr. won on the undercard. Other sports hosted at the Gardens have included: Indoor soccer – Cincinnati Silverbacks, Cincinnati Kings Roller Derby – Cincinnati Rollergirls.
The Saginaw Sting was a professional Indoor Football team based in Saginaw, Michigan. The team was most a member of American Indoor Football, they began play in 2008 as an expansion team in the Continental Indoor Football League and moved to the Indoor Football League for the 2009 season. They suspended operations for the 2010 season before becoming an inaugural member of the Ultimate Indoor Football League; the following season they were re-joined the CIFL under new ownership. The team has since moved to the AIF; the owners of the Sting were Rob Licht and Jim O'Brien. The Sting played their home games at The Dow Event Center in Michigan, they are one of only a few teams to win a championship in multiple leagues. The team began play in 2008 as an expansion team in the CIFL; the original team owners were Mike Johnson, Mike Trumbull, Esteban Rivera, who owned the Kalamazoo Xplosion. The team was led by former Michigan State quarterback Damon Dowdell, who led the league in passing yards and completion percentage.
Nick Body was Dowdell's favorite target, leading the league in receptions and touchdowns. Despite their offensive numbers, neither player won Offensive Player of the Year or the CIFL MVP; the duo led the Sting to a 10–2 regular season and a playoff berth. On June 29, 2008, the Sting defeated the Xplosion 41–37 to win the CIFL Championship Game. A number of Sting and Xplosion players indicated at the end of the 2008 season that wages were in arrears from the owners; this led to an investigation of Johnson in his role as Sting General Manager. Trumbull, owner of Triple Threat Sports in Battle Creek, Rivera, a Battle Creek police officer, have offered a deal to split ownership of the two teams, with Trumbell and Rivera owning the Sting, Johnson receiving the Xplosion. Trumbull and Rivera have indicated that they plan for the Sting to move to the new Indoor Football League; the Sting looked to have put together a promising team with the re-signing of QB Damon Dowdell, signing 2007 CIFL MVP, WR/RB Robert Height, but the team fared poorly on the field in the IFL.
Prior to the 2011 season, the team was purchased by Mike Esposito. Esposito announced that the team would play in the newly formed Ultimate Indoor Football League, which Esposito was the league's commissioner, he hired Stuart Schweigert as the Sting's Director of Player Development. The Sting went on to win the Ultimate Bowl, with quarterback Tommy Jones setting several UIFL passing records and claiming the Ultimate Bowl's MVP honors. On November 11, 2011, the Sting were acquired by Rob Licht and Jim O'Brien; the new ownership announced the same day that they would be moving the team back to the CIFL. On December 29, 2011, the Sting announced that 2011 interim head coach Vince Leveille would return as the full-time head coach for the 2012 season, but just 11 days before the team's first game, Leveille stepped down as the head coach, citing that his full-time job made him unavailable to do both. Defensive Coordinator Fred Townsend took over as the team's head coach. With an 8–0 record, the Sting returned to the CIFL playoffs for the first time since 2008, when they won the 2008 CIFL Championship Game and finished the season as the Atlantic Conferences's #2 seed.
In the 2012 CIFL Championship Game, the Sting defeated the Dayton Silverbacks 35-7, to win the CIFL championship. The title for the Sting was their 3rd in the last 4 seasons of playing; the Sting's first move in its quest for a title defense in 2013 was re-signing head coach Fred Townsend to a 3-year contract extension. The Sting progressed to the 2013 CIFL Championship Game. With less than a minute to play, the team found itself on its opponent's nine-yard line down by one point, but due to the team's placekicker being suspended the previous week had nobody capable of kicking a 24-yard chip shot, they were forced to attempt a touchdown. They failed, giving the Erie Explosion a perfect season. In June 2013, the Sting agreed to terms with the CIFL to return for the 2014 season; the Sting won their first eighth game of the season to advance to 8-0, but during that game the Sting lost quarterback A. J. McKenna to injury; the following week the team lost 2013 league MVP, C. J. Tarver to the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League.
The loss of those two key players became noticeable when the Sting lost their final regular season game to finish 9-1. Just one day before the Sting's first playoff game, head coach Fred Townsend announced his resignation. Line Coach James Perry II was named the teams interim head coach. In October 2014, the Sting announced; the Sting announced the hiring of Greg Wasmer as the franchise's new head coach. After a 0-2 start for the Sting, Wasmer was fired and owner Stuart Schweigert was named the head coach of the Sting. On August 23, 2015, the Sting announced that they would rejoin the revived CIFL, which became a member of the Indoor Football Alliance. After months of no new teams joining the CIFL, the Sting re-joined the AIF for the 2016 season but were removed from the AIF schedules in early 2016 and appears to have disbanded without any official announcement. Owner Jim O'Brien has stated that they suspended operations due to league instability but plans to return for 2017; the following is a list of all Sting players who have won league awards The following Sting players have been named to All-League Teams: QB Tommy Jones, A. J. McKenna RB DeShawn Hayes WR LaVaughn Macon, C. J. Tarver, Daryl Gooden OL Eric Brim, Steve Michalek, Josh Peck
Port Huron, Michigan
Port Huron is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of St. Clair County; the population was 30,184 at the 2010 census. The city is administratively autonomous. Located along the St. Clair River, it is connected to Point Edward, Ontario in Canada via the Blue Water Bridge; the city is the easternmost point on land in Michigan. Port Huron is home to two paper mills, Mueller Brass, many businesses related to tourism and the automotive industry; the city features a historic downtown area, marina, museum and the McMorran Place arena and entertainment complex. This area was long occupied by the Ojibwa people. French colonists had a temporary trading fort at this site in the 17th century. In 1814 following the War of 1812, the United States established Fort Gratiot at the base of Lake Huron. A community developed around it; the early 19th century was the first time a settlement developed with a permanent European-American population. Until 1836, an Ojibwa reservation occupied land in part of the modern area of Port Huron.
They were removed by the United States to west of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. In 1857, Port Huron became incorporated, its population grew after the 1850s due a high rate of immigration attracted by the successful shipbuilding and lumber industries. In 1859 the city had a total of 4,031 residents. By 1870, Port Huron's population exceeded that of surrounding villages. In 1871, the State Supreme Court designated Port Huron as the county seat. On October 8, 1871, the city, as well as places north in Sanilac and Huron counties, burned in the Port Huron Fire of 1871. A series of other fires leveled Holland and Manistee, Michigan, as well as Peshtigo and Chicago on the same day; the Thumb Fire that occurred a decade also engulfed Port Huron. In 1895 the village of Fort Gratiot, in the vicinity of the former Fort Gratiot, was annexed by the city of Port Huron; the following historic sites have been recognized by the State of Michigan through its historic marker program. Fort St. Joseph; the fort was built in 1686 by the French explorer Duluth.
This fort was the second European settlement in lower Michigan. This post guarded the upper end of the St. Clair River, the vital waterway joining Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Intended by the French to bar English traders from the upper lakes, the fort in 1687 was the base of a garrison of French and Indians. In 1688 the French abandoned this fort; the site was incorporated into Fort Gratiot in 1814. A park has been established at the former site of the fort. Fort Gratiot Light; the Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was built in 1829 to replace a tower destroyed by a storm. In the 1860s workers extended the tower to its present height of 84 feet; the light, automated in 1933, continues to guide shipping on Lake Huron into the narrow and swift-flowing St. Clair River, it was the first lighthouse established in the State of Michigan. Lightship Huron. From 1935 until 1970, the Huron was stationed in southern Lake Huron to mark dangerous shoals. After 1940 the Huron was the only lightship operating on the Great Lakes.
Retired from Coast Guard Service in 1970, she was presented to the City of Port Huron in 1971. Grand Trunk Railway Depot; the depot, now part of the Port Huron Museum, is where 12-year-old Thomas Edison departed daily on the Port Huron – Detroit run. In 1859, the railroad's first year of operation, Edison convinced the railroad company to let him sell newspapers and confections on the daily trips, he became so successful. He made enough money to buy chemicals and other experimental materials. Port Huron Public Library. In 1902 the city of Port Huron secured money from philanthropist Andrew Carnegie to erect a municipal library. In 1904, a grand Beaux-Arts-style structure was built at a cost of $45,000. At its dedication, Melvil Dewey, creator of a used book classification system, delivered the opening address; the Port Huron Public Library served in its original capacity for over sixty years. In 1967, a larger public library was constructed; the following year the former library was renovated and re-opened as the Port Huron Museum of Arts and History.
An addition was constructed in 1988. Harrington Hotel; the Hotel opened in 1896 and is a blend of Romanesque and Queen Anne architecture. The hotel closed in 1986, but a group of investors bought the structure that same year to convert it into housing for senior citizens; the Harrington Hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Grand Trunk Western Railroad Tunnel; the tunnel links Port Huron with Canada. This international submarine railway tunnel was the first international tunnel in the world; the tunnel's total length is 6,025 feet, with 2,290 feet underwater. The tunnel operations were electrified in 1908. Tracks were lowered in 1949 to accommodate larger freight cars. During World War I, a plot to blast the tunnel was foiled. A new tunnel has since been opened; the city received the All-America City Award in 1955 and 2005. Port Huron is the only site in Michigan; the event is now memorialized. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.26 square miles, of which 8.08 square miles is land and 4.18 square miles is water.
The city is considered to be part of the Thumb area of East-Central Michigan called the Blue Water Area. The easternmost point of Michigan can be found in Port Huron, near the site of the Municip
Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County; as of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the major city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 335,340 as of 2015. Kalamazoo is equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, each less than 150 miles away. One of Kalamazoo's most notable features is the Kalamazoo Mall, an outdoor pedestrian shopping mall; the city created the mall in 1959 by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic, although two of the mall's four blocks have been reopened to auto traffic since 1999. Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, Kalamazoo College, a private liberal arts college, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, a two-year community college. Known as Bronson in the township of Arcadia, the names of both the city and the township were changed to "Kalamazoo" in 1836 and 1837, respectively.
The Kalamazoo name comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the modern city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Detroit and Fort Saint-Joseph. French-Canadian traders and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era and thereafter; the name for the Kalamazoo River was known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name "Kikanamaso" was recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission, while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760. Legend has it that "Ki-ka-ma-sung," meaning "boiling water," referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, who had to run to the river and back before the pot boiled. Another theory is that it means "the mirage or reflecting river". Another legend is that the image of "boiling water" referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown.
The name was given to the river that flows all the way across the state. The name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, as in the phrase "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo." Today, T-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase "Yes, there is a Kalamazoo." The area on which the modern city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture, who migrated into the area sometime before the first millennium. Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a small mound in downtown's Bronson Park; the Hopewell civilization was replaced by other groups. The Potawatomi culture lived in the area. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680; the first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century. There are records of several traders wintering in the area, by the 1820s at least one trading post had been established.
During the War of 1812, the British established a prison camp in the area. The 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government. However, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish. Six years as a result of the 1827 Treaty of St. Joseph, the tract that became the city of Kalamazoo was ceded. In 1829, Titus Bronson from Connecticut, became the first white settler to build a cabin within the present city limits of Kalamazoo, he platted the town in 1831 and named it the village of Bronson—not to be confused with the much smaller Bronson, about fifty miles to the south-southeast of Kalamazoo. Bronson described as "eccentric" and argumentative, was run out of town; the village was renamed Kalamazoo in 1836, due in part to Bronson's being fined for stealing a cherry tree. Today, a downtown park, among other things, are named for Bronson. Kalamazoo was incorporated as a village in 1838 and as a city in 1883.
The fertile farmlands attracted prosperous Yankee farmers who settled the surrounding area, sent their sons to Kalamazoo to become businessmen and entrepreneurs who started numerous factories. Most of the original settlers of Kalamazoo were from upstate New York. In the 1940s, the city became the first to install curb cuts. In 1959, the city created the Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic; the Mall was designed by Victor Gruen, who designed the country's first enclosed shopping mall, which had opened three years earlier. Two of the mall's four blocks were reopened to auto traffic in 1999 after much debate. An F3 tornado struck downtown Kalamazoo on May 13, 1980, killing five and injuring 79. On February 20, 2016, Kalamazoo became the site of a random series of shootings in which six people were killed. A prime suspect was apprehended by police without incident. In the past, Kalamazoo was known for its production of windmills, buggies, cigars, stoves and paper products.
Agriculturally, it once was noted for celery. Although much of it has become suburbanized, the surrounding area still produces farm crops corn and soybeans. Kalamazoo was the original home of Gibson Guitar Corporation, which spawned the still-local Heritage Guitars; the company was incorporated as "Gibson Mandolin - Guitar Co. Ltd" on October 11, 1902, by the craftsman