A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating
Self-defense is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions. Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence; such force can be either unarmed. In either case, the chances of success depend on a large number of parameters, related to the severity of the threat on one hand, but on the mental and physical preparedness of the defender. Many styles of martial arts include self-defense techniques; some styles train for self-defense, while other martial or combat sports can be applied for self-defense. Some martial arts train how to escape from a knife or gun situation, or how to break away from a punch, while others train how to attack. To provide more practical self-defense, many modern martial arts schools now use a combination of martial arts styles and techniques, will customize self-defense training to suit individual participants.
A wide variety of weapons can be used for self-defense. The most suitable depends on the threat presented, the victim or victims, the experience of the defender. Legal restrictions greatly influence self-defence options. In many cases there are legal restrictions. While in some jurisdictions firearms may be carried or concealed expressly for this purpose, many jurisdictions have tight restrictions on who can own firearms, what types they can own. Knives those categorized as switchblades may be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers - although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions. Non-injurious water-based self-defense indelible dye-marker sprays, or ID-marker or DNA-marker sprays linking a suspect to a crime scene, would in most places be legal to own and carry. Everyday objects, such as flashlights, baseball bats, keyrings with keys, kitchen utensils and other tools, hair spray aerosol cans in combination with a lighter, can be used as improvised weapons for self-defense.
Tie-wraps double as an effective restraint. Weapons such as the Kubotan have been built for ease of to resemble everyday objects. Ballpoint pen knives, cane guns and modified umbrellas are similar categories of concealed self-defense weapons that serve a dual purpose. Being aware of and avoiding dangerous situations is one useful technique of self-defense. Attackers will select victims they feel they have an advantage against, such as greater physical size, numerical superiority or sobriety versus intoxication. Additionally, any ambush situation inherently puts the defender at a large initiative disadvantage; these factors make fighting to defeat an attacker unlikely to succeed. When avoidance is impossible, one has a better chance at fighting to escape, such methods have been referred to as'break away' techniques. Understanding the'mindset' of a potential attacker is essential if we are to avoid or escape a life-threatening situation. Verbal Self Defense known as Verbal Judo or Verbal Aikido, is defined as using one's words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault.
This kind of'conflict management' is the use of voice and body language to calm a violent situation before violence ensues. This involves techniques such as deflecting the conversation to individuals who are less passionately involved, or entering into a protected empathetic position to understand the attacker better. Lowering an attacker's defense and raising their ego is one way to de-escalate a violent situation. Personal alarms are a way to practice passive self-defense. A personal alarm is a small, hand-held device that emits strong, high-pitched sounds to deter attackers because the noise will sometimes draw the attention of passersby. Child alarms can function as locators or device alarms such as for triggering an alert when a swimming pool is in use to help prevent dangerous situations in addition to being a deterrent against would-be aggressors. Self-defense techniques and recommended behavior under the threat of violence is systematically taught in self-defense classes. Commercial self-defense education is part of the martial arts industry in the wider sense, many martial arts instructors give self-defense classes.
While all martial arts training can be argued to have some self-defense applications, self-defense courses are marketed explicitly as being oriented towards effectiveness and optimized towards situations as they occur in the real world. There are a large number of systems taught commercially, many tailored to the needs of specific target audiences. Notable systems taught commercially include: civilian versions of modern military combatives, such as Krav-Maga, Defendo and Systema Jujutsu and arts derived from it, such as Aikijujutsu, Bartitsu, German ju-jutsu, Kodokan Goshin Jutsu. Model Mugging Traditional unarmed fighting styles like Karate, Kung fu, Pencak Silat, etc; these styles can include competing. Traditional armed fighting styles like Kali Eskrima and Arnis; these include competing, as well as unarmed combat. Street Fighting oriented, unarmed systems, such as. A course in self defense will compr
Christian Sharps was the inventor of the Sharps rifle, the first commercially successful breech-loading rifle and the four-barrel Sharps Derringer. Born in Washington, New Jersey, in 1810, Christian Sharps married Sarah Elizabeth Chadwick of Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania; the couple had two children: a daughter, a son, Leon Stewart. Sharps was hired as an apprentice gunsmith at the Harpers Ferry Arsenal in the 1830s. While at Harpers Ferry, he was introduced to the Hall rifle, an early breech-loader, worked for its inventor, Captain John H. Hall. Sharps became versed in the manufacture of weapons with interchangeable parts. Sharps' first rifle was patented September 12, 1848, a breech loading design it featured "slanting breech action" and used paper cartridges, it was manufactured by "A. S. Nippes" at Mill Creek, Pennsylvania, in 1850. In 1851, Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company was organized as a holding company with $1,000 in capital and with John C. Palmer as president, Christian Sharps as engineer, Richard S. Lawrence as master armorer and superintendent of manufacturing.
Sharps was to be paid a royalty of $1 per firearm and the factory was built on R&L's property in Hartford, Connecticut. Christian Sharps left the company in 1855 to form his own manufacturing company called "C. Sharps & Co." which produced four-barrel derringers, renamed "Sharps & Hankins", in partnership with William Hankins, in 1862. Both firms were located in Philadelphia. Sharps & Hankins not only produced four-barrel derringers, but the single-shot Model 1861 Navy Rifles and the Model 1862 Carbines, both of which featured forward "sliding breech actions" and fired the.56-52 Spencer rimfire metallic cartridge. The Sharps and Hankins partnership ended in 1867, Sharps resumed the manufacturing of firearms under the C. Sharps and Co. name. In 1870, Sharps and his family moved to Vernon, where he continued working on firearm designs and started a large trout farming business. Succumbing to tuberculosis, Sharps died in Vernon, on March 12, 1874. In all, he was awarded a total of fifteen firearms-related patents.
"C. Sharps & Co." was shuttered after his death and firearms production came to an end. Although, "Sharps Rifle Co" continued to produce his namesake rifles until 1881, when it too closed its doors. In 1983, Shiloh Rifle Manufacturing Company began to produce a line of modern reproductions of the legendary 1874 Sharps Rifle, featured in the 1990 Western film Quigley Down Under, starring Tom Selleck; the Sharps rifle reproductions were manufactured by "Shiloh Products Inc." founded by Len Mulé in partnership with Wolfgang Droge. Len Mulé is considered the second founder of Sharps and responsible for its re-introduction into the modern era. Sharps was issued a patent for his design of a breech-loading rifle on September 12, 1848; the deficiencies of the Hall rifle may have caused Sharps to adopt his new design. The Sharps rifle was designed with a vertical dropping block action, operated by a lever which served as a trigger guard; the action was not only limited the release of gases when the gun was discharged.
Sharps' first rifle, the Model 1849, was manufactured by A. S. Nippes & Co. at Mill Creek, Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Despite not being the first breech-loading rifle, Sharps' was the first to be accepted and, with the onset of the American Civil War, the first to be produced in large quantities; the Sharps, in a carbine version, was the most used cavalry carbine by the Union Army. It was so successful that it was copied and manufactured by the Confederate government to arm its mounted troops. Sharps-designed firearms saw extensive use in the American West as military and hunting weapons, they were regarded as target rifles and were used extensively in international shooting competitions through the late 19th century. One of the more common derringers found in the "Old West" were the Sharps Derringers, they are single-action derringers with a revolving firing pin. They come in.22.30 and.32 rimfire, their four barrels slide forward to load and unload. First patented in 1849, they were not made until 1859, when Sharps patented a practical derringer design.
These first model derringers had brass frames and fired the introduced.22 Rimfire metallic cartridges. The second model was a.30 Rimfire derringer. These pistols were made by "C. Sharps and Co", are sometimes classified by modern collectors as a pepperbox. In 1862 William Hankins partnered with Sharps, bringing much needed funding and the company was renamed "Sharps & Hankins", they introduced the third model derringer in.32 Rimfire, with an iron frame, the barrel release was moved from under the frame to the left side of the frame. These were discontinued when the partnership ended in 1867. In the same year, the newly renamed "C. Sharps and Co" introduced the fourth model derringer with a new "birdshead" grip and shorter barrels, otherwise it was identical to the third model. Production of these little pistols came to an end with the death of Christian Sharps in 1874. 100,000 of these derringers were made between 1859 and 1874. Sharps & Hankins Model 1862 Carbine Sellers, Frank. Sharps Firearms. Smith, Winston O.
The Sharps Rifle. Severn, James E. "The Sharps Sporting Rifle", in The American Rifleman, April 1962. Scientific American, 9 March 1850. Daily National Intelligencer, 21 October 1850
Heckler & Koch P11
The HK P11 is a Heckler & Koch pistol designed as an underwater firearm, developed in 1976. It has five barrels and each fires a 7.62 X 36mm dart electrically. Loading is by means of a five-round case; the design resembles that of a pepper-box firearm. Since ordinary-shaped rounds are inaccurate and have a short range when used underwater, this pistol fires steel darts, it has five barrels, each of, loaded with a cartridge, giving the gun a pepper-box appearance, it is electrically ignited from a battery pack in the pistol grip. After firing all five cartridges, the barrel unit must be sent back to its manufacturer for reloading, it is similar to its predecessor, the Mk 1 Underwater Defense Gun. In the past, Heckler & Koch has denied knowledge of its existence; this firearm is somewhat bulkier than its Soviet counterpart, the SPP-1 underwater pistol, but it has five barrels, as opposed to the Soviet firearm which has four. However, the SPP-1 does not need to be sent back to the manufacturer to be reloaded.
Denmark France Germany: German commando frogmen. Israel Italy: Italian Navy COMSUBIN. Malaysia: Pasukan Khas Laut of the Royal Malaysian Navy Netherlands Norway United Kingdom: Special Boat Service of the British Royal Navy. United States: 100 units have been issued to members of U. S. Special operations forces. SPP-1 underwater pistol – Soviet four-barreled underwater dart pistol Underwater firearm – Firearms that can be fired underwater Electronic firing HKPRO: The HK P11 Securityarms: Heckler & Koch P11 Underwater Pistol Modern Firearms: Heckler Koch HK P11 underwater pistol
American Derringer Corporation is an American manufacturer of firearms, based in Waco, Texas. The company was founded Robert A. Saunders & Elizabeth Saunders in 1980 and makes a variety of derringers and small pocket pistols. Founded in 1980, American Derringer specializes in making high-quality stainless-steel derringers and small pistols, it primary product line is the Model 1 Derringer, based on the iconic Remington Model 95 derringer. These modern stainless steel versions are made in over 60 calibers ranging from.22 Long Rifle, to.45 Long Colt and.410 gauge, to even.45-70 Government. In 1989, American Derringer would introduce the "Lady Derringer" marketing concept; as a result, Elizabeth would become the face of the company and would model in provocative clothing for calendars and gun magazine advertisements. This marketing campaign was successful and credited with increasing sales. In 1990, American Derringer obtain the rights to the High Standard Derringer design and produce a larger.38 Special version.
These derringers called the DS22 and DA38 are still made and continue to be popular concealed carry handguns. In the same year, they introduced a version of the quad-barrel, double-action COP 357 Derringer and a smaller caliber version called the MINI COP in.22 Magnum, although these were discontinued. American Derringer makes a small semi-automatic pistol called the LM5, chambered for.25ACP and.32 Auto. It makes the Semmerling LM4, a five-shot.45 ACP manual repeating double-action pistol designed for backup purposes. American Derringer has made Mini-Revolvers and the Stainless Steel Pen Pistol Model 2, which "Transforms From A'PEN' To A Legal Pistol In 2 Seconds", although these were discontinued