Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai University is a public research university in northern Thailand founded in 1964. It has a strong emphasis on engineering, science and medicine, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction. Its main campus lies between Chiang Mai Doi Suthep in Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province; the university was the first institution of higher education in northern Thailand, the first provincial university in Thailand. Chiang Mai University has four campuses, three of them in Chiang Mai and one in Lamphun, which together cover about 3,490 acres. There are 18 housing complexes located on campus for students attending the university. Seventeen of them are on the main campus and one is on the Mae Hea campus The main university campus, known as Suan Sak campus or Cherng Doi, lies about five kilometres west of the city center. Set against Doi Suthep, the campus occupies a 725-acre site, bounded on three sides by main shopping streets and on the fourth by the Chiang Mai Zoo.
The campus includes the university's administrative centre, the science, engineering and social science faculties, political science and public administration, the graduate school, all of the campus resource facilities and services and major sports facilities. An attractive feature of this campus is the Ang Kaew Reservoir. Constructed to supply water for the university, it is a recreational area for campus residents and the local community. In the 1960s, the area was still forested. With conservation in mind, university buildings were constructed between the trees, with the result that the campus still retains much of its original setting. Near the main campus, closer to the city, the health sciences complex, the Suan Dok campus, occupies a 110-acre site which includes faculties of medicine, associated medical sciences, dentistry and Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, known locally as Suan Dok, the largest teaching hospital in northern Thailand. About 5 km south of the main campus, the 864-acre Mae Hea campus is home to the faculties of veterinary medicine and agro-industry.
The Energy Research and Development Institute, the university center for renewable energy, energy efficiency improvement center, moved from the main campus to the Mae Hea campus in January 2009. This center is a national "biogas center of excellence", emphasizing biogas activities biogas on swine farms; the university's latest acquisition is the Si Bua Ban campus in Amphoe Mueang Lamphun, Lamphun Province, about 55 kilometres south of Chiang Mai, on a 1,890-acre site close to the Lamphun industrial centre. Chiang Mai University is a large residential, research university, with a majority of enrollment coming from graduate and professional students. There are one college in three disciplines. Chiang Mai University ranks third in academics and fifth in research according to the Thailand Office of the Higher Education Commission The international ranks are 67 in Asia Energy Research and Development Institute-Nakornping Research Institute for Health Sciences Social Research Institute Language Institute Chiang Mai University Demonstration School Yingluck Shinawatra, 28th Prime Minister of Thailand Chaturon Chaisang, Deputy Prime Minister from 2002–06 Suthep Thaugsuban, Deputy Prime Minister from 2008–11 Kasem Wattanachai, Privy Councilor from 2001–Present Apirak Kosayothin, 14th Governor of Bangkok Sompop Jantraka, Activist Suporn Watanyusakul, Reconstructive surgeon Minfong Ho, writer Roger A. Beaver, biologist Conrad H. Bergo, chemist Phisit Seesuriyachan, Biotechnologist Chiang Mai University Official website
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. With its main campus located 3 miles from Downtown Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon has grown into an international university with over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley, more than 20 research partnerships; the university has seven colleges and independent schools which all offer interdisciplinary programs: the College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, H. John Heinz III College of Information Systems and Public Policy, the School of Computer Science.
Carnegie Mellon counts 13,961 students from 109 countries, over 105,000 living alumni, over 5,000 faculty and staff. Past and present faculty and alumni include 20 Nobel Prize laureates, 13 Turing Award winners, 23 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 22 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 79 Members of the National Academies, 124 Emmy Award winners, 47 Tony Award laureates, 10 Academy Award winners; the Carnegie Technical Schools were founded in 1900 in Pittsburgh by the Scottish American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who wrote the time-honored words "My heart is in the work", when he donated the funds to create the institution. Carnegie's vision was to open a vocational training school for the sons and daughters of working-class Pittsburghers. Carnegie was inspired for the design of his school by the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York founded by industrialist Charles Pratt in 1887. In 1912, the institution changed its name to Carnegie Institute of Technology and began offering four-year degrees.
During this time, CIT consisted of four constituent schools: the School of Fine and Applied Arts, the School of Apprentices and Journeymen, the School of Science and Technology, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women. The Mellon Institute of Industrial Research was founded in 1913 by a banker and industrialist brothers Andrew and Richard B. Mellon in honor of their father, Thomas Mellon, the patriarch of the Mellon family; the Institute began as a research organization which performed work for government and industry on a contract and was established as a department within the University of Pittsburgh. In 1927, the Mellon Institute incorporated as an independent nonprofit. In 1938, the Mellon Institute's iconic building was completed and it moved to its new, current, location on Fifth Avenue. In 1967, with support from Paul Mellon, Carnegie Tech merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to become Carnegie Mellon University. Carnegie Mellon's coordinate women's college, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie College closed in 1973 and merged its academic programs with the rest of the university.
The industrial research mission of the Mellon Institute survived the merger as the Carnegie Mellon Research Institute and continued doing work on contract to industry and government. CMRI closed in 2001 and its programs were subsumed by other parts of the university or spun off into autonomous entities. Carnegie Mellon's 140-acre main campus is three miles from downtown Pittsburgh, between Schenley Park and the Squirrel Hill and Oakland neighborhoods. Carnegie Mellon is bordered to the west by the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon owns 81 buildings in the Squirrel Hill neighborhoods of Pittsburgh. For decades the center of student life on campus was the University's student union. Built in the 1950s, Skibo Hall's design was typical of Mid-Century Modern architecture, but was poorly equipped to deal with advances in computer and internet connectivity; the original Skibo was razed in the summer of 1994 and replaced by a new student union, wi-fi enabled. Known as University Center, the building was dedicated in 1996.
In 2014, Carnegie Mellon re-dedicated the University Center as the Cohon University Center in recognition of the eighth president of the university, Jared Cohon. A large grassy area known as "the Cut" forms the backbone of the campus, with a separate grassy area known as "the Mall" running perpendicular; the Cut was formed by filling in a ravine with soil from a nearby hill, leveled to build the College of Fine Arts building. The northwestern part of the campus was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines in the 1980s. In 2006, Carnegie Mellon Trustee Jill Gansman Kraus donated the 80-foot -tall sculpture Walking to the Sky, placed on the lawn facing Forbes Ave between the Cohon University Center and Warner Hall; the sculpture was controversial for its placement, the general lack of input that the campus community had, its aesthetic appeal. In April 2015, Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with Jones Lang LaSalle, announced the planning of a second office space structure, alongside the Robert Mehrabian Collaborative Innovation Center, an upscale and full-service hotel, retail and dining development along Forbes Avenue.
This complex will connect to the Tepper Quadrangle, the Heinz College, the Tata Consultancy Services Building, the Gates-Hillman Center to create an innovation corridor on the university campus. The eff
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Cardiff Metropolitan University University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, is a university situated in Cardiff, Wales. It operates from two campuses: Cyncoed campus on Cyncoed Road. In the 2016/17 academic year, the university has just under 11,000 students; the university offers degree courses in a variety of disciplines. Study is available at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, full-time and part-time, research opportunities are offered. Cardiff Metropolitan University has a number of research and enterprise centres, including the Food Industry Centre, the Welsh Centre for Tourism Research, the National Centre for Product Design and Development Research. In 1865 the Cardiff School of Art opened in St Mary Street; the School of Art moved to the Technical Buildings in Dumfries Place in 1900 The Friary in 1949 to a new campus in Howard Gardens in 1965. In 1940, Cardiff College of Food Technology and Commerce opened at Crwys Road; the Cardiff College of Food Technology and Commerce moved to a new Colchester Avenue Campus in 1966, home to management, leisure, hospitality and food students.
In 1950 Cardiff Training College opened at Heath Park. Llandaff Technical College opened in 1954 at Western Avenue, home to health sciences and engineering students. In 1962 the college moved to Cyncoed, now home to the Schools of Sport. In 1976, the four colleges merged to form South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education; the name changed to Cardiff Institute of Higher Education in preparation for Incorporation. In 1992, the Institute joined the University of Wales as an autonomous body; the first Teaching Degree Awarding Powers were granted by the Privy Council in 1993. The Institute was given the power to award its own degrees in August but placed the powers in abeyance, choosing instead to strengthen their links with the University of Wales. In 1996, it was granted University College status within the University of Wales and named the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff. In 2003, UWIC became a constituent institution of the University of Wales.and considered merging with the University of Glamorgan.
2004 saw the launch of the FE2HE-UWIC Consortium: an FE/HE partnership established with Barry, Coleg Glan Hafren and Ystrad Mynach FE colleges, with St David's College joining in 2009. Tony Chapman becomes Senior Vice-Chancellor and Chief Executive of the University of Wales In 2005 the university enters into and ends merger talks with the University of Wales, Newport. A vote of no confidence is passed by the staff in the Vice Chancellor Tony Chapman. London School of Commerce became an Associate College in 2006. In October 2010, the new building for the Cardiff School of Management opened in Llandaff with the closure of the Colchester Avenue campus. In June 2011, the new Learning Centre on the Llandaff campus was opened. Merger talks with Swansea Metropolitan and Trinity St David universities were discussed. UWIC formally ended its association with the University of Wales, was renamed Cardiff Metropolitan University in November 2011; the university now awards all of its degrees in its own name.
Despite this'withdrawal' from the University of Wales, the new Cardiff Metropolitan University retains close formal links with it. Until summer 2012 they shared the same Pro Vice Chancellor of Research. Cardiff Metropolitan University continued to supply its staff for the University of Wales to use as moderators for their overseas franchised degrees. From 2004 to 2007, Cardiff Metropolitan University's Vice Chancellor, Tony Chapman, was the Senior Vice-Chancellor and Chief Executive of the University of Wales, whilst holding the post of Vice Chancellor at UWIC. In December 2003, UWIC withdrew from merger talks with the University of Glamorgan, stating that it was not in the ‘best interests of UWIC and the students’. In December 2004, UWIC announced merger talks with University of Wales, but withdrew from merger talks in July 2005 when HEFCW stated they indicated that any proposed merger must include the University of Glamorgan. On 4 July 2011, UWIC pulled out of merger talks with both Swansea Metropolitan University and the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, for a new University of Wales citing the fact that it was ‘dissatisfied with a lack of attention to good governance, due process and administration'.
This was despite the fact that its own Pro-Vice Chancellor for Research, Professor Robert Brown, was one of the most senior figures in the University of Wales, serving as a member of the University of Wales Council. In December 2011 the newly established Cardiff Metropolitan University rejected HEFCW plans for the future structure of Wales’ universities which proposed merging it with the universities of Glamorgan and Newport to form the UK's largest higher education institution. Pressure on Cardiff Met to merge continued to mount throughout 2011 and 2012, however, in line with Leighton Andrews' controversial Higher Education agenda; this included a plan to create a new super-university of 45,000 students in the Welsh Valleys, involving the University of Glamorgan, the University of Wales and Cardiff Metropolitan. Newport had agreed to merger plans put forward by Glamorgan, although it was described as a'bilateral arrangement' with neither institution technically taking precedence; this merger plan left open the possibility of a third university becoming involved, recognised as a reference to Cardiff Met's position.
Cardiff Metropolitan continued to oppose a merger with its neighbours, citing the lack of a business case, concerns that the new institution (which would be the largest campus
China Medical University (Taiwan)
China Medical University is a private university in Taichung, Taiwan. The university enrolls 8,000 students. CMU was established as China Medical College on June 6, 1958 and transformed itself into China Medical University in 2003, it is the first academic institution in Taiwan where Chinese medicine and pharmacy programs are provided. The university has two major campuses and Beigang. CMU includes seven colleges where various degree programs in western medicine, Chinese medicine, health care, life sciences, public health, management are provided. 1958-The establishment of China Medical College 1980-The establishment of China Medical College Taichung Hospital 1984-The establishment of China Medical College Beikang campus 1985-The establishment of China Medical College Beikang Hospital 1997-China Medical College Taichung Hospital was promoted to a Would-be Academic Medical Centers 2000-China Medical college Taichung Hospital was promoted to an Academic Medical Centers 2003-China Medical College was transformed to China Medical University 2007-Inauguration of Wuquan campus 2008-China Medical University Beikang Hospital was promoted to a Metropolitan Teaching Hospital 2010-Ground breaking ceremony of the Build-Operate-Transfer project for the planned Tainan Municipal Annan Hospital Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman List of universities in Taiwan China Medical University, Taiwan Website
Central Michigan University
Central Michigan University is a public research university located in Mount Pleasant in the U. S. state of Michigan. Established in 1892, Central Michigan University is one of the largest universities in the state of Michigan and one of the nation's 100 largest public universities, it has more than 20,000 students on its Mount Pleasant campus and 7,000 students enrolled online at more than 60 locations worldwide. CMU offers 200 academic programs at the undergraduate, master's, doctoral levels, including nationally recognized programs in entrepreneurship, music, teacher education and physician assistant; the School of Engineering and Technology has ABET accredited programs in Mechanical and Computer Engineering. The university's neuroscience program was named program of the year in 2013 by the Society for Neuroscience and CMU has established a College of Medicine, which opened in fall 2013. CMU competes in the NCAA Division I Mid-American Conference in ten women's sports. Central Michigan University is governed by a Board of Trustees, whose eight members are appointed by the Governor of Michigan and confirmed by the Michigan Senate for terms of eight years.
This arrangement is provided for by the Michigan Constitution of 1963 for nearly all public universities, the three exceptions being the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University. The Board of Trustees appoints and reviews the President of Central Michigan University interim Michael Gealt; the president administers the policies set by the board and serves ex officio on the board as a non-voting member. The Board of Trustees controls university finances, including tuition and budgets, as well as university policies, ranging from missions and goals to faculty and tenure to athletics and academics to admissions and programs, it names facilities and groups and accepts gifts from large donors, among several other duties and powers it possesses. Members of the Board of Trustees serve without compensation, but are reimbursed by the university for expenses related to their official capacity, such as travel. CMU has eight academic divisions: The College of Business Administration The College of the Arts and Media The College of Education and Human Services The Herbert H. and Grace A.
Dow College of Health Professions The College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences The College of Medicine The College of Science and Engineering The College of Graduate StudiesAcademic work on campus is supported by the renovated Charles V. Park Library which holds one million books and can seat up to 2,655 patrons at a time; the school operates the Brooks Astronomical Observatory. The Central Michigan University College of Graduate Studies provides over 70 graduate degree programs at the Master's, Specialist, or Doctoral levels. Harold Abel Endowed Lecture Series in the Study of Dictatorship and Genocide. Focuses on the impact of historical events such as the Holocaust and mass murders in Africa, Southeast Asia, Central America. Named in honor of former CMU President Harold Abel; the Fleming Lecture Series. Focuses on bringing world-class mathematicians to campus. Speakers include Fields Medal winners Terence Tao, Sir Timothy Gowers, Cédric Villani and Abel Prize winners S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan and Louis Nirenberg.
Named in honor of mathematics professor Richard Fleming. Philip A. Hart and William G. Milliken Endowed Speaker Series for Integrity in Politics. Focuses on political integrity and challenges students to approach politics in a way that embraces America's diversity of ideas and perspectives, working to supplant negativity and partisanship with creativity and innovation in shaping future public policy. Named in honor of U. S. Senator Philip Hart and Michigan Governor William Milliken. William B. Nolde Lecture Series. Focuses on intellectual discussions for future leaders both in the military and across the campus and community. Named in honor of Army Colonel William Nolde, the last official combat casualty of the Vietnam War; the school's athletics programs are affiliated with NCAA Division I. CMU was a member of the Interstate Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1950–1970. All Central Michigan teams compete in the Mid-American Conference; the football program is known for producing all-stars such as Joe Staley.
Before converting over to a Division I league, the football team won its second NCAA Division II national championship in 1974 by defeating the University of Delaware 54 to 14. Notable Division 1 years include 1994, 2006, 2007, & 2009 when they won the MAC Football Championship Game. In 2009 they finished the season ranked #23 in the final AP Poll and #24 in the final Coaches Poll marking the first time that a CMU football team had ended the season ranked in the Top 25 at the NCAA Division I-FBS level. Since 2014, the football program has made a college bowl game, continues to see its players set MAC records yearly. Defeating both the University of Michigan and Michigan State University in dual meets, CMU's wrestling team won its 10th straight MAC championship and seventh straight conference tournament title in 2008; the Chippewas tied for seventh at the NCAA Championships. Four individuals earned All-America honors. Central Michigan University's women's basketball program has excelled to new levels.
In 2018, the team made saw its path formed into a sweet sixteen position of the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament. The team beat Louisiana State University & Ohio State accordingly, only to lose to Oregon respe
Central Methodist University
Central Methodist University is a private university in Fayette, Missouri. CMU is accredited to offer master's, bachelor's, associate degrees; the school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. On April 13–14, 1853, Central Methodist University was founded by Nathan Scarritt and David Rice McAnally; the college was chartered by the Missouri General Assembly on March 15, 1855. It came about due to the diligent work of Nathan Scarritt and David Rice McAnally. Classes began on September 18, 1857, on a 1-acre campus with an enrollment of 114 students and a faculty of three. Samuel C. Major was the first graduate, in 1858. In about 100 years the school grew to a campus of 55 acres, enrollment of over 1,000 students and a faculty of 65. In 2004, it was changed its name accordingly; the battle occurred on September 24, 1864 when two bands of southern sympathizers attacked the Union troops stationed in Fayette. The guerrillas were led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson and George Todd, included among their number Frank and Jesse James, of outlaw fame.
Somewhere between 30 and 50 Union fighters faced off against the 250 southern sympathizers, who had disguised themselves with uniforms taken from dead Federal soldiers. Only 75 members of the large guerrilla party charged the barricaded troops. Though Anderson and Todd lived on to terrorize northern troops across the state before their deaths, this ill-conceived attack had deadly consequences: after three charges, 13 of Anderson's men were dead and another 30 were wounded. Only 1 of the Union soldiers was killed, another five wounded. In years, Frank James said that the Fayette fight made him "the worst scared I was during the war." In his brief description of the fight, he said, "We charged up to a blockhouse made of railroad ties filled with portholes and charged back again. The blockhouse was filled with Federal troops and it was like charging a stone wall, only this stone wall belched forth lead."On October 14, 2007, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources commemorated the battle by placing a marker on the Central Methodist University campus.
Central Methodist's main campus is in Missouri. Notable features include Linn Memorial United Methodist Church, Swinney Conservatory, Brannock Hall, Little Theatre, Ashby-Hodge Gallery of American Art, Quadrangle; the college has the Morrison Observatory next to the president's home across the street from the Fayette city park. On-campus cultural attractions include Ashby-Hodge Gallery of American Art, Stephens Museum, concerts presented by the Swinney Conservatory of Music and productions hosted in the Little Theatre or on the Quad; the 2004 film Killer Diller was filmed on campus and in various other locations owned by the university. The Central Methodist College Campus Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, it encompasses 11 contributing buildings. They are Classic Hall, Howard-Payne Hall, Givens Hall, Brannock Hall, Cupples Hall, Clingenpeel Physical Education Building, T. Berry Smith Hall, Swinney Conservatory of Music, Paul H. Linn Memorial Methodist Church and Cross Memorial Tower, Rice H. Cooper Parish House, Morrison Observatory.
Brannock HallBrannock Hall was built in 1856. It stood through the Civil War, functioned as Fayette's weather center. Brannock sat empty from 1911-1914, it was remolded into a boys dormitory. In 1928 it became the administrative building on campus. Howard-Payne HallHoward Payne Hall was built in 1851 boarding house for women by William T. Lucky and Nathan Scarritt; the north wing was added from the burnt bricks. The north wing was used to house classrooms. In 1959, Howard High School was chartered into Howard College. Central bought Howard College and it became a female dorm. Howard Payne Hall was closed for several years due to the use of soft bricks during its construction. In 1981, the building was reopened and used as a co-ed dorm, is still used this way in the present. GivensGivens is the oldest structure on the CMU campus built in 1848–50. In 1903 it was used as a resident building for Howard Payne College presidents. In 1928 it was turned into a residence hall for Howard Payne female faculty. Givens has served the campus in many different ways.
One way being that it was used in World War II as the a Navy sick bay, has been used as residence building for female students. It is now used to house guests. Cupples HallBuilt in 1896 by Samuel Cupples as a dormitory for men. In 1927 Cupples became a library to house the George M. Smiley collection. In 1969-70 it was renovated, new addition was added that doubled the size of the library and allowed for the placement of The Little Theatre below. Classic HallClassic Hall was built in 1911 and was considered to be the great learning center on campus, it was constructed to help keep Howard Payne College a self-contained college for women. This allowed for Howard Payne to become a dormitory. Classic Hall used to house classrooms, a women's literary society. In 1981, it was shut down due to weakening structure. Classic Hall was reopened in 2012 as a home for Fine Arts. T. Berry Smith HallT. Berry Smith Hall was built in 1894-5, it was designed in an Italianate fashion. In the beginning of the building's history all the departments of college.
The Aristotelian and the Phi Alpha Literary Societies used
In economic terms, electricity is a commodity capable of being bought and traded. An electricity market is a system enabling purchases, through bids to buy. Bids and offers use demand principles to set the price. Long-term trades are contracts similar to power purchase agreements and considered private bi-lateral transactions between counterparties. Wholesale transactions in electricity are cleared and settled by the market operator or a special-purpose independent entity charged with that function. Market operators do not clear trades but require knowledge of the trade in order to maintain generation and load balance; the commodities within an electric market consist of two types: power and energy. Power is measured in megawatts. Energy is electricity that flows through a metered point for a given period and is measured in megawatt-hours. Markets for energy-related commodities trade net generation output for a number of intervals in increments of 5, 15 and 60 minutes. Markets for power-related commodities required and managed by market operators to ensure reliability, are considered ancillary services and include such names as spinning reserve, non-spinning reserve, operating reserves, responsive reserve, regulation up, regulation down, installed capacity.
In addition, for most major operators, there are markets for transmission congestion and electricity derivatives such as electricity futures and options, which are traded. These markets developed as a result of the restructuring of electric power systems around the world; this process has gone on in parallel with the restructuring of natural gas markets. One early introduction of energy market concepts and privatization to electric power systems took place in Chile in the early 1980s, in parallel with other market-oriented reforms associated with the Chicago Boys; the Chilean model was perceived as successful in bringing rationality and transparency to power pricing. Argentina improved on the Chilean model by imposing strict limits on market concentration and by improving the structure of payments to units held in reserve to assure system reliability. One of the principal purposes of the introduction of market concepts in Argentina was to privatize existing generation assets and to attract capital needed for rehabilitation of those assets and for system expansion.
The World Bank was active in introducing a variety of hybrid markets in other Latin American nations, including Peru and Colombia, during the 1990s, with limited success. A quantum leap in electricity pricing theory occurred in 1988 when four professors at MIT and Boston University published a book entitled, "Spot Pricing of Electricity." It presented the concept that prices at each location on a transmission system should reflect the marginal cost of serving one additional unit of demand at that location. It proposed quantifying these prices by solving a systemwide cost minimization problem while complying with all of the system's operational constraints, such as generator capacity limits, locational loads, line flow limits, etc. using linear programming software. The locational marginal prices emerged as the shadow prices for relaxing the load limit at each location. A key event for electricity markets occurred in 1990 when the UK government under Margaret Thatcher privatised the UK electricity supply industry.
The process followed by the British was used as a model for the restructuring of several other Commonwealth countries, notably the National Electricity Markets of Australia and New Zealand and the Alberta Electricity Market in Canada. In the United States the traditional vertically integrated electric utility model with a transmission system designed to serve its own customers worked well for decades; as dependence on a reliable supply of electricity grew and electricity was transported over greater distances, wide area synchronous grid interconnections developed. Transactions were few and scheduled well in advance. However, in the last decade of the 20th century, some US policy makers and academics asserted that the electric power industry would experience deregulation and independent system operators and regional transmission organizations were established, they were conceived as the way to handle the vastly increased number of transactions that take place in a competitive environment. About a dozen states decided to deregulate but some pulled back following the California electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001.
In different deregulation processes the institutions and market designs were very different but many of the underlying concepts were the same. These are: separate the competitive functions of generation and retail from the natural monopoly functions of transmission and distribution; the role of the wholesale market is to allow trading between generators and other financial intermediaries both for short-term delivery of electricity and for future delivery periods. Some states exempt non investor-owned utilities from some aspects of deregulation such as customer choice of supplier. For example, some of the New England states exempt municipal lighting plants from sev