Moanda is one of the largest towns in Gabon, lying on the N3 road in Haut Ogooué. It is one of the most important manganese mining towns in the world, under the auspices of the Compagnie Minière de l'Ogooué, which began mining in 1957. Moanda has a population of around 39,298 inhabitants and is the second largest city in the Haut Ogooué Region, after Franceville, it is a border town, lying 100 km away from the border with the Republic of Congo. Moanda was a village lying on the swampy banks of the Miosso River; the discovery and exploitation of manganese in the nearby Bangombe Plateau from 1953 led to the emergence of the city. In 1977 Moanda had an estimated 230 million tons of manganese, some one-fifth of the world's deposits. In 1959, the 75 km COMILOG Cableway to the railway at Mbinda in the Republic of Congo was constructed to export the manganese, but it was closed in 1986 when the Trans-Gabon Railway was completed; the city further grew during the 1990s owing to an influx of refugees from war-torn Republic of Congo.
Moanda lies on several adjacent plateaus lying between the higher and larger Bangombe plateau in the north, the Miosso swamp in the south. Rocky formations Mount Boundinga and Mount Moanda lie further south; the climate is equatorial, with an alternation of thunderstorms and hot temperatures between January and March, cool temperatures from July to September. Moanda is divided into three areas; the first area is built on the main plateau and its slopes and includes the commercial centre and populous districts Ankoula, Montagne Sainte and Fumier. The second area includes the most populous districts Rio and L'Oasis; the third area includes Lekolo and Leyima. Another plateau is home to the largest high school in the city. Other districts include the Third Zone in the southwest, the Mukaba District, on the slopes of the Bangombe Plateau. On 24 April 1953 a joint corporation was established to mine a deposit estimated at 50 million tons of manganese ore in Gabon owned by the Bureau of Mines of Overseas France, Eastern Tjbangi Mining Company, Société Mokta El Hadid and the U.
S. Steel. A 220 miles railway had first to be built to the coast, so full production was not expected until at least 1960; the Compagnie minière de l'Ogooué had initial capital of CFA 150 million. The first ore was shipped from Moanda on 2 October 1962. Moanda is now one of the largest manganese mining centres in the world; the operating company, COMILOG, exports an average 3.5 million tons of manganese a year. This makes Gabon one of the three largest manganese exporters in the world; the manganese so far is exploited on the Bangombe Plateau. French international schools include: Lycée Henri-Sylvoz École primaire Comilog The main stadium is Stade Henri Sylvoz, the home of AS Mangasport. Moanda is served by Moanda Railway Station situated outside the city, north of the Bangombe Plateau. Moanda is home to an airfield, lies about 50 km to Mvengue Airport, none of which, as of 2016, had any commercial airline service; the city is crossed by the N3 road and is the northern end of the Moanda-Mbinda Road, which connects Moanda to Mbinda, Congo.
Moanda Railway Station is the last stop before Franceville, the southern terminus of the Trans-Gabon Railway. The road to the Republic of Congo goes between Mount Boundinga. Muanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo Railway stations in Gabon
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to its west; the region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa; the Republic of the Congo was established on the 28th of November 1958 but gained independence from France in 1960. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 33 of the past 38 years; the Republic of the Congo has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide.
Congo's economy is dependent on the oil sector, economic growth has slowed since the post-2015 drop in oil prices. Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC; the Bakongo, a Bantu ethnic group that occupied parts of present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin; the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships grew between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, people captured from the hinterlands. After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region.
The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with King Makoko of the Bateke. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa, comprising Middle Congo, Gabon and Oubangui-Chari; the French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction; the methods were brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives. During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943; the Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville.
It received a local legislature after the adoption of the 1946 constitution that established the Fourth Republic. Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in 1958 and published its first constitution in 1959. Antagonism between the Mbochis and the Laris and Kongos resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued. New elections took place in April 1959. By the time the Congo became independent in August 1960, the former opponent of Youlou, agreed to serve under him. Youlou became the first President of the Republic of the Congo. Since the political tension was so high in Pointe-Noire, Youlou moved the capital to Brazzaville; the Republic of the Congo received full independence from France on 15 August 1960. Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him.
The Congolese military took charge of the country, installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. During Massamba-Débat's term in office the regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Massamba-Débat's regime invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1966 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Marien Ngouabi. Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional and ideological factions within the country and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup in September 1968. Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on 31 December 1968. One year President Ngouabi proclaimed Congo Africa's first "people's republic"
Compagnie minière de l'Ogooué
The Compagnie minière de l'Ogooué, or COMILOG, is a manganese mining and processing company based in Moanda, Gabon. It is a subsidiary of the French metallurgical group Eramet; the company is the world's second largest producer of manganese ore. At first the ore was carried by a cableway to the border with the Republic of the Congo by rail to the sea at Pointe-Noire. In the 1980s a railway was built to carry the ore through Gabon to the sea near Libreville. Manganese was first reported in the Franceville region in 1895. Further discoveries were made in 1934, 1944 and 1945. Systematic exploration began in 1951. In 1951 a joint mission of the Bureau Minier de la France d'Outre-Mer and U. S. Steel found; the ore is high quality with a manganese content of 45–50%. The deposits are found in five plateaus around Moanda in the Haut-Ogooué Province and were formed by supergene enrichment of Precambrian sediments; the Bangombe plateau has a 19 square kilometres mineralized area, was the first to be exploited.
The Okuama plateau has a 13 square kilometres mineralized area. There are smaller deposits in the Bafoula and Yeye plateaus; the lowest level of the ore zone is a 0.1 to 0.5 metres layer of massive manganese oxides and hydroxides with some manganese carbonate. Above this is the main ore zone, a 3 to 9 metres layer of plates of similar minerals between bands of clay and iron bearing material; the main manganese minerals are pyrolusite, polianite and psilomelane. Ramsdellite and cryptomelane are found. Above the main ore zone is a 5 to 6 metres layer rich in alumina and iron-rich manganiferous pisolites, with a manganese content of 15%. COMILOG was established on 24 April 1953 to mine a deposit estimated at 50 million tons of manganese ore in Gabon, with US Steel owning half the company; the ore deposit was over 350 kilometres from the sea, separated from it by rugged mountainous terrain. The solution was to carry the ore by cableway from Moanda to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, by a new railway line via Makabana to Monto Bello.
From there the existing Congo–Ocean Railway would link to the port of Pointe-Noire. The 76 kilometres aerial cableway was the second longest in the world. 286 kilometres of track were built between 1959 and 1962 from Mbinda to the CFCO tracks at a location 200 kilometres from Pointe-Noire. On the cableway the ore bins were spaced along the cable 54 metres apart; the bins discharged 150 tons of ore per hour into a 25,000 ton storage tank at Mbinda. From there a conveyor belt carried the ore to railway wagons; the 1,470 hp locomotives each pulled 40 wagons with 49 tons of load, could carry from 600,000 to 700,000 tons annually. Space was allocated to COMILOG at the port of Point-Noire for embarkation of the ore; the ore was carried on a network of conveyor belts that routed it to or from a storage facility with about 160,000 tons capacity, or directed it to ships at the rate of 1,000 tons per hour. Henri Lafond, the first president of COMILOG, was responsible for equipping the mine and for building the cableway and facilities for ore handling at Pointe-Noire.
The US Steel team participated in this work. Construction of the factories and the COMILOG Cableway were complete in 1959; the first ore was shipped from Moanda on 2 October 1962. The new mine and port provided regular jobs to many people, opened up land for settlement. Shipment of COMILOG ores became an important component of the Congoloese economy. Annual shipment volumes were at first limited to the capacity of the cableway. Gabon experienced an economic expansion between 1973 and 1985 based on exports of petroleum, manganese and timber; the government used some of the proceeds to build the Trans-Gabon Railway between 1974 and 1986. It connected the new port being built at Owendo to Franceville on the upper Ogooué River and opened up the forests and mines of the interior; the only railway line in Gabon, it runs for 640 kilometres from Libreville to Franceville. The new railway was used to carry ore from Moanda to the port of Owendo near Libreville. In 1985 six MaK G 1203 BB locomotives with Cummins engines were built by Maschinenbau Kiel for the OCTRA railway company.
In 2003 the tracks were upgraded to increase train frequency, allowing greater volumes of ore shipment. In 2012 the railway carried an estimated 711,201 tons of 255,930 passengers. At Owendo COMILOG operates a private ore shipment terminal and storage facilities with capacity for three months' production; the ore shipment port at Owendo was inaugurated in 1988, the cableway was shut down in 1991. The company laid off 955 workers; the workers claimed compensation for unfair dismissal, but the case dragged out until September 2015, when the Court of Appeal of Paris ordered COMILOG to compensate the workers. After ore shipments stopped the Republic of the Congo expropriated the track and equipment in their country, worth about 60 billion CFA francs; the COMILOG railway in the DRC was taken over by the CFCO and is the main means of transport for people and goods north of Niari. The aerial cableway was sold to South Korea and dismantled in 1993; as of 2001 the Moanda mine had a capacity of 2.5 million tons of ore per year, with reserves of 100 years.
The ore is mined by the open pit technique, using trenches 600 to 900 metres long and 20 metres wide. The waste, accounting for 50% of material
A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended. Ropeway conveyors are found around large mining concerns, can be of considerable length; the COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length. The Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers; the first recorded mechanical ropeway was by Croatian Fausto Veranzio who designed a bicable passenger ropeway in 1616. The world's first cable car on multiple supports was built by Adam Wybe in Gdańsk, Poland in 1644, it was used to move soil over the river to build defences. In Eritrea the Italians built the Asmara-Massawa Cableway in 1936, 75 km long; the Manizales - Mariquita Cableway in Colombia was 73 km long. Conveyors can be powered by a wide variety of forms of energy, engines, or gravity. Gravity-driven conveyors may qualify as zip-lines. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Blondin Ropeway Zip-line La Teleferica Massaua-Asmara www.trainweb.org Conveyor & Ropeways Services Pvt. Ltd. www.crspl.com Low-tech Magazine: "Aerial ropeways: automatic cargo transport for a bargain"
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
The Congo–Ocean Railway links the Atlantic port of Pointe-Noire with Brazzaville, a distance of 502 kilometres. It bypasses the rapids on the lower Congo River; as of 2012 the railroad was operating freight and passenger services along the length of the line despite the poor state of the track. A luxury passenger train, La Gazelle, using Korean-manufactured passenger cars, was introduced in 2012. Under French colonial administration, in 1921 they contracted Société de Construction des Batignolles to construct the railway using forced labour, recruited from what is now southern Chad and the Central African Republic. Like Spain and Portugal, France did not ratify the International Labour Organization Forced Labour Convention of 1930, No. 29. Disdain among the native population towards this conscripted labour and other forms of oppression lead to the Kongo-Wara rebellion between 1928 and 1931. Through the period of construction until 1934 there was a continual heavy cost in human lives, with total deaths estimated in excess of 17,000 of the construction workers, from a combination of both industrial accidents and diseases including malaria.
In 1946, France ratified ILO No.29, in light of a permanent state of emergency, due to indigenous revolt. The line includes 14 large reinforced concrete viaducts; the steepest eastbound gradients are 1 in 67, the steepest westbound 1 in 50. The initial locomotives were 2-8-2 tender and articulated tank engines with six driving axles. There were 2 4-wheel petrol cars for engineers and an 18-passenger Micheline and another Micheline for the Governor General. In 1962, a branch was constructed to Mbinda near the border with Gabon, to connect with the COMILOG Cableway and thus carry manganese ore to Pointe-Noire; the Cableway closed in 1986. The branch line remains active nonetheless; the Congo–Ocean Railway was a user of the Golwé locomotive. Motive power is now provided by diesel locomotives. From the start of the civil war in 1997, the line was closed for six years. COR is a state-owned enterprise whose privatization was planned as part of the commitments made by the Congolese government to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Among the candidates were several consortia, including Congo-Rail, the South African consortium Sheltam Mvela. Operations restarted in 2004, but in August 2007 BBC News reported that COR was in a "decrepit state, with the majority of trains now broken", after UNICEF had organised a train to distribute malaria nets. In 2007, a Korean-led consortium CMKC Group signed a deal to build railway extensions to Ouesso and Djambala for timber traffic. On 22 June 2010, a train of the Congo–Ocean Railroad was involved in a major incident, in which at least 60 people were killed; the train is believed to have derailed as it went round a curve in a remote area between Bilinga and Tchitondi, throwing four carriages into a ravine. The dead and wounded were taken to morgues in Pointe-Noire. In 2011, it was announced that Africa Iron was close to concluding a 25-year ore transport deal with Congo–Ocean. In early 2015 the Congo-Ocean Railway purchased 10 EMD GT38AC locomotives from Electro-Motive Diesel in Muncie, Indiana.
They were put into service by the summer of 2015. In 2012 the Congo–Ocean Railway was featured in an episode of the television series Chris Tarrant: Extreme Railways. Track gauge: 3 ft 6 in gauge Brake: Vacuum brake Coupler: SA3 coupler Democratic Republic of the Congo - no - same gauge 1,067 mm Angola - no - same gauge 1,067 mm Gabon - no - break of gauge 1,067 mm /1,435 mm Cameroon - no - break of gauge 1,067 mm /1,000 mm Central African Republic - no - no railways UN Map UNJLC Rail map of Southern Africa Gide, André. Voyage au Congo. Londres, Albert. Terre d'Ébène. Sautter, Gilles. "Notes sur la construction du chemin de fer Congo-Océan". Cahiers d'Études Africaines. 7: 219–299. Doi:10.3406/cea.1967.3098 – via Persee.fr. CFCO website
Cable transport is a broad class of transport modes that have cables. They transport passengers and goods in vehicles called cable cars; the cable may be driven or passive, items may be moved by pulling, sailing, or by drives within the object being moved on cableways. The use of pulleys and balancing of loads moving up and down are common elements of cable transport, they are used in mountainous areas where cable haulage can overcome large differences in elevation. Aerial transport, such as: Aerial tramway Chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Ski lift Zip line Surface transport, such as: Cable railways Cable car Cable ferry Funicular Surface lift Vertical transport, such as: Elevator Rope-drawn transport dates back to 250 BC as evidenced by illustrations of aerial ropeway transportation systems in South China; the first recorded mechanical ropeway was by Venetian Fausto Veranzio who designed a bi-cable passenger ropeway in 1616. The industry considers Dutchman Adam Wybe to have built the first operational system in 1644.
The technology, further developed by the people living in the Alpine regions of Europe and expanded with the advent of wire rope and electric drive. The first use of wire rope for aerial tramways is disputed. American inventor Peter Cooper is one early claimant, constructing an aerial tramway using wire rope in Baltimore 1832, to move landfill materials. Though there is only partial evidence for the claimed 1832 tramway, Cooper was involved in many of such tramways built in the 1850s, in 1853 he built a two-mile-long tramway to transport iron ore to his blast furnaces at Ringwood, New Jersey. World War I motivated extensive use of military tramways for warfare between Austria. During the industrial revolution, new forms of cable-hauled transportation systems were created including the use of steel cable to allow for greater load support and larger systems. Aerial tramways were first used for commercial passenger haulage in the 1900s; the earliest form of cable railway was the gravity incline, which in its simplest form consists of two parallel tracks laid on a steep gradient, with a single rope wound around a winding drum and connecting the trains of wagons on the tracks.
Loaded wagons at the top of the incline are lowered down, their weight hauling empty wagons from the bottom. The winding drum has a brake to control the rate of travel of the wagons; the first use of a gravity incline isn't recorded, but the Llandegai Tramway at Bangor in North Wales was opened in 1798, is one of the earliest examples using iron rails. The first cable-hauled street railway was the London and Blackwall Railway, built in 1840, which used fibre to grip the haulage rope; this caused a series of technical and safety issues, which led to the adoption of steam locomotives by 1848. The first Funicular railway was opened in Lyon in 1862; the Westside and Yonkers Patent Railway Company developed a cable-hauled elevated railway. This 3½ mile long line was proposed in 1866 and opened in 1868, it operated as a cable railway until 1871. The next development of the cable car came in California. Andrew Hallidie, a Scottish emigre, gave San Francisco the first effective and commercially successful route, using steel cables, opening the Clay Street Hill Railroad on August 2, 1873.
Hallidie was a manufacturer of steel cables. The system featured a human-operated grip, able to start and stop the car safely; the rope, used allowed the multiple, independent cars to run on one line, soon Hallidie`s concept was extended to multiple lines in San Francisco. The first cable railway outside the United Kingdom and the United States was the Roslyn Tramway, which opened in 1881, in Dunedin, New Zealand. America remained the country; however in 1890, electric tramways exceeded the cable hauled tramways in mileage and speed. The ski lift was developed by James Curran in 1936; the co-owner of the Union Pacific Railroad, William Averell Harriman owned America's first ski resort, Sun Valley, Idaho. He asked his design office to tackle the problem of lifting skiers to the top of the resort. Curran, a Union Pacific bridge designer, adapted a cable hoist he had designed for loading bananas in Honduras to create the first ski lift. More recent developments are being classified under the type of track that their design is based upon.
After the success of this operation, several other projects were initiated in New Zealand and Chicago. The social climate around pollution is allowing for a shift from cars back to the utilization of cable transport due to their advantages. However, for many years they were a niche form of transportation used in difficult-to-operate conditions for cars. Now that cable transport projects are on the increase, the social effects are beginning to become more significant. In 2018 the highest 3S cablecar has been inaugurated in Zermatt, Switzerland after more than two years of construction; this cablecar is called the "Matterhorn Glacier ride"and it allows passengers to reach the top of the Klein Matterhorn mountain. When compared to trains and cars, the volume of people to transport over time and the start-upcost of the project must be a consideration. In areas with extensive road networks, personal vehicles offer range. Remote places like mountainous regions and ski slopes may be difficult to link with roads, making CTP a much easier approach.
A CTP system may need fewer invasive changes to the local environment. The use of Cable Transport is not limited to such rural locations as skiing resorts.