Solaris (operating system)
Solaris is a Unix operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. In 2010, after the Sun acquisition by Oracle, it was renamed Oracle Solaris. Solaris is known for its scalability on SPARC systems, for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC and x86-64 servers from Oracle and other vendors. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification. Solaris was developed as proprietary software. In June 2005, Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license, founded the OpenSolaris open-source project. With OpenSolaris, Sun wanted to build a user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. In August 2010, Oracle discontinued providing public updates to the source code of the Solaris kernel turning Solaris 11 back into a closed source proprietary operating system.
Following that, in 2011 the Solaris 11 kernel source code leaked to BitTorrent. However, through the Oracle Technology Network, industry partners can still gain access to the in-development Solaris source code. Source code for the open source components of Solaris 11 is available for download from Oracle. In 1987, AT&T Corporation and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: Berkeley Software Distribution, UNIX System V, Xenix; this became Unix System V Release 4. On September 4, 1991, Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix, SunOS 4, with one based on SVR4; this was identified internally as SunOS 5, but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. The justification for this new overbrand was that it encompassed not only SunOS, but the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing functionality. Although SunOS 4.1.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun, the Solaris name is used exclusively to refer only to the releases based on SVR4-derived SunOS 5.0 and later.
For releases based on SunOS 5, the SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. For example, Solaris 2.4 incorporates SunOS 5.4. After Solaris 2.6, the 2. was dropped from the release name, so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5.7, the latest release SunOS 5.11 forms the core of Solaris 11.4. Although SunSoft stated in its initial Solaris 2 press release their intent to support both SPARC and x86 systems, the first two Solaris 2 releases, 2.0 and 2.1, were SPARC-only. An x86 version of Solaris 2.1 was released in June 1993, about 6 months after the SPARC version, as a desktop and uniprocessor workgroup server operating system. It included the Wabi emulator to support Windows applications. At the time, Sun offered the Interactive Unix system that it had acquired from Interactive Systems Corporation. In 1994, Sun released Solaris 2.4, supporting both SPARC and x86 systems from a unified source code base. On September 2, 2017, Simon Phipps, a former Sun Microsystems employee not hired by Oracle in the acquisition, reported on Twitter that Oracle had laid off the Solaris core development staff, which many interpreted as sign that Oracle no longer intended to support future development of the platform.
While Oracle did have a large layoff of Solaris development engineering staff, development continues today of which Solaris 11.4 was released in 2018. Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: i86pc. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing, supporting a large number of CPUs, it has been integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware, with which it is marketed as a combined package. This has led to more reliable systems, but at a cost premium compared to commodity PC hardware. However, it has supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.1 and 64-bit x86 applications since Solaris 10, allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Sun has marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors, as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM; as of 2009, the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: Dell – will "test and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" Intel Hewlett Packard Enterprise – distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on BL, DL, SL platforms Fujitsu SiemensAs of July 2010, Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris, Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms, IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit.
Solaris 2.5.1 included support for the PowerPC platform, but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.6 release. In January 2006, a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. In October 2006, an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar, which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2.5.1 into OpenSolaris, announced its first official source code release. A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. On November 28, 2007, IBM, Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM, called Sirius
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Asbestos and the law
Litigation related to asbestos injuries and property damages has been claimed to be the longest-running mass tort in U. S. history. Since asbestos-related disease has been identified by the medical profession in the late 1920s, workers' compensation cases were filed and resolved in secrecy, with a flood of litigation starting in the United States in the 1970s, culminating in the 1980s and 1990s. A massive multi-district litigation complex filing has remained pending in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania for over 20 years; as many of the scarring-related injury cases have been resolved, asbestos litigation continues to be hard-fought among the litigants in individually brought cases for terminal cases of asbestosis and other cancers. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, asbestos was considered an ideal material for use in the construction industry, it was known to be an excellent fire retardant, to have high electrical resistance, was inexpensive and easy to use. The dangers related to asbestos arise when the fibers become airborne and are inhaled.
Because of the size of the fibers, the lungs cannot expel them. These fibers are sharp and penetrate internal tissues. Health problems attributed to asbestos include: Asbestosis - A lung disease first found in textile workers, asbestosis is a scarring of the lung tissue resulting from the production of growth factors that stimulate fibroblasts to proliferate and synthesize the scar tissue in response to injury by the inhaled fibers; the scarring may become so severe that the lungs can no longer function. The latency period is 10–20 years. Mesothelioma - A cancer of the mesothelial lining of the lungs and the chest cavity, the peritoneum or the pericardium. Unlike lung cancer, mesothelioma has no association with smoking; the only established causal factor is exposure to asbestos or similar fibers. The latency period for mesothelioma may be 20–50 years; the prognosis for mesothelioma is grim, with most patients dying within 12 months of diagnosis. Cancer - Cancer of the lung, gastrointestinal tract and larynx have been linked to asbestos.
The latency period for cancer is 15–30 years. Diffuse pleural thickening Considerable international controversy exists regarding the perceived rights and wrongs associated with litigation on compensation claims related to asbestos exposure and alleged subsequent medical consequences; some measure of the vast range of views expressed in legal and political circles can be exemplified by the two quotes below, the first from Prof. Lester Brickman, an American legal ethicist writing in the Pepperdine Law Review, second, Michael Wills, a British Member of Parliament, speaking in the House of Commons on July 13. 2006: "A review of the scholarly literature indicates a substantial degree of indifference to the causes of this civil justice system failure. Many of the published articles on asbestos litigation focus on transactional costs and ways in which the flow of money from defendants to plaintiffs and their lawyers can be expeditiously and efficiently prioritized and routed; the failure to acknowledge, let alone analyze, the overriding reality of specious claiming and meritless claims demonstrates a disconnect between the scholarship and the reality of the litigation, nearly as wide as the disconnect between rates of disease claiming and actual disease manifestation".
"Many of those who I see in my surgeries have worked in a number of workplaces and they could have been exposed to asbestos in each of them, but medical science is such that no one can identify which of them it is. As a result, there has been a long and complex history of legal discussion on how to apportion liability; the lawyers and the judiciary have wrestled and valiantly, with complex and difficult law, but it has created despair for the families whom we represent. Many of my constituents’ families have been riven by the consequences of litigation in trying to get some compensation for a disease, contracted through no fault of theirs; that is cruel and unacceptable." Worldwide, 60 countries have banned the use of asbestos, in whole or in part. Some examples follow. Asbestos is listed as a category of controlled waste under Annex I of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Any waste streams having asbestos as constituents are controlled.
In general terms, Parties to the Convention are required to prohibit and not permit the export of hazardous wastes to the Parties which have prohibited the import of such wastes via the notification procedure in Article 13 of the Convention. A nationwide ban on importing and using all forms asbestos took effect on 31 December 2003. Reflecting the ban, the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission revised asbestos-related material to promote a consistent approach to controlling exposure to workplace asbestos and to introduce best-practice health and safety measures for asbestos management and removal; the ban does not cover asbestos materials or products in use at the time the ban was implemented. Although Australia has only a third of the UK's population, its asbestos disease fatalities approximate Britain's of more than 3,000 people per year. Western Australia' center of blue asbestos mining was Wittenoom; the mine was run by CSR Limited. The main manufacturer of asbestos products was James Hardie, which set up a minor fund for its workers transferred operations to the Netherlands where it would
United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises Long Island and Staten Island in New York. The court's territorial jurisdiction includes the Counties of Kings, Richmond and Suffolk as well as, concurrently with the Southern District of New York, the waters of New York and Bronx counties. Courthouses are located in Central Islip; the United States Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of New York represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current Interim United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York since January 5, 2018 is Richard Donoghue. Appeals from the Eastern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit; the main location is the Theodore Roosevelt Federal Courthouse at 225 Cadman Plaza East in the civic center of Brooklyn. The 15-story building was designed by Cesar Pelli; the courthouse was designed in 1995 but did not open until 2006 following redesign requirements in the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11 attacks.
It replaced the six story Emanuel Celler Federal Building. In 2008 it was renamed for Theodore Roosevelt; the building was to be renamed in honor of former New York Governor Hugh Carey but politicians backed off because Carey was alive at the time. The associated prison is Brooklyn; the Divisional office is in the Alfonse M. D'Amato United States Courthouse in Central Islip, New York; the courthouse designed by Richard Meier is the largest building on Long Island. The 12-story building has 23 courtrooms and 24 judges' chambers, it is the third largest federal courthouse in the United States. The U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York has 15 authorized judgeships, filled by judges appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Fourteen judges who have taken senior status are eligible to continue hearing cases. On April 3, 2016, Judge Dora Irizarry became Chief Judge of the Court. Judge Jack B. Weinstein regarded as among the most respected and influential Judges in America, is a Senior Judge in this district.
Unlike many other judges at Judge Weinstein's level of seniority, he continues to maintain a full docket of cases, including many of the biggest corporate cases considered anywhere in the country. As of March 31, 2018, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge.
After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Courts of New York List of United States federal courthouses in New York United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York Official Website United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York Official Website
United States District Court for the District of Oregon
The United States District Court for the District of Oregon is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of Oregon. It was created in 1859. Appellate jurisdiction belongs to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Matthew P. Deady served as its first judge. Michael W. Mosman is the current chief judge; the United States Attorney's Office for the District of Oregon represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Billy J. Williams; the court has four divisional offices within the state: Portland, Eugene and Pendleton. Portland’s division holds court at the Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse and handles cases from Clackamas, Columbia, Hood River, Multnomah, Tillamook, Wasco and Yamhill counties; the Medford Division covers Curry, Josephine, Lake counties and meets at the James A. Redden United States Courthouse; the Pendleton court includes Baker, Gilliam, Harney, Morrow, Umatilla, Union and Wheeler and holds session at John F. Kilkenny United States Post Office and Courthouse.
The Wayne L. Morse United States Courthouse houses the Eugene Division that covers Benton, Deschutes, Lane, Lincoln and Marion counties. After Oregon became a state on February 14, 1859, the United States Congress created the District of Oregon encompassing the entire state on March 3, 1859; the bill creating the district authorized a single judge and designated it as a judicial circuit. President James Buchanan appointed Matthew Deady as judge, the court was to hold annual sessions in April and September at the seat of government in Salem. Deady held the first session of the court on September 12, 1859, in Salem, but was able to have the court relocated to Portland by the September session of 1860. Beginning in 1933, the court was housed in the United States Courthouse before moving to the new Hatfield Courthouse in 1997. On March 3, 1863, Congress passed a law that removed the circuit court jurisdiction and transferred appeals court jurisdiction to the Tenth Circuit, in 1866 transferred it again to the Ninth Circuit.
On April 18, 1877, court clerk Ralph Wilcox committed suicide in his office at the court using a Deringer pistol. On March 27, 1885, Judge Deady admitted Mary Leonard to the federal bar, the first woman admitted in Oregon. In 1909, Congress added another judge position to the court, followed by another judgeship in 1949. On October 20, 1978, Congress passed a law authorizing two more positions on the bench of the Oregon court; the first woman to serve on the court was Helen J. Frye, whose service began on February 20, 1980. In 1990, Congress added a sixth judgeship for the district. Ancer L. Haggerty, the first African American on the court, began his service on March 28, 1994; as of February 5, 2019 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge.
A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first; the age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position. When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Courts of Oregon List of United States federal courthouses in Oregon List of Oregon District Court judges United States District Court for the District of Oregon Official Website United States Attorney for the District of Oregon Official Website U. S. District Court of Oregon Historical Society Judicial Nomination Statistics: U. S. District and Circuit Courts, 1945–1976 at Archive.today from the Congressional Research Service