Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series)
Battlestar Galactica is an American military science fiction television series, part of the Battlestar Galactica franchise. The show was developed by Ronald D. Moore and executive produced by Moore and David Eick as a re-imagining of the 1978 Battlestar Galactica television series created by Glen A. Larson; the pilot for the series first aired as a three-hour miniseries in December 2003 on the Sci-Fi Channel, followed by four regular seasons, ending its run on March 20, 2009. The cast includes Edward James Olmos, Mary McDonnell, Katee Sackhoff, Jamie Bamber, James Callis, Tricia Helfer, Grace Park The series garnered a wide range of critical acclaim both at the time of its run and in the years since, including a Peabody Award, the Television Critics Association's Program of the Year Award, a placement inside Time's 100 Best TV Shows of All-Time, Emmy nominations for its writing, costume design, visual effects, sound mixing, sound editing, with Emmy wins for both visual effects and sound editing.
In 2019, The New York Times placed the show on its list of "The 20 Best TV Dramas Since The Sopranos", a 20-year period many critics call "the golden age of television."Battlestar Galactica is set in a distant star system, where a civilization of humans lives on a group of planets known as the Twelve Colonies. In the past, the Colonies had been at war with an android race of their own creation, known as the Cylons. With the unwitting help of a human scientist named Gaius Baltar, the Cylons launch a sudden sneak attack on the Colonies, laying waste to the planets and devastating their populations. Out of a population numbering in the billions, only 50,000 humans survive, most of whom were aboard civilian ships that avoided destruction. Of all the Colonial Fleet, the eponymous Battlestar Galactica appears to be the only military capital ship that survived the attack. Under the leadership of Colonial Fleet officer Commander William "Bill" Adama and now-President Laura Roslin, the Galactica and its crew take up the task of leading the small fugitive fleet of survivors into space in search of a fabled thirteenth colony known as Earth.
The series spawned the prequel spin-off TV series Caprica, which aired for one season in 2010. Another spin-off, Battlestar Galactica: Blood & Chrome, was released in November 2012 as a web series of ten 10-minute episodes, aired on February 10, 2013, on Syfy as a televised movie. Battlestar Galactica continued from the 2003 miniseries to chronicle the journey of the last surviving humans from the Twelve Colonies of Kobol, after their nuclear annihilation by the Cylons; the survivors are led by President Laura Roslin and Commander William Adama in a ragtag fleet of ships with the Battlestar Galactica, an old, but powerful warship, as its command ship. Pursued by Cylons intent on wiping out the remnants of the human race, the survivors travel across the galaxy looking for the fabled and long-lost "thirteenth" colony: Earth. Unlike most space opera series, Battlestar Galactica has no humanoid aliens, the primary armaments used by both military forces utilize bullets, rail guns, missiles instead of lasers, the series intentionally avoids technobabble.
Instead, most of the stories deal with the apocalyptic fallout of the destruction of the Twelve Colonies upon the survivors, the moral choices they must make as they deal with the decline of the human race and their war with the Cylons. Stories portray the concept of perpetuated cycles of hate and violence driving the human-Cylon conflict, religion, with the implication of a "God" whose angelic agents appear to certain main characters. Over the course of the show's four seasons, the war between the Colonials and the Cylons takes many twists and turns. Despite the animosity on both sides, the humans and a faction of the Cylons form an uneasy alliance, in the wake of the Cylon Civil War; the Cylon leader, a humanoid Cylon "Number One" named John Cavil, precipitated the schism in the Cylon ranks. Cavil deceives the other models by obsessively hiding the identities and origins of the remaining five humanoid Cylon models, the "Final Five", known only to him, are a more ancient type of Cylon, created by a previous iteration of human civilization.
Other plotlines involve the mysterious destiny of Kara "Starbuck" Thrace, the subject of a prophecy claiming that she is the "Harbinger of Death" who will "lead them all to its end", as well as the redemption of Gaius Baltar through the Cylons' monotheistic religion, after he becomes a pariah within the fleet. In the final episodes, an inexplicably resurrected Kara Thrace leads the surviving humans and their Cylon allies to a new planet, which Adama names "Earth"; the first group of survivors settle in ancient Africa. The "real" Earth that the Colonials had searched for during their years in space was revealed in an earlier episode to have been inhabited thousands of years before by a previous form of humanoid Cylons; these humanoid Cylons had created their own Centurion robotic slaves, who waged a nuclear attack against their masters, devastating the planet and making it uninhabitable. The new Earth is found to be inhabited by early humans, who are genetically compatible with the humans from the Galactica and the rest of the fleet, but who possess only the most rudimentary civilization.
The surviving humans and humanoid Cylons settle on the new planet Earth.
Angel (1999 TV series)
Angel is an American television series, a spin-off from the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The series was created by Joss Whedon, in collaboration with David Greenwalt, it aired on The WB from October 5, 1999, to May 19, 2004, consisting of five seasons and 110 episodes. Like Buffy, it was produced by Mutant Enemy; the show details the ongoing trials of Angel, a vampire whose human soul was restored to him by gypsies as a punishment for the murder of one of their own. After more than a century of murder and the torture of innocents, Angel's restored soul torments him with guilt and remorse. Angel moves to Los Angeles, after it's clear that his doomed relationship with Buffy, the vampire slayer, cannot continue. During the first four seasons of the show, he works as a private detective in L. A, where he and a variety of associates work to "help the helpless", restoring the faith and saving the souls of those who have lost their way; this involves doing battle with evil demons or humans allied to them related to Wolfram & Hart, a law firm supported by occult practices, an extension of otherworldly demonic forces, which Angel takes over in the final season.
He must battle his own demonic nature. The series focuses around Angel, an Irish vampire, over 200 years old. Angel was known as Angelus during his rampages across Europe, but was cursed with a soul, which gave him a conscience and guilt for centuries of murder and torture, he left Buffy the Vampire Slayer at the end of Season 3 to move to Los Angeles in search of redemption. He soon finds himself assisted by Allen Francis Doyle, another Irish character, a half-human, half-demon who, although he comes across as a ne'er-do-well hustler, has a heroic side. Doyle serves to pass along the cryptic visions from The Powers That Be to Angel. They're soon joined by Cordelia Chase a previous cast member of Buffy. A popular high school cheerleader, Cordelia starts her tenure on the show as a vapid and shallow personality, but grows over the course of the series into a hero. Cordelia acquires Doyle's visions via a shared kiss prior to Doyle's death. With the death of Doyle in the early episodes of the show's first season, another character from the Buffy series makes the jump to its spin-off: Wesley Wyndam-Pryce joins the team under the brave guise of "rogue demon hunter", acting as comic relief and not well-accepted.
Over time, Wesley shows bravery and strength, as well as some cold blooded killing cruelty, like his colleague Rupert Giles, grows into a leader. In Season 2 of the show, the trio are joined by Charles Gunn, a young demon hunter who must adjust to working with and for a vampire. At the end of Season 2, they travel to the demon world Pylea, where they save Winifred "Fred" Burkle, a young Texan physicist whose social skills have become stunted after five years' captivity. Season 3 saw the introduction of Connor, the "miracle" human child of two vampires and Darla. Abducted into a Hell dimension as a baby, he is raised by Angel's enemy Daniel Holtz, only a few weeks after he left comes back as a teenager and reluctantly comes to accept his lineage. Although introduced during Season 2, Lorne joins the team during Season 3. An outgoing, pacifistic demon, Lorne's role is predominantly to support the team. Season 5, the show's final season, introduces several new cast members, chief amongst them Spike, an old vampire ally/foe of Angel's who starred in Buffy.
In this series, Spike reluctantly fights beside Angel as their rivalry continues – now tinged with Spike existing as another vampire with a soul, by the romantic feelings that both of them have for Buffy Summers. One of the legendary Old Ones, Illyria starts off as an adversary of the team after taking over Fred's body, but comes to join the team as she must learn to cope with the changed world and the new emotions she feels as a result of taking over a human. There's Harmony Kendall, another Buffy alumna and former friend of Cordelia, turned into a vampire. Resembling the old personality of Cordelia, Harmony is grudgingly accepted by Angel as his secretary when he takes over the Los Angeles branch of Wolfram & Hart. Many characters on Angel made recurring appearances; the two longest-running recurring characters are Lilah Morgan and Lindsey McDonald, appearing in 36 and 21 episodes, respectively. Angel's sire Darla, first seen in Buffy, plays in an expanded role on Angel and appears in 20 episodes over the course of the series.
Elisabeth Röhm appears in 15 episodes as LAPD Detective Kate Lockley, a woman with an often-strained relationship with Angel. Throughout the series, there were guest appearances from Buffy characters, including main cast members Buffy Summers, Willow Rosenberg and Daniel "Oz" Osbourne; the rogue slayer Faith played an important part in episodes of Seasons 1, 2, 4. Whedon used two actors from his cancelled television series Firefly, Gina Torres and Adam Baldwin, to play Jasmine and Marcus Hamilton, respectively. Much of Angel was shot on location in California; the show is set in the city of Los Angeles. "Los Angeles" are the first words spoken in the premiere episode, the cityscape is the first image seen in the opening credits. Joss Whedon said, "It is set i
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m
Aliens in America
Aliens in America is an American sitcom created by David Guarascio and Moses Port that aired on The CW for one season from 2007–2008. Guarascio and Port served as executive producers of the show alongside Tim Doyle. Luke Greenfield directed the pilot; the show is about an American teenager in Wisconsin whose family takes in a Muslim foreign exchange student from Pakistan. High schooler Justin Tolchuck is a sensitive, lanky 16-year-old just trying to fit in at his high school in Medora, Wisconsin, he lives with his well-meaning mom Franny who just wants him to be "cool" and fit in, entrepreneur dad Gary, laid back, his newly popular younger sister Claire, who tries to raise her popularity in school. When the school guidance counselor, Mr. Matthews convinces the family to take in an international student, they accept him with the expectation that he will be a good-looking European or Latin American student that will make Justin popular. Although dismayed when Raja Musharraf, a 16-year-old Muslim boy from Pakistan turns up instead, they soon warm up to him and although their cultures are different and Raja form an unlikely friendship that might allow them to get past the social nightmare of high school.
Justin feels compelled to stick by Raja when he starts to notice the blatant racist and xenophobic attitudes of his classmates and community. Dan Byrd as Justin Tolchuck Adhir Kalyan as Raja Musharaff Amy Pietz as Franny Tolchuck Scott Patterson as Gary Tolchuck Lindsey Shaw as Claire Tolchuck Christopher B. Duncan as Mr. Matthews Adam Rose as Dooley Chad Krowchuk as Brad Nolan Gerard Funk as Todd Palladino Avan Jogia as Sam Produced by CBS Paramount Network Television, the series was green-lit and given a thirteen-episode order on May 15, 2007, it premiered on October 1, 2007, aired on Monday nights at 8:30PM Eastern/7:30PM Central on The CW, following Everybody Hates Chris. The show was to be produced by NBC Universal Television, it is filmed around Canada area. The high school featured in the show is H. J. Cambie Secondary School in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada with the interiors of first-season episodes shot inside a studio. Beginning on February 10, 2008, Aliens in America moved to Sunday nights and aired at 8:30PM Eastern/7:30PM Central.
On May 9, 2008, TV Guide announced the cancellation of the series. After the show's cancellation, reruns once aired on Universal HD. Patrick Breen was cast as Gary Tolchuck but the role was re-cast in July 2007. Rating information is from The Futon Critic; the weekly rating information is from ABC Medianet. Aliens in America averaged 1.57 million viewers in its sole season. List of cultural references to the September 11 attacks Aliens in America on IMDb Aliens in America at TV.com
The Closer is an American television police procedural, starring Kyra Sedgwick as Brenda Leigh Johnson, a Los Angeles Police Department deputy chief. From Atlanta, CIA-trained, Brenda has a reputation as a closer—an interrogator who not only solves a case, but obtains confessions that lead to convictions, thus "closing" the case. Deputy Chief Johnson sometimes uses intimidation to persuade a suspect to confess; the series ran on TNT from June 13, 2005, to August 13, 2012. The Closer was created by the Shephard/Robin Company in association with Warner Bros.. Television. On Monday, July 11, 2011, the series began its seventh and final season, having finished its sixth season as cable's highest-rated drama; the Closer's final six episodes began airing on Monday, July 9, 2012, with its finale airing on Monday, August 13, 2012. Following the finale, The Closer's spin-off, Major Crimes, premiered; each episode of The Closer deals with an aspect of the Los Angeles culture as it interfaces with law enforcement in the megacity.
The show deals with complex and subtle issues of public policy, personal integrity, questions of good and evil. The rather large character ensemble explores the human condition, touching on individual faiths, traditional religious influences in the lives and communities of contemporary society, the breakdown and dysfunction of family systems, work teaming, government responsibility; the first season began with Brenda Leigh Johnson arriving at the LAPD to lead the Priority Murder Squad renamed Priority Homicide Division, a team that dealt with high-profile murder cases. During season four, an embarrassing tangle with the press, over just what were the criteria making a homicide a priority, allowed Brenda to manipulate circumstances so that the division was reorganized into a much larger major crimes division with a wider scope, though the majority of plots still involved and focused on homicides. Most to the show's plot lines, Commander Taylor's role was changed from "rival and in-house adversary" to that of "unambiguously loyal subordinate", so he was thereafter reporting directly to Deputy Chief Johnson and noticeably helpful as he coordinates interaction between the MCD and other units.
Season five introduced Mary McDonnell as Captain Sharon Raydor of the Force Investigations Division. Raydor and Johnson start out as rivals, but they develop grudging respect for each other and form an uneasy alliance. McDonnell as Raydor went on to star in Major Crimes. During the final season, Brenda finds herself in civil legal difficulties as a result of the events in "War Zone", the LAPD concludes that a disloyal subordinate must be generating information leaks from within MCD. Taylor and Raydor take an active role in attempting to combat the leaker, the legal matters do not reach a final resolution until the series' end, in the episode "The Last Word". On December 10, 2010, TNT announced that the seventh season of The Closer, which began production in the spring of 2011, would be the last; the channel said. On January 30, 2011, the media announced that the final season would add six episodes to the usual 15-episode order, building toward the spin-off series, Major Crimes; the cast consists of an ensemble of detectives who make up the LAPD's fictional Major Crimes Division.
It is led by Deputy Chief Brenda Leigh Johnson, played by Kyra Sedgwick. Some observers have noted strong similarities between Johnson and Jane Tennison, Helen Mirren's lead character in the British crime drama, Prime Suspect, with an article in USA Today claiming The Closer to be "an unofficial Americanization" of the British drama. In interviews, Sedgwick has acknowledged that the show owes "a debt" to Prime Suspect and her admiration for that show and Mirren were factors that first interested her in the role. Other main characters include Johnson's superior officer, Assistant Chief Will Pope, Robbery-Homicide Division Commander Russell Taylor, her FBI agent boyfriend-then-husband Fritz Howard; the remainder of the cast makes up Brenda's squad, each with expertise in a specific area, such as crime-scene investigation or gang activity. The first and only departure from the regular cast occurred in season five, when actress Gina Ravera left and her character, Detective Irene Daniels, was transferred to another division.
Mary McDonnell, a recurring cast member in seasons five and six, joined the cast full-time for season seven, continuing her role as Captain Sharon Raydor. Kyra Sedgwick as Brenda Leigh Johnson, Los Angeles Police Department deputy chief, Major Crimes Division, is the interrogation specialist referred to by Will Pope as a "closer". J. K. Simmons as Will Pope, LAPD assistant chief for operations, is temporarily acting chief of police during season six and interim chief of police during season seven. Corey Reynolds as David Gabriel, LAPD sergeant, is a laterally appointed detective sergeant from season five onwards. Robert Gossett as Russell Taylor, LAPD captain, is assigned to Robbery-Homicide Division, promoted to commander in season two, appointed LAPD interdepartmental liaison in season four. G. W. Bailey as Louie Provenza, LAPD detective lieutenant, is second-in-command of MCD. Tony Denison as Andy Flynn, LAPD detective lieutenant, is transferred from Robbery-Homicide to MCD during season one.
Jon Tenney as Fritz Howard, Senior Special Agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is the FBI-LAPD liaison from season six onwards. Michael Paul Chan as Michael Tao, LAPD detective lieutenant, is the scientific investigation specialist (r
24 (TV series)
24 is an American action drama television series produced for the Fox network, created by Joel Surnow and Robert Cochran, starring Kiefer Sutherland as counter-terrorist agent Jack Bauer. Each season, comprising 24 episodes, covers 24 hours in Bauer's life using the real time method of narration. Premiering on November 6, 2001, the show spanned 192 episodes over eight seasons. In addition, a television film, 24: Redemption, was broadcast between seasons six and seven, on November 23, 2008. 24 returned with a ninth season titled 24: Live Another Day, which aired from May 5 to July 14, 2014. 24: Legacy, a spin-off series featuring new characters, premiered on February 5, 2017. After the cancellation of Legacy in June 2017, Fox announced its plan to develop a new incarnation of the franchise; the series begins with Bauer working for the Los Angeles–based Counter Terrorist Unit, in which he is a proficient agent with an "ends justify the means" approach, regardless of the perceived morality of some of his actions.
Throughout the series most of the main plot elements unfold like a political thriller. A typical plot has Bauer racing against the clock as he attempts to thwart multiple terrorist plots, including presidential assassination attempts, weapons of mass destruction detonations, cyber attacks, as well as conspiracies that deal with government and corporate corruption. 24 won numerous awards over its eight seasons, including Best Drama Series at the 2004 Golden Globe Awards and Outstanding Drama Series at the 2006 Primetime Emmy Awards. At the conclusion of its eighth season, 24 became the longest-running U. S. espionage/counterterrorism-themed television drama surpassing both Mission: Impossible and The Avengers. 24 is a serial drama that stars Kiefer Sutherland as Jack Bauer, focusing on the efforts of the fictional Counter Terrorist Unit to protect America from terrorism plots. The episodes take place over the course of one hour, in real time. To emphasize the real-world flow of events, a clock is prominently displayed on-screen during the show, there is a regular use of split screens, a technique used to depict multiple scenes occurring at the same time.
Each episode follows Bauer, officials in the U. S. government, the conspirators behind the events of the day simultaneously. 24 is known for employing plot twists which may arise as antagonists adapt, objectives evolve or larger-scale operations unfold. Stories involve interpersonal drama, delving into the private lives of the characters; as part of a recurring theme, characters are confronted with ethical dilemmas. Examples of this are a bombing in Season 2, which can only be prevented by blowing Bauer's cover, an ultimatum in Season 3, in which a terrorist agrees not to carry out an attack if a high-ranking CTU official is killed. Season 4 is notable for a scene in which two men — one of whom possesses crucial information — are dying in a room with only one surgeon. Season 1 begins at midnight on the day of the California presidential primary. Jack Bauer's protocol is to protect Senator David Palmer from an assassination plot and rescue his own family from those responsible, who seek retribution for Jack and Palmer's involvement with a covert American mission in the Balkans.
Season 2, set 18 months begins at 8:00 a.m. Jack must stop a nuclear bomb from detonating in Los Angeles assist President David Palmer in proving, responsible for the threat and avoid war between the U. S. and three Middle Eastern countries. Season 3, set three years begins at 1:00 p.m. Jack must infiltrate a Mexican drug cartel to seize a deadly virus being marketed underground. President Palmer must deal with a potential scandal. Season 4, set 18 months begins at 7:00 a.m. Jack must save the lives of his new boss, Secretary of Defense James Heller, Heller's daughter Audrey Raines when they are kidnapped by terrorists. However, Habib Marwan uses this as a disguise to launch further attacks against America, Jack is forced to use unorthodox methods to stop him, which results in long-term consequences for both Jack and the United States. Season 5, set 18 months after, begins at 7:00 a.m. Jack is believed to be dead by everyone except a few of his closest friends, he is forced to resurface when some of those friends are murdered and he is framed by terrorists with connections to the American government.
The acquisition of nerve gas by the terrorists poses a new threat, Jack discovers an insidious conspiracy while trying to stop those responsible. Season 6, set 20 months begins at 6:00 a.m. Jack is released after being detained in a Chinese prison following the events of Season 5. Terrorists who hold a vendetta against Jack plot to set off suitcase nuclear devices in America. Jack is forced to choose between those he loves and national security when the Chinese set their sights on sensitive circuitry that could trigger a war between the U. S. and Russia. Redemption, set three-and-a-half years begins at 3:00 p.m. Jack finds. Militants are being provided assistance from officials within the United States, where Allison Taylor is being sworn into office as President. Due to the 2007–08 Writers' Strike, season seven was delayed one year. To bridge the one-and-a-half-year gap between seasons, Redemption was produced; this television film aired on November 23, 2008. Season 7, set 65 days after the end of Redemption, begins at 8:00 a.m.
Jack is assisted by the FBI and covert operatives when the firewall for America's federal computer infrastructure is breached by the same people responsible for a con
Finance is a field, concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities over space and time under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Matters in personal finance revolve around: Protection against unforeseen personal events, as well as events in the wider economies Transference of family wealth across generations Effects of tax policies management of personal finances Effects of credit on individual financial standing Development of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement.
Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations. The six key areas of personal financial planning, as suggested by the Financial Planning Standards Board, are: Financial position: is concerned with understanding the personal resources available by examining net worth and household cash flows. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that person's control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flows total up all from the expected sources of income within a year, minus all expected expenses within the same year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree and in what time the personal goals can be accomplished. Adequate protection: the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks; these risks can be divided into the following: liability, death, disability and long term care. Some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance. Business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a critical piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning: the income tax is the single largest expense in a household. Managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, which can be used to reduce the lifetime tax burden. Most modern governments use a progressive tax; as one's income grows, a higher marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the myriad tax breaks when planning one's personal finances can make a significant impact in which can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals: planning how to accumulate enough money – for large purchases and life events – is what most people consider to be financial planning.
Major reasons to accumulate assets include purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals. A major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the financial planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking and regular savings to be invested in a variety of investments. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, which will subject the portfolio to a number of risks. Managing these portfolio risks is most accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity; this asset allocation will prescribe a percentage allocation to be invested in stocks, bonds and alternative investments.
The allocation should take into consideration the personal risk profile of every investor, since risk attitudes vary from person to person. Retirement planning is the process of understanding how much it costs to live at retirement, coming up with a plan to distribute assets to meet any income shortfall. Methods for retirement plans include taking advantage of government allowed structures to manage tax liability including: individual structures, or employer sponsored retirement plans and life insurance products. Estate planning involves planning for the disposition of one's assets after death. There is a tax due to the state or federal government at one's death. Avoiding these taxes means that more of one's assets will be distributed to one's heirs. One can leave one's assets to friends or charitable groups. Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Corporate f