Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications. It was created in 1976. Prior to 1976, it was known as the Canadian Radio and Television Commission, established in 1968 by the Parliament of Canada to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors, its headquarters is located in the Central Building of Les Terrasses de la Chaudière in Gatineau, Quebec. The CRTC was known as the Canadian Radio-Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were delivered by monopoly common carriers, was transferred to it from the Canadian Transport Commission although the abbreviation CRTC remained the same. On the telecom side, the CRTC regulated only held common carriers: BC Tel, which served British Columbia, in which a U. S. company held a substantial stake Bell Canada, which served much of Ontario and Quebec, the eastern part of the Northwest Territories telephone operations owned by crown corporation Canadian National Railways in Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and northern B.
C.. Other telephone companies, many of which were publicly owned and within a province's borders, were regulated by provincial authorities until court rulings during the 1990s affirmed federal jurisdiction over the sector, which included some fifty small independent incumbents, most of them in Ontario and Quebec. Notable in this group were: Newfoundland Telephone Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Island Telephone New Brunswick Telephone Manitoba Telephone System SaskTel Alberta Government Telephones Northern Telephone Télébec municipal telephone services in Prince Rupert, B. C. and Thunder Bay The CRTC regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it. The CRTC reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage, responsible for the Broadcasting Act, has an informal relationship with Industry Canada, responsible for the Telecommunications Act. Provisions in these two acts, along with less-formal instructions issued by the federal cabinet known as orders-in-council, represent the bulk of the CRTC's jurisdiction.
In many cases, such as the cabinet-directed prohibition on foreign ownership for broadcasters and the legislated principle of the predominance of Canadian content, these acts and orders leave the CRTC less room to change policy than critics sometimes suggest, the result is that the commission is the lightning rod for policy criticism that could arguably be better directed at the government itself. Complaints against broadcasters, such as concerns around offensive programming, are dealt with by the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, an independent broadcast industry association, rather than by the CRTC, although CBSC decisions can be appealed to the CRTC if necessary. However, the CRTC is sometimes erroneously criticized for CBSC decisions — for example, the CRTC was erroneously criticized for the CBSC's decisions pertaining to the airing of Howard Stern's terrestrial radio show in Canada in the late 1990s, as well as the CBSC's controversial ruling on the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing".
The commission is not equivalent to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, which has additional powers over technical matters, in broadcasting and other aspects of communications, in that country. In Canada, Innovation and Economic Development Canada is responsible for allocating frequencies and call signs, managing the broadcast spectrum, regulating other technical issues such as interference with electronics equipment; the CRTC has in the past regulated the prices cable television broadcast distributors are allowed to charge. In most major markets, prices are no longer regulated due to increased competition for broadcast distribution from satellite television; the CRTC regulates which channels broadcast distributors must or may offer. Per the Broadcasting Act the commission gives priority to Canadian signals—many non-Canadian channels which compete with Canadian channels are thus not approved for distribution in Canada; the CRTC argues that allowing free trade in television stations would overwhelm the smaller Canadian market, preventing it from upholding its responsibility to foster a national conversation.
Some people, consider this tantamount to censorship. The CRTC's simultaneous substitution rules require that when a Canadian network licences a television show from a US network and shows it in the same time slot, upon request by the Canadian broadcaster, Canadian broadcast distributors must replace the show on the US channel with the broadcast of the Canadian channel, along with any overlays and commercials; as Grey's Anatomy is on ABC, but is carried in Canada on CTV at the same time, for instance, the cable, satellite, or other broadcast distributor must send the CTV feed over the signal of the carried ABC affiliate where the ABC version is somehow different commercials. Viewers via home antenna who receive both Amer
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
Thunder Bay is a city in, the seat of, Thunder Bay District, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario with a population of 107,909 as of the Canada 2016 Census, the second most populous in Northern Ontario after Greater Sudbury. Located on Lake Superior, the census metropolitan area of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,621, consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of Oliver Paipoonge and Neebing, the townships of Shuniah, Conmee, O'Connor, Gillies, the Fort William First Nation. European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French fur trading outpost on the banks of the Kaministiquia River, it grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada, through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the east coast. Forestry and manufacturing played important roles in the city's economy, they have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "knowledge economy" based on medical research and education.
Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Health Research Institute. The city takes its name from the immense Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre; the city is referred to as the "Lakehead", or "Canadian Lakehead", because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border. European settlement at Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts which were subsequently abandoned. In 1803, the Montreal-based North West Company established Fort William as its mid-continent entrepôt; the fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort William was no longer needed. By the 1850s, the Province of Canada began to take an interest in its western extremity. Discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan had prompted a national demand for mining locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior. In 1849, French-speaking Jesuits established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception on the Kaministiquia to evangelize the Ojibwe.
The Province of Canada negotiated the Robinson Treaty in 1850 with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior. As a result, an Indian reserve was set aside for them south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859–60, the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships and the Town Plot of Fort William for European-Canadian settlement. Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William after construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the Red River Colony; the work was directed by Simon James Dawson. This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel Garnet Wolseley named it Prince Arthur's Landing, it was renamed Port Arthur by the Canadian Pacific Railway in May 1883. The arrival of the CPR in 1875 sparked a long rivalry between the towns, which did not end until their amalgamation in 1970; until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community. The CPR, in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company, preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia River where the fur trade posts were.
Provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and its seizure of a locomotive in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of silver mining after 1890 undermined the economy of Port Arthur, it had an economic depression. In the era of Sir Wilfried Laurier, Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth, based on improved access to markets via the transcontinental railway and development of the western wheat boom; the CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The Canadian Northern Railway established facilities at Port Arthur; the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, the federal government began construction of the National Transcontinental Railway. Grain elevator construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities incurred debt to grant bonuses to manufacturing industries. By 1914, the twin cities had modern infrastructures Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership.
As early as 1892, Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally-owned electric street railway. Both cities spurned Bell Telephone Company of Canada to establish their own municipally-owned telephone systems in 1902; the boom came to an end in 1913–1914, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War. A war-time economy emerged with the making of munitions and shipbuilding. Men from the cities joined the 52nd, 94th, 141st Battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the National Transcontinental Railway and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918; these were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the Canadian National Railways. The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur, it opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922. By 1929, the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels; the forest products industry has played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy from the 1870s.
Logs and lumber were shipped to the United States. In 1917, the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur, it was followed by a mill at Fort William, in 1920. There were four mil