Integrated library system
An integrated library system known as a library management system, is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, patrons who have borrowed. An ILS comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, two graphical user interfaces. Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions cataloging circulation serials online public access catalog or OPAC Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Prior to computerization, library tasks were independently from one another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued sources and indexed them with the card catalog system, fines were collected by local bailiffs, users signed books out manually, indicating their name on clue cards which were kept at the circulation desk.
Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation. While the punch card system allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, no other library task was affected by this change; the next big innovation came with the advent of MARC standards in the 1960s, which coincided with the growth of computer technologies – library automation was born. From this point onwards, libraries began experimenting with computers, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the 1970s, bibliographic services utilizing new online technology and the shared MARC vocabulary entered the market; the 1970s can be characterized by improvements in computer storage, as well as in telecommunications. As a result of these advances, ‘turnkey systems on microcomputers,’ known more as integrated library systems appeared; these systems included necessary hardware and software which allowed the connection of major circulation tasks, including circulation control and overdue notices.
As the technology developed, other library tasks could be accomplished through ILS as well, including acquisition, reservation of titles, monitoring of serials. With the evolution of the Internet throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, ILSs began allowing users to more engage with their libraries through OPACs and online web-based portals. Users could log into their library accounts to reserve or renew books, as well as authenticate themselves for access to library-subscribed online databases. During this time, the ILS market grew exponentially. By 2002, the ILS industry averaged sales of US$500 million annually, compared to just US$50 million in 1982. By the mid to late 2000s, ILS vendors had increased not only the number of services offered but their prices, leading to some dissatisfaction among many smaller libraries. At the same time, open source ILS was in its early stages of testing; some libraries began turning to such open source ILSs as Evergreen. Common reasons noted were to avoid vendor lock in, avoid license fees, participate in software development.
Freedom from vendors allowed libraries to prioritize needs according to urgency, as opposed to what their vendor can offer. Libraries which have moved to open source ILS have found that vendors are now more to provide quality service in order to continue a partnership since they no longer have the power of owning the ILS software and tying down libraries to strict contracts; this has been the case with the SCLENDS consortium. Following the success of Evergreen for the Georgia PINES library consortium, the South Carolina State Library along with some local public libraries formed the SCLENDS consortium in order to share resources and to take advantage of the open source nature of the Evergreen ILS to meet their specific needs. By October 2011, just 2 years after SCLENDS began operations, 13 public library systems across 15 counties had joined the consortium, in addition to the South Carolina State Library. Librarytechnology.org does an annual survey of over 2,400 libraries and noted in 2008 2% of those surveyed used open source ILS, in 2009 the number increased to 8%, in 2010 12%, in 2011 11% of the libraries polled had adopted open source ILSs.
The following year's survey reported an increase to 14%, stating that "open source ILS products, including Evergreen and Koha, continue to represent a significant portion of industry activity. Of the 794 contracts reported in the public and academic arena, 113, or 14 percent, were for support services for these open source systems." The use of cloud-based library management systems has increased drastically since the rise of cloud technology started. Many modern cloud-based solutions allow automated cataloging by scanning a book's ISBN. Library computer systems tend to fall into two categories of software: that purchased on a perpetual license that purchased as a subscription service. With distributed software the customer can choose to self-install or to have the system installed by the vendor on their own hardware; the customer can be responsible for the operation and maintenance of the application and the data
Five Colleges of Ohio
The Five Colleges of Ohio, Inc. is an academic and administrative consortium of five selective private liberal arts colleges in the US state of Ohio. It is a nonprofit educational consortium established in 1995 to promote the broad educational and cultural objectives of its member institutions; the Five Colleges of Ohio has since developed an array of collaborative projects designed to respond to three fundamental purposes: 1) Provide cost savings or cost avoidance and new funding resources at Ohio Five colleges 2) Promote scholarship and academic innovation on Ohio Five campuses 3) Improve the Ohio Five's competitive advantage in admissions and faculty recruiting The members of The Five Colleges of Ohio consortium are: Denison University, Ohio Kenyon College, Ohio Oberlin College, Ohio Ohio Wesleyan University, Ohio The College of Wooster, Ohio The designation Ohio Five first appeared in Ohio newspapers in the early twentieth century. The grouping, predating any formal agreement, was adopted by the press as a foreshadowing of an Ohio league of schools with similar academic and athletic reputations, which, at the time was a common perception.
Following informal discussions among the five colleges in the early 1990s, the consortium was formalized by the incorporation of the organization on June 30, 1995. A grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, awarded in June 1995, provided for the development of a joint library system, establishment of an administrative structure, investigation of the benefits and methods for sharing digital images and multimedia resources, establishing The Five Colleges of Ohio, Inc. as a legal entity. Collaboration among the five colleges occurs in several areas: Academic Programs Administrative Programs and Technology Libraries The colleges have worked together on grants and long-term projects to support curricular development, faculty collaborations, opportunities for students; these projects have included: In language teaching: Foreign Language Technology Project a four-year project funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to strengthen foreign language learning through collaborative use of technology Language Enrichment and Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, a Mellon-funded program which placed thirteen postdoctoral fellows in languages from The Ohio State University for two-year terms and provided opportunities for faculty to collaborate on teaching and scholarship project.
In its final phase in 2018-19, the project included a test of three advanced Chinese language courses shared among four of the colleges via distance technology. In curricular development: Teagle Creativity and Critical Thinking Assessment 2005-2006, a multi-year project funded by The Teagle Foundation that developed tools to assess outcomes of a liberal arts education: creativity and critical thinking. Teagle Curricular Coherence Project 2015-2019 supported a comprehensive initiative offering structured ways for students to complete general education requirements and create coherent understanding of their educational pathways. In student opportunities: Ohio Five-OSU Summer Undergraduate Research Experience offers science students at the Five Colleges of Ohio an opportunity to engage in summer research activities in Ohio State University laboratories. Stanford-Ohio Five structural molecular biology collaboration provides internship opportunities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource In faculty collaborations: Ohio Five Dance Workshops support an annual showcase of faculty and student dance performances at member colleges.
In 2012, the Ohio Five resolved to identify and implement a joint e-procurement solution to automate purchasing and contract administration across the colleges and realize related savings through joint purchasing plans and contracts. A $100,000 grant from the Mellon Foundation in 2014 supported system installation and a full-time staff member was hired to supervise the program. Denison University, Kenyon College, Oberlin College and Ohio Wesleyan University moved forward together to develop the program, which realized an estimated $500,000 in contract savings in its first implemented year in 2015-16. In 2017-18, more than 4,300 suppliers were active in the e-procurement system representing an annual spend of $4.483 million. Since 2014, the Five Colleges have collaborated on a shared online work order system enabling the colleges to optimize workflow in facilities management and maintenance and track expenditures. Risk management, disaster planning, Title IX training and investigative services and information technologies represent additional areas in which the college work together to support training and cost savings.
The Ohio Five maintains a job site for employment opportunities in faculty and administration at the Five Colleges The libraries of Denison University, Kenyon College, Ohio Wesleyan University, The College of Wooster share an integrated library system called CONSORT. This multi-college system maximizes the colleges' abilities to share collection resources and collaborate on collection-related databases and publications. Oberlin College maintains its own integrated library system called OBIS. Since the founding of the Five Colleges, its libraries have worked together to support the development of the CONSORT system and promote institutional priorities in digital literacy and digital scholarship. Joint library projects have included: Information Literacy Web Tutorials a project funded by the Foundation for Independent Higher Education and A T & T; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation provided significant support for three projects focusing on digital scholarship: Integrating Informational Literacy into the Liberal Arts Curriculum, a project to support curricular innovati
This Is Water
This Is Water: Some Thoughts, Delivered on a Significant Occasion, about Living a Compassionate Life is an essay by David Foster Wallace, first published in book form by Little and Company in 2009. The text originates from a commencement speech given by Wallace at Kenyon College on May 21, 2005; the essay was published in The Best American Nonrequired Reading 2006 and in 2009 its format was stretched by Little and Company publication to fill 138 pages for a book publication. A transcript of the speech circulated around the Internet as early as June 2005; this is the only public speech David Foster Wallace gave outlining his outlook on life. Time magazine has ranked This Is Water among the best commencement speeches delivered. David Foster Wallace was brought to the liberal arts school at the request of an English and Philosophy student in 2005, he was the winning nominee out of 10 to 12 others, beating out senator Hillary Clinton, astronaut turned senator John Glenn. In response to the request Wallace jokingly responded by saying that he, at 43, was far too young to give this speech.
The author said he was hesitant to accept because of his anxiety when speaking in front of a crowd and did not agree to the position. Wallace was persuaded to speak after the school's Commencement Coordinator was able to appeal to his anxieties by stressing the intimacy of the school and promising a game of tennis at his request. Wallace's nervousness continued up until the day of the event and Kenyon professors with whom he had breakfast that morning have cited him as referring to the'commencement' as, "the big scary ceremony". Wallace continued to edit the speech up until the last hours leading up to its delivery and his posthumous biographer claims the late author considered the speech an opportunity to convey the things he cared about without having to worry about the extra work required of a novel; this essay covers subjects including the difficulty of empathy, the importance of being well adjusted, the apparent lonesomeness of adult life. Additionally, Wallace’s speech suggests that the overall purpose of higher education is to be able to consciously choose how to perceive others, think about meaning, act appropriately in everyday life.
He argues that the true freedom acquired through education is the ability to be adjusted and sympathetic. Authors Robert K. Bolger and Scott Korb have said that Wallace used the speech to outline his own spiritual philosophy and that these were the methods with which Wallace attempted to acquire a modicum of peace when wrestling with anxiety and depression; because of the suggestion on how one ought to live and Korb consider the speech to be theological in nature. The themes exercised in this speech would be expanded upon further in Wallace's final novel The Pale King, posthumously published in 2011. While the content of Wallace's prose was met with universal acclaim, the posthumously published'This Is Water' was met with mixed reviews; some critics worried. Zach Baron of The Village Voice wrote that he feared that the essay's now stretched format provided an mantra-like emphasis to areas not intended by Wallace. Another debate on the published format is over a slight rewrite. In the delivered speech, Wallace concluded an extended metaphor with, "It is not the least bit coincidental that adults who commit suicide with firearms always shoot themselves in the head.
They shoot the terrible master." Due to Wallace's suicide the publisher chose to remove the final line, "They shoot the terrible master", which has polarized critics. One side believes that changing an author's words is unacceptable if the original meaning is to be preserved, but in defense of the edit, the other side says that in order to preserve the original message, the edit is a must. Author Tom Bissell states that, "any mention of self-annihilation in Wallace's work...now has a blast radius that obscures everything around it." Bissell fears that the now controversial line may distract readers from its core elements and therefore supports its removal. A nine-minute truncated cinematic video adaptation with Wallace's voice of the speech was produced by The Glossary and published on YouTube and Vimeo in May 2013, it was well received, but was removed by Glossary on May 21, 2013 due to a copyright claim by Wallace's estate. This Is Water: Some Thoughts, Delivered on a Significant Occasion, about Living a Compassionate Life, May 21, 2005, archived from the original on 2008-02-13, retrieved Feb 3, 2014
An academic library is a library, attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States; the support of teaching and learning requires material for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university.
When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are referred to as niche collections. These collections are the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. There is a great deal of variation among academic libraries based on their size, resources and services; the Harvard University Library is considered to be the largest strict academic library in the world, although the Danish Royal Library—a combined national and academic library—has a larger collection. Another notable example is the University of the South Pacific which has academic libraries distributed throughout its twelve member countries; the University of California operates the largest academic library system in the world, it manages more than 34 million items in 100 libraries on ten campuses. The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy; the libraries associated with these institutions consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics.
In 1766, Yale had 4,000 volumes, second only to Harvard. Access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students: the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college; the priority of the library was to protect the books. In 1849, Yale was open 30 hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, Columbia University four, Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a small collection of usable volumes in excess of what the university library held. Around the turn of the century, this approach began to change; the American Library Association was formed in 1876, with members including Melvil Dewey and Charles Ammi Cutter. Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials. Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities.
Some offer borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee. The privileges so obtained do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, or Internet access. Alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand, access to the libraries of some universities is restricted to students and staff. In this case, they may make it possible for others to borrow materials through inter-library loan programs. Libraries of land-grant universities are more accessible to the public. In some cases, they are official government document repositories and so are required to be open to the public. Still, members of the public are charged fees for borrowing privileges, are not allowed to access everything they would be able to as students. Academic libraries in Canada are a recent development in relation to other countries; the first academic library in Canada was opened in 1789 in Windsor, Nova Scotia.
Academic libraries were small during the 19th century and up until the 1950s, when Canadian academic libraries began to grow as a result of greater importance being placed on education and research. The growth of libraries throughout the 1960s was a direct result of many overwhelming factors including inflated student enrollments, increased graduate programs, higher budget allowance, general advocacy of the importance of these libraries; as a result of this growth and the Ontario New Universities Library Project that occurred during the early 1960s, 5 new universities were established in Ontario that all included catalogued collections. The establishment of libraries was widespread throughout Canada and was furthered by grants provided by the Canada Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which sought to enhance library collections. Since many academic libraries were constructed after World War Two, a majority of the Canadian academic libraries that were built before 1940 that have not been updated to modern lighting, air conditioning, etc. are either no longer in use or are on the verge of decline.
The total number of college and university libraries increased from 31 in 1959-1960 to 105 in 1969-1970. Following the growth of academic libraries in Canada during the 1960s, there was a br
Denison University is a private and residential four-year liberal arts college in Granville, about 30 mi east of Columbus. Founded in 1831, it is Ohio's second-oldest liberal arts college. Denison is a member of the Five Colleges of Ohio and the Great Lakes Colleges Association, competes in the North Coast Athletic Conference; the acceptance rate for the class of 2022 was 34 percent. On December 13, 1831, John Pratt, the college's first president and a graduate of Brown University, inaugurated classes at the Granville Literary and Theological Institution. Situated on a 200-acre farm south of the village of Granville. While rooted in theological education, the institution offered students the same literary and scientific instruction common to other colleges of the day; the first term included 37 students. The school was more of an academy than a college; the school's first Commencement, which graduated three classical scholars, was held in 1840. In 1845, the institution, which at this point was male-only changed its name to Granville College.
In 1853, William S. Denison, a Muskingum County farmer, pledged $10,000 toward the college's endowment. Honoring an earlier commitment, the trustees accordingly changed the name of the institution to Denison University, they voted to move the college to land available for purchase in the village of Granville. In the years leading up to the Civil War, many students and faculty members at Denison University became involved in the anti-slavery movement. Professor Asa Drury, the chair of Greek and Latin studies, became the leader of a local anti-slavery society. Bancroft House, now a residential hall, served as a stop on the Underground Railroad for refugee slaves; the roots of coeducation at Denison University began in December 1832 with the establishment of the Granville Female Seminary, founded by Charles Sawyer a year before Oberlin College launched the first coeducational college in the United States. The seminary was superseded by the Young Ladies' Institute, founded in 1859 by Dr. and Mrs. Nathan S. Burton.
The Young Ladies' Institute was sold to Reverend Dr. Daniel Shepardson in 1868 and was renamed the Shepardson College for Women in 1886. Shepardson College was incorporated as part of Denison University in 1900, with the two colleges becoming consolidated in 1927. In 1887, Denison inaugurated a master's program, with resident graduates pursuing advanced studies in the sciences. Within a few years, the institution considered offering graduate programs on the doctoral level. In 1926, the Board of Trustees formalized a new curriculum that would make Denison University an undergraduate institution. In the wake of Shepardson College's incorporation, Denison University made plans for enlargement of its campus. In 1916, the college sought the expertise of the Frederick Law Sons architectural firm; the resulting "Olmsted Plan" laid a foundation for expansion that has remained the guiding aesthetic for subsequent growth and maintaining a pedestrian-friendly campus, while preserving scenic views of the surrounding hills and valleys.
Expansion during this period included the acquisition of land to the north and east, the relocation of Shepardson College to the east ridge of College Hill, the development of a new men's quadrangle beyond the library. During World War II, Denison was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. While the college's origins were rooted in theological education, Denison University has been a non-sectarian institution since the 1960s. By 2005, the college reached its present size of 2,250 students; the campus size is about 1,100 acres. This includes a 400-acre biological reserve just east of campus, where professors of sciences like geology and biology can hold class. Purchased in 2014 is the Denison Golf Course, an 18-hole course just 0.4 miles from the academic campus, the Granville Inn and Bar, now owned by the university. The first building in the "Greater Denison" plan, Swasey Chapel was built at the center of the campus.
The chapel seats 990 and plays host to notable campus events such as baccalaureate services, lectures and academic award convocations. There are 18 academic buildings on campus. Knapp Hall, built in 1968, houses humanities and social sciences majors such as Black Studies, Sociology/Anthropology, Educational Studies and Gender Studies, Political Science, Philosophy. Ebaugh Laboratories is dedicated to chemistry. Fellows Hall houses the foreign language departments, as well as international studies. In this building is the Center for Off-Campus Study. 50% of Denison students study abroad during their junior year. Samson Talbot Hall is home to the biology department. Higley Hall, once called the Doane Life Sciences Building, is home to Denison's two most popular majors: Economics and Communication. Olin Science Hall contains the astronomy, computer science, geosciences and mathematics majors. Barney-Davis Hall, one of the oldest academic buildings on campus, holds classes for English majors, Environmental Studies majors, has the Denison Writing Center.
Doane Administration Building and Burton Morgan are on academic quad (spill-over academic building, but they serve administrative purposes. The Bryant Arts Center opened in August 2009. Constructed in 1904 as a men's gymnasium (Cleveland H
Ohio Wesleyan University
Ohio Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts university in Delaware, Ohio. It was founded in 1842 by Methodist leaders and Central Ohio residents as a nonsectarian institution, is a member of the Ohio Five – a consortium of Ohio liberal arts colleges. Ohio Wesleyan has always admitted students irrespective of religion or race and maintained that the university "is forever to be conducted on the most liberal principles."The 200-acre site is 27 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. It includes the main academic and residential campus, the Perkins Observatory, the Kraus Wilderness Preserve. In 2010, Ohio Wesleyan had the eleventh highest percentage of international students among liberal arts colleges for the seventeenth straight year. In its 2015 edition of U. S. college rankings, Niche ranked Ohio Wesleyan the 56th most politically liberal college in the U. S. U. S. News & World Report ranked Ohio Wesleyan 95th among U. S. liberal arts colleges in its 2018 edition. In 1841, Ohio residents Adam Poe and Charles Elliott decided to establish a university "of the highest order" in central Ohio.
To that end, they purchased the Mansion House Hotel, a former health resort with its Sulphur Spring, using funds raised from local residents. Poe and Elliott wrote a charter emphasizing "the democratic spirit of teaching", approved by the Ohio State Legislature. Early in the following year they opened the college preparatory Academy and formed a Board of Trustees. Ohio Wesleyan University, named after John Wesley, founder of Methodism, opened on November 13, 1844 as a Methodist-related but nonsectarian institution, with a College of Liberal Arts for male students. Ohio Wesleyan's first president, Edward Thomson, stated in his inaugural address on August 5, 1846 that the school was "a product of the liberality of the local people." This liberal philosophy contributed to Ohio Wesleyan's vocal opposition to slavery in the 1850s. In the annual celebration for George Washington's birthday in 1862, second president Frederick Merrick endorsed Ohio Wesleyan's "ideals of democracy" during his oration.
During the mid-19th century, Ohio Wesleyan focused on attracting students, adding fields of study, fundraising, by which it increased its endowment. Sturges Hall was constructed as the University's first library in 1855. In 1873, the school added the Department of Natural History housed in Merrick Hall; the Ohio Wesleyan Female College, established in 1853, merged with the university in 1877. Between 1876 and 1888, enrollment tripled and music education increased, yet no major buildings were built in this time. By the end of the 19th century, Ohio Wesleyan had added a School of Music, School of Fine Arts, School of Oratory, Business School to the original College of Liberal Arts. To address the need for new departments and specialized instruction, the administration improved the facilities and courses to make them on par with OWU's new academic position. University Hall, Slocum Library, extensions to the Monnett campus, athletic facilities were all constructed during that period. Between 1891 and 1895, Ohio Wesleyan specialized the curriculum by establishing departments for physics, geology, history, French and economics.
This specialization encouraged undergraduates to continue studies at graduate level, allowed professional preparation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree, promoted exchange study in Europe. Two professional schools for law and medicine were formed in 1896. In 1905, the Board of Trustees decided to keep Ohio Wesleyan a college, despite the expansion of the curriculum and campus and the word "university" in the institution's name; the Bachelor of Science degree was abolished. Two students were selected as Rhodes Scholars in 1905 and 1909. Edwards Gymnasium was built in 1906. In 1907, the United Societies of Phi Beta Kappa, the oldest undergraduate honor society in the United States, installed the "Eta of Ohio" ΦΒΚ chapter on campus. In 1909, the school added housing the Music Department. In the 1920s, academic requirements for the bachelor's degree were reduced, Latin and mathematics were no longer emphasized. During the presidency of John W. Hoffman, the Academy and School of Business were closed.
In the 1920s, the chapel service was dropped and sororities were formed. Ohio Wesleyan increased the number of buildings on campus, including Selby Stadium, Austin Manor, Perkins Observatory. During the Great Depression, both enrollment and alumni donations shrank. While the faculty size remained stable, lack of tuition and alumni revenues precipitated financial problems which threatened the college's survival in the administrations of Edmund D. Soper, Acting President Edward Loranus Rice, Herbert John Burgstahler; the administration adjusted the curriculum during the early 1930s to address these problems. Greek and Latin declined, while business administration and economics thrived and the highest enrollments were in the social sciences, pre-medicine, history; the registrar reported that, in these years, the number of students from New England states, urban Ohio areas, from international locations increased. By the 1930s, the Methodist students were a minority among the student body.