CFNA-FM is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 99.7 FM in Bonnyville, Alberta. The station airs a music format branded as Country 99 FM. The station was launched in 2003 by 912038 Alberta Ltd. as a rebroadcaster of CKLM-FM in Lloydminster. It officially became a station with its own studios and program schedule on September 28,2007. The station originally had a rock format. The station was sold to Vista Broadcast Group on November 21,2008, the music format was changed to Country by Vista Radio in early 2009, when the name was changed from The GOAT to The Wolf. The name was changed again in 2014 to 99 Country FM,99 Country FM CFNA-FM history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the RECs Canadian station database for CFNA-FM
CJCD-FM is owned and operated by Vista Broadcast Group. The station has a rebroadcaster, CJCD-FM-1 at 100.1 FM, prior to moving to its current FM frequency in 1998, CJCD operated at AM1240. CJCD-AM began broadcasting on November 13,1979, on October 9,1985, the station was granted a power increase from 1,000 to 4,000 watts. In September of the year, a repeater in Hay River at 100.1 FM began operating. The change to FM was approved in January 1997, the station was founded by Charles Dent, Derek Squirell and Reg James. The station was sold to the Vista Broadcast Group in 2007, on May 21,2014, CJCD kept the stations Adult Contemporary and Classic Hits format, but rebranded as 100.1 Moose FM. In addition to the station, CJCD-FM is relayed by an FM translator to widen its broadcast area. 100.1 Moose FM Online CJCD history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the RECs Canadian station database for CJCD
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is referred to as frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, for example, if a newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as vibrations, audio signals, radio waves. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, in physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν. For a simple motion, the relation between the frequency and the period T is given by f =1 T. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, a previous name for this unit was cycles per second. The SI unit for period is the second, a traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm.
As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves and fast waves, like audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency instead of period. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. Y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, in the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has a relationship to the wavelength. Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of a wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum, v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes, f = c λ. When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their remains the same—only their wavelength. For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is, the latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count.
This is called gating error and causes an error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/, or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/ where Tm is the timing interval. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small, an older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising. A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and these attributes are necessary in a slogan, as it is only a short phrase. Therefore, it is necessary for slogans to be memorable, as well as concise in what the organisation or brand is trying to say, the word slogan is derived from slogorn which was an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the written and the visual to the chanted and their simple rhetorical nature usually leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankels research states that, English-speaking people began using the term by 1704, the term at that time meant the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons. Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages, crimmins research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a businesss total value.
With this in mind, if we take into consideration Kellers research and these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the name to be likable. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas research suggests there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan. The clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan, the slogan emphasizes the benefit of the product or service it is portraying. The creativity of a slogan is another factor that had an effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans, marketing slogans are often called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs, sloganeering is a mostly derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans.
Slogans are used to convey a message about the product, service or cause that it is representing and it can have a musical tone to it or written as a song. Slogans are often used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach, if the slogan is used for commercial purposes, often it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the aspect that helps create an image for the product
Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power, synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency power transmitted from a theoretical half-wave dipole antenna. It is differentiated from effective isotropic radiated power mainly by use of antenna gain instead of absolute gain in the calculation. The term antenna gain is assumed to be absolute unless specifically stated to be relative, the gain is multiplied by the power actually accepted by the antenna to result in the actual ERP value. Power losses which occur prior to the antenna, e. g. in the line or from inefficiency in the generator itself are therefore not included in the calculation of ERP or EIRP. Antenna gain is closely related to directivity and often used interchangeably. However, gain is less than directivity by a factor called radiation efficiency. Whereas directivity is entirely a function of wavelength and the geometry and type of antenna, accelerating charge causes electromagnetic radiation per Maxwells equations.
Therefore, antennas use a current distribution on radiating elements to generate electromagnetic energy that propagates away from the antenna and this coupling is never 100% efficient, and therefore antenna gain will always be less than directivity by this efficiency factor. The receiver would not be able to determine a difference, maximum directivity of an ideal half-wave dipole is a constant, i. e.0 dBd =2.15 dBi. Therefore, ERP is always 2.15 dB less than EIRP, the ideal dipole antenna could be further replaced by an isotropic radiator, and the receiver cannot know the difference so long as the input power is increased by 2.15 dB. Unfortunately, the distinction between dBd and dBi is often left unstated and the reader is forced to infer which was used. For example, a Yagi-Uda antenna is constructed from several dipoles arranged at intervals to create better energy focusing than a simple dipole. Since it is constructed from dipoles, often its antenna gain is expressed in dBd, obviously this ambiguity is undesirable with respect to engineering specifications.
A Yagi-Uda antennas maximum directivity is 8.77 dBd =10.92 dBi and its gain necessarily must be less than this by the factor η, which must be negative in units of dB. Neither ERP nor EIRP can be calculated without knowledge of the power accepted by the antenna, let us assume a 100 Watt transmitter with losses of 6 dB prior to the antenna. ERP <22. 77dBW and EIRP <24. 92dBW, polarization has not been taken into account so far, but properly it must be. When considering the dipole radiator previously we assumed that it was aligned with the receiver. Now assume, that the antenna is circularly polarized
CFPW-FM is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 95.7 FM in Powell River, British Columbia with an adult contemporary format branded as Coast 95.7 FM. The station is owned by Vista Broadcast Group, the station began broadcasting in 1967 at 1280 AM with the call sign CHQB. The station was owned by Sunshine Coast Broadcasting ltd and was acquired by Vista Broadcast Group in 2005. On May 18,2007 the station received approval from the CRTC to convert to the FM dial at 94.1, on November 1,2007, the station was given approval to use the current frequency at 95.7 FM. The station relaunched as an FM station on August 27,2008,95.7 Coast FM CFPW history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the RECs Canadian station database for CFPW-FM
CHBY-FM is a radio station which broadcasts a classic hits/adult contemporary format on the frequency of 106.5 FM/MHz in Barrys Bay, Canada. This is Barrys Bays first commercial FM radio station, owned by the Haliburton Broadcasting Group, the station received CRTC approval on January 12,2011. The stations new call sign will be CHBY-FM with the Moose FM branding, on April 23,2012 Vista Broadcast Group, which owns a number of radio stations in western Canada, announced a deal to acquire Haliburton Broadcasting, in cooperation with Westerkirk Capital. The transaction was approved by the CRTC on October 19,2012, in 2013, Vista had until January 12,2014 to get CHBY-FM on the air. The station was granted a second date of October 19,2015 to get the station on the air. CHBY-FM officially signed on the air at 12,00 PM on October 16,2015 branded as 106.5 Moose FM The Valleys Greatest Hits. The station has a greatest hits format and broadcasts from the CBC tower just outside Barrys Bay with a ERP of 12,000 watts
CHNV-FM is an adult hits radio station broadcasting at 103.5 FM in Nelson, British Columbia, Canada and is heard at 91.9 FM in Crawford Bay with the call sign CHNV-FM-1. The station is branded as 103.5 Juice FM and is owned by the Vista Broadcast Group, the station originally began in 2005 as a rebroadcaster of CKQR-FM, formerly known as in Castlegar. This was approved on October 21,2008, at midnight on June 11,2010 it split off from being a rebroadcaster and moved to its own programming. It was still branded as Mountain FM and continued to have an active rock format. September 3,2010 saw a change to adult album alternative. On May 30,2014, CHNV flipped to Variety Hits as 103.5 Juice FM, the on air line up consists of mornings with Shaun ONeill and afternoons with Kelsi Balfour. 103.5 Juice FM CHNV-FM history - Canadian Communications Foundation Query the RECs Canadian station database for CHNV-FM
Adult contemporary music
Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush and highly polished qualities where emphasis on melody and it is usually melodic enough to get a listeners attention, and is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure, the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which mostly use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are normally faint and high-pitched, recent adult contemporary music may usually feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, and some forms of teen pop, as these are popular among adults. AC radio often targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s, a common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past.
This de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart, over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including hot AC, soft AC, urban AC, rhythmic AC, and Christian AC. Some stations play only hot AC, soft AC, or only one of the variety of subgenres, therefore, it is not usually considered a specific genre of music, it is merely an assemblage of selected tracks from musicians of many different genres. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, a few offered 90% instrumentals, and a handful were entirely instrumental. Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 17,1961, with 20 songs, the chart described itself as not too far out in either direction. Initially, the vocalists consisted of such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como. The custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, some stations would occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s.
After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced, better reflecting what middle of the road stations were actually playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically. As rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the charts most popular performers and these middle of the road stations frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or beautiful music stations, stations with music specifically designed to be purely ambient, hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock.
Soft rock was often derived from rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody