Mandriva Linux was a Linux distribution by Mandriva. It used urpmi; each release lifetime was 12 months for desktop updates. Server products received full updates for at least 5 years after their release; the last release of Mandriva Linux was in August 2011. Most developers who were laid off went to Mageia. On, the remaining developers teamed up with community members and formed OpenMandriva, a continuation of Mandriva; the first release was based on Red Hat Linux and K Desktop Environment 1 in July 1998. It has since moved away from Red Hat's distribution and has become a separate distribution in its own right. Mandriva now includes a number of original tools to ease system configuration. Mandriva Linux is the brainchild of Gaël Duval; this goal was met as Mandrake Linux gained a reputation as "one of the easiest to install and user-friendly Linux distributions". At this time Internet Explorer held a dominant share of the web browser market, Microsoft a near monopoly in operating systems. Web browsers for Linux were limited to Mozilla, followed by a variety of poorly performing Linux-specific browsers such as Konqueror or Galeon.
Mandrake Linux earned praise as a Linux distribution that users could use all the time, without dual booting into Windows for compatibility with web sites or software unavailable under Linux. CNET called the user experience of Mandrake Linux 8.0 the most polished available at that time. Duval became the co-founder of Mandrakesoft, but was laid off from the company in 2006 along with many other employees. From its inception until the release of version 8.0, Mandrake named its flagship distribution Linux-Mandrake. From version 8.1 to 9.2 the distribution name was called Mandrake Linux. In February 2004, MandrakeSoft lost a court case against Hearst Corporation, owners of King Features Syndicate. Hearst contended that MandrakeSoft infringed upon King Features' trademarked character Mandrake the Magician; as a precaution, MandrakeSoft renamed its products by removing the space between the brand name and the product name and changing the first letter of the product name to lower case, thus creating one word.
Starting from version 10.0, Mandrake Linux became known as mandrakelinux, its logo changed accordingly. MandrakeMove became Mandrakemove. In April 2005, Mandrakesoft announced the corporate acquisition of Conectiva, a Brazilian-based company that produced a Linux distribution for Portuguese-speaking and Spanish-speaking Latin America; as a result of this acquisition and the legal dispute with Hearst Corporation, Mandrakesoft announced that the company was changing its name to Mandriva, that their Linux distribution Mandrake Linux would henceforward be known as Mandriva Linux. Mandriva Linux contained the Mandriva Control Center, it has many programs known as Drakes or Draks, collectively named drakxtools, to configure many different settings. Examples include MouseDrake to set up a mouse, DiskDrake to set up disk partitions and drakconnect to set up a network connection, they are written using GTK+ and Perl, most of them can run in both graphical and text mode using the ncurses interface. Mandriva Linux 2011 was released only with KDE Plasma Desktop, whereas other desktop environments were available but not supported.
Older Mandriva versions used KDE as standard but others such as GNOME were supported. Mandriva Linux used a package manager called urpmi, which functions as a wrapper to the.rpm binaries. It is similar to apt from Debian & Ubuntu, pacman from Arch Linux, yum or dnf from Fedora in that it allows seamless installation of a given software package by automatically installing the other packages needed, it is media-transparent due to its ability to retrieve packages from various media, including network/Internet, CD/DVD and local disk. Urpmi has an easy-to-use graphical front-end called rpmdrake, integrated into the Mandriva Control Center. A Live USB of Mandriva Linux can be created manually or with UNetbootin. From 2007–2011, Mandriva was released on a 6-month fixed-release cycle, similar to Ubuntu and Fedora; the latest stable version is Mandriva Linux 2011, released on 28 August 2011. The development tree of Mandriva Linux has always been known as Cooker; this tree is directly released as a new stable version.
Each release of Mandriva Linux was split into several different editions. Each edition is derived from the same master tree, most of, available on the public mirrors: all free / open source software, all non-free software, under a license that allows unrestricted distribution to the general public, is available from the public mirrors. Only commercial software under a license that does not allow unrestricted distribution to the general public is not available from public mirrors. Mandriva Linux Free was a'traditional' distribution, it was'free' in both senses: it consists of free and open-source software, it was made available for public download at no charge. It was available in CD and DVD editions for x86 32- and 64-bit CPU architectures, it was aimed at users to whom software freedom is important, at users who prefer a traditional installer to the installable live CD system used by One. Th
Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride. These channels may conduct many different ions, but are named for chloride because its concentration in vivo is much higher than other anions. Several families of voltage-gated channels and ligand-gated channels have been characterized in humans. Voltage-gated chloride channels display a variety of important physiological and cellular roles that include regulation of pH, volume homeostasis, organic solute transport, cell migration, cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on sequence homology the chloride channels can be subdivided into a number of groups. Voltage-gated chloride channels are important for setting cell resting membrane potential and maintaining proper cell volume; these channels conduct Cl− or other anions such as HCO−3, I−, SCN−, NO−3. The structure of these channels are not like other known channels; the chloride channel subunits contain between 12 transmembrane segments. Some chloride channels are activated only by voltage, while others are activated by Ca2+, other extracellular ligands, or pH.
The CLC family of chloride channels contains 12 transmembrane helices. Each protein forms a single pore, it has been shown. In terms of primary structure, they are unrelated to known cation channels or other types of anion channels. Three CLC subfamilies are found in animals. CLCN1 is involved in setting and restoring the resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle, while other channels play important parts in solute concentration mechanisms in the kidney; these proteins contain two CBS domains. Chloride channels are important for maintaining safe ion concentrations within plant cells; the CLC channel structure has not yet been resolved, however the structure of the CLC exchangers has been resolved by x-ray crystallography. Because the primary structure of the channels and exchangers are so similar, most assumptions about the structure of the channels are based on the structure established for the bacterial exchangers; each channel or exchanger is composed of two similar subunits—a dimer—each subunit containing one pore.
The proteins are formed from two copies of the same protein—a homodimer—though scientists have artificially combined subunits from different channels to form heterodimers. Each subunit binds ions independently of the other, meaning conduction or exchange occur independently in each subunit; each subunit consists of two related halves oriented in opposite directions, forming an ‘antiparallel’ structure. These halves come together to form the anion pore; the pore has a filter through which chloride and other anions can pass, but lets little else through. These water-filled pores filter anions via three binding sites—Sint and Sext—which bind chloride and other anions; the names of these binding sites correspond to their positions within the membrane. Sint is exposed to intracellular fluid, Scen lies inside the membrane or in the center of the filter, Sext is exposed to extracellular fluid; each binding site binds different chloride anions simultaneously. In the exchangers, these chloride ions do not interact with one another, due to compensating interactions with the protein.
In the channels, the protein does not shield chloride ions at one binding site from the neighboring negatively charged chlorides. Each negative charge exerts a repulsive force on the negative charges next to it. Researchers have suggested that this mutual repulsion contributes to the high rate of conduction through the pore. CLC transporters shuttle H+ across the membrane; the H+ pathway in CLC transporters utilizes two glutamate residues—one on the extracellular side and one on the intracellular side, Gluin. Gluex serves to regulate chloride exchange between the protein and extracellular solution; this means that the chloride and the proton share a common pathway on the extracellular side, but diverge on the intracellular side. CLC channels have dependence on H+, but for gating rather than Cl− exchange. Instead of utilizing gradients to exchange two Cl− for one H+, the CLC channels transport one H+ while transporting millions of anions; this corresponds with one cycle of the slow gate. Eukaryotic CLC channels contain cytoplasmic domains.
These domains have a pair of CBS motifs, whose function is not characterized yet. Though the precise function of these domains is not characterized, their importance is illustrated by the pathologies resulting from their mutation. Thomsen’s disease, Dent’s disease, infantile malignant osteopetrosis, Bartter’s syndrome are all genetic disorders due to such mutations. At least one role of the cytoplasmic CBS domains regards regulation via adenosine nucleotides. Particular CLC transporters and proteins have modulated activity when bound with ATP, ADP, AMP, or adenosine at the CBS domains; the specific effect is unique to each protein, but the implication is that certain CLC transporters and proteins are sensitive to the metabolic state of the cell. The Scen acts as the primary selectivity filter for most CLC proteins, allowing the following anions to pass through, from most selected to least: SCN−, Cl−, Br−, NO−3, I−. Altering a serine residue at the selectivity filter, labeled Sercen, to a different amino acid alters the selectivity.
Gating occurs through two mechanisms: common or slow gating. Common gating involves both protein subunits closing their pores at the same time, while protopore gating involves independent opening and closing of each pore; as the names imply, fast gating occur at a much faster rate than slow gating. Precise molecular mechanisms for gating are still being studied. For the channels, when the slow gate is
CLIC Sargent is a charity in the United Kingdom formed in 2005. CLIC Sargent is the UK's leading cancer charity for young people and their families, its care teams provide specialist support across the UK. CLIC Sargent supports people from diagnosis onwards and aims to help the whole family deal with the impact of cancer and its treatment, life after treatment and, in some cases, bereavement; the charity undertakes research into the impact of cancer on children and young people. It uses this evidence to raise awareness and to seek to influence government and policy-makers, those who provide public services across the UK. CLIC Sargent was formed in 2005 after a successful merger between Cancer and Leukaemia in Childhood and Sargent Cancer Care for Children. CLIC Sargent's chief executive is Kate Lee, who took over from Lorraine Clifton in December 2015. CLIC Sargent's main fundraising and awareness event is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month in September. People fundraise through runs and other events.
Corporate partners working with CLIC Sargent: Previous corporate partners include, ITV Text Santa, Chelsea FC, HMV and Virgin Trains West Coast. Virgin Trains West Coast have named Pendolino 390047 CLIC Sargent in honour of the charity. Colas Rail have done the same by naming locomotive 60087 CLIC Sargent. Children With Leukaemia Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research The Neuroblastoma Society Neuroblastoma Children's Cancer Alliance UK Leonora Children's Cancer FundGeneral: Cancer in the United Kingdom Charity Commission. CLIC Sargent, registered charity no. 1107328. CLIC Sargent website
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota; the area is known as the Twin Cities after its two largest cities, the most populous city in the state, Saint Paul, the state capital. It is an example of twin cities in the sense of geographical proximity. Minnesotans living outside of Minneapolis and Saint Paul refer to the two together as "The Cities". There are several different definitions of the region. Many refer to the Twin Cities as the seven-county region, governed under the Metropolitan Council regional governmental agency and planning organization; the Office of Management and Budget designates 16 counties as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area", the 16th largest in the United States; the entire region known as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul MN–WI Combined Statistical Area", has a population of 3,946,533, the 14th largest, according to 2017 Census estimates. Despite the Twin moniker, both cities are independent municipalities with defined borders.
Minneapolis is somewhat younger with more modern skyscrapers downtown, while Saint Paul has been likened to an East Coast city, with quaint neighborhoods and a vast collection of well-preserved late-Victorian architecture. Minneapolis was influenced by its early Lutheran heritage. Saint Paul was influenced by its early French and German Catholic roots; the first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of Stillwater, Minnesota. The city is 20 miles from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River, which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling, constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Mississippi River. Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of Saint Anthony Falls, thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens, who operated a ferry service across the river.
As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew and Minneapolis and Saint Anthony merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul. Natural geography played a role in the development of the two cities; the Mississippi River Valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an accessible point, some seven miles downstream from Saint Anthony Falls, the geographic feature that, due to the value of its immense water power for industry, defined the location of Minneapolis and its prominence as the Mill City; the falls can be seen today from the Mill City Museum, housed in the former Washburn "A" Mill, among the world's largest mills in its time. The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota side of the metropolitan area.
Joseph Haskell was Minnesota's first farmer, harvesting the first crops in the state in 1840 on what is now part of Afton Township on Trading Post Trail. The Grand Excursion, a trip into the Upper Midwest sponsored by the Rock Island Railroad, brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboat in 1854; the next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published The Song of Hiawatha, an epic poem based on the Ojibwe legends of Hiawatha. A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake Minnetonka and Minnehaha Falls. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades. At one time, the region had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban streetcar systems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area was one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad.
A great amount of commercial rail traffic ran through the area carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigation on the river, prior to a new lock and dam facility being added upriver in Minneapolis. Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the Saint Paul Union Depot; this amounted to 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile, some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicago to Minneapolis/Saint Paul and served distant points in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak's Seattle/Portland to Chicago Empire Builder route, running once daily in each direction, it is named after James J. Hill, a railroad tycoon who settled on Summit Avenue in Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill House.
Like many Northern cities that grew up with the Industrial Revolution, Minneapolis and St. Paul experienced shifts in their economic base as heavy industry declined in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the economic decline of the 60s and 70s came pop
Clic is a 1974 album by Italian experimental musician Franco Battiato. The album, released on the Island Records label, is a brooding and intense collection of instrumental/vocal arrangements. Dedicated to Karlheinz Stockhausen, the music has stylistic similarities with Philip Glass and Tangerine Dream, but is more lyrical and has elements of musique concrète, it was re-released on CD with a different track listing. Reviewing the 1998 re-release of album for AllMusic, Ned Raggett said: Aside from backing vocals and a string quartet, everything else is Battiato's doing, with the Krautrock touches apparent in his previous work starting to surface all the more here. Things are more meditative and reflective, though Battiato isn't far from his usual wry humor.... "Il Mercato Degli Dei" is as representative of the album as anything, an instrumental composed of various parts and consisting entirely of Battiato's various keyboard explorations arranged and overdubbed, but emphasizing calm, quiet arrangements rather than Rick Wakeman-like orgies of sound.
"I Cancelli Della Memoria" makes for a great start to the album, soothing Tangerine Dream-like airs and bubbling synth bass loops mixing with everything from Battiato's own sax work to his more expected piano parts. Franco Battiato - voice, keyboards, VCS3, special effects Gianni Mocchetti - bass, electric guitar Gianfranco D'Adda - percussion Gianni Bedori - saxophones Jutta Nienhaus - vocals on "Revolution in the Air" Juri Camisasca - vocals Producer: Pino Massara Art Director: Franco Battiato, Peppo Delconte Designer: Mario Covertino Photography: Roberto Masotti "Propiedad Prohibida" "No U Turn" "Gates of Memory""Revolution in the Air" "I Cancelli Della Memoria" "No U Turn" "Il Mercato Degli Dei" "Rien Ne Va Plus: Andante" "Propiedad Prohibida" "Nel Cantiere Di Un'Infanzia" "Ethika Fon Ethica"
Cumbria County Council
Cumbria County Council is the county council of Cumbria, a county in the North West of England. Established in 1974, following its first elections held a year before that, it is an elected local government body responsible for the most significant local services in the county, including county schools, county roads, social services. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland and the county borough of Carlisle were abolished, the areas they covered were combined with parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire to form a new non-metropolitan county called Cumbria. Cumbria County Council is responsible for the more strategic local services of the county, including education and youth services, social services, highway maintenance, waste disposal, emergency planning, consumer protection, town and country planning for minerals matters and for highways; this makes it a substantial employer. The former Cumberland County Council's final major road scheme, an A66 bypass for Keswick, was prepared by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick, consulting engineers, in 1972, construction began in the summer of 1974, with the new authority completing the scheme.
The Council operates various waste disposal facilities across the area. In January 2012, the Council announced plans to close six of these centres; the six sites identified by the review as most suitable for closure are at Ambleside, Grange-over-Sands, Kirkby Stephen and Wigton. Control of the council has swung forth. In its first four years there was no overall control, but in 1977 the Conservatives gained a majority. In 1981, this became a majority for Labour, from 1985 there was again no one-party control. In 1997, Labour again took control, but lost it in 2001. Since no party has had a majority. A proposal for Cumbria to become a unitary authority was made in 2007, Cumbria went into consultation, with opposition coming from the district councils which would be abolished, Barrow-in-Furness, Copeland and South Lakeland. In the event, the county was left out of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. In 2008, the county council rejected a proposal to introduce a directly elected mayor, opting instead for a cabinet-style administration that resembled the status quo.
During the same year, an administration of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats collapsed, suffering not least from lacking a majority in the council. Thirty-nine Labour members and three Independents equalled the total of thirty-two Conservatives and ten Liberal Democrats. A minority Labour administration took over running the council until the June 2009 elections, when a net gain of one seat from the Independents led to the creation of a new Conservative and Labour coalition; the first elections to the authority were in 1973, members have been elected since every four years for a four-year term of office, with elections being held all together on the "first past the post" system. Since boundary changes in 2001, 84 councillors have been elected from 84 single-member electoral divisions. At the June 2009 elections, the outcome was 38 Conservatives members, 24 Labour, 16 Liberal Democrats and six Independents. A Labour-Conservative coalition was formed. Following the May 2013 elections the outcome was 35 Labour members, 26 Conservative, 16 Liberal Democrats and 7 Independents.
A Labour-Lib Dem coalition was formed. Following the May 2017 elections, the outcome was 37 Conservative, 26 Labour, 16 Liberal Democrats and 5 Independents, resulting in a Labour-Lib Dem coalition with support from Independent members. Since 1973 the political control of the council has been as follows: Tim Westoll, first chairman of the council chairman of Cumberland County Council from 1959 to 1974. Cumbria Council election, 2009 County council