# 4000 series

The **4000 series** is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968. Almost all IC manufacturers active during this initial era fabricated models for this series, it is still in use today.

## Contents

## History[edit]

The 4000 series was introduced as the *CD4000 COS/MOS* series in 1968 by RCA as a lower power and more versatile alternative to the 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) chips. The logic functions were implemented with the newly introduced Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. While initially marketed with "COS/MOS" labeling by RCA (which stood for Complementary Symmetry Metal-Oxide Semiconductor), the shorter *CMOS* terminology emerged as the industry preference to refer to the technology,^{[1]} the first chips in the series were designed by a group led by Albert Medwin.^{[2]}

Wide adoption was initially hindered by the comparatively slower speeds of the designs compared to TTL based designs. Speed limitations were eventually overcome with newer fabrication methods, leaving the older TTL chips to be phased out, the series was extended in the late 1970s and 1980s with new models that were given 45xx and 45xxx designations, but are usually still regarded by engineers as part of the 4000 series. In the 1990s, some manufacturers (e.g. Texas Instruments) ported the 4000 series to newer HCMOS based designs to provide greater speeds.

## Design considerations[edit]

The 4000 series facilitates simpler circuit design through relatively low power consumption, a wide range of supply voltages, and vastly increased load-driving capability (fanout). This makes the series ideal for use in prototyping LSI designs. While TTL based design is similarly modular, it requires meticulous planning of a circuit's electrical load characteristics. Buffered models can accommodate higher electrical currents, but have a greater risk of introducing unwanted feedback.^{[3]}^{[4]} Many models contain a high level of integration, including fully integrated 7-segment display counters, walking ring counters, and full adders.

## Common 4000 series chips[edit]

- 4001 - Quad 2-input NOR gate
- 4008 - 4-bit full adder
- 4011 - Quad 2-input NAND gate
- 4013 - Dual D Type Flip Flop
- 4017 - Decade counter / walking ring counter
- 4026 - 7-segment LED counter
- 4049 - Hex inverting buffer
- 4050 - Hex non-inverting buffer
- 4051 - 8-channel analog multiplexer / demultiplexer
- 4071 - Quad 2-input OR gate
- 4081 - Quad 2-input AND gate

## See also[edit]

- List of 4000 series integrated circuits
- 7400 series
- List of 7400 series integrated circuits
- Logic gate

## References[edit]

**^**Wright, Maury.*Milestones That Mattered: CMOS pioneer developed a precursor to the processor*EDN, 6/22/2006**^**R. Jacob Baker (2010).*CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation*(3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-118-03823-9.**^**Understanding Buffered and Unbuffered CD4xxxB Series Device Characteristics. Texas Instruments**^**Lancaster, Don.*CMOS Cookbook*, ISBN 0-672-21398-2

## External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to .4000 Series |

- List of 4000 series ICs manufactured by NXP Semiconductors
- Thorough list of 4000 series ICs
- 4000B Series CMOS Functional Diagrams
- 4000 Series Logic and Analog Circuitry - Analog
- Historical Databook: CMOS ICs (1983, 798 pages) - RCA
- Understanding 4000-series Digital Logic ICs - Nuts and Volts magazine