The T3 is a famous type of Czech tramcar produced by ČKD Tatra. Well-maintained tramcars of this type are reliable, a late-2000s study conducted on the Prague tram system has shown 98.9% reliability, the best of the Prague tram system fleet. During its period of production, between 1960 and 1999, 13,991 powered units and 122 unpowered trailers were sold worldwide, it is the most produced tram car in the world; the design of the T3 had to meet difficult specifications. The cars be easier to build; some of the things that were done in order to meet this goal were making the walls thinner, fitting the cars with laminate seats instead of cushioned leatherette seats such as the T2 used. The T3 was delivered to all tramway companies in the former Czechoslovakia, it was most numerous in Prague. The T3 still forms the backbone of the Czech tram fleet; as with the T2SU, the first T3SU was delivered with the modification of removing the middle door and replacing it with seats. Cars, were delivered with the third door in place.
Again, the vehicles were adapted for the harsh climate. Altogether 11,368 T3SU were delivered, making it the largest production of a single type of streetcar worldwide, but because so many of one type were made, their replacement by more modern cars was slow. The T3SU was delivered from 1963, first to Moscow and to 33 further Soviet cities; the production of the T3 was stopped in 1976 and focus shifted to newer vehicles. The Slovak city Košice, ordered two motor coaches as an exception; the production of the replacement type KT8D5 was slated to begin in 1985, but this model was by obsolete. Further production of the T3 would have been too expensive, so instead vehicles of the type T3SU were re-imported and adapted; the closed operator's cab was maintained, the vehicles had all three doors in place, differed from the original T3 only in a few details. Over time, the T3SU has had minor changes in both exterior interior design. Exterior details: <1966: Narrow passenger windows disappeared ~1969: Narrow window route designators 1980s: Illuminated route indicator on top ~1985: Oval turn indicator at the front became two rectangular lights.
The same lamps began to be fitted to the rear 1983 onwards: Small grid in the forward section of the tram on the left side ~1985: Two small red lamps near the tramcar-to-tramcar "control circuit port", both front and rear Additional red horizontal lamps from behindInterior: Early 1960s to early 1970s: Sofa-style seats Early 1970s to mid-1980s: "Toilet"-like seats 1977-1978: Cream-coloured saloon In East Germany the first three T3D cars started operation in 1964 and the city of Dresden got its first delivery in 1965. The cars were used in part due to their width of 2.50 m. They operated as multiple units and/or as mini trams; the use of trailer cars was due to the use of original Czech T3 electrical equipment, which had enough power to support trailer cars. However, due to reduced available power, the maximum speed of the streetcar reached only 55 km/h instead of the usual 65 km/h. Only German and Yugoslav networks had trailer cars; the car was designated as B3D and had the same body as the T3D.
Today, only Chemnitz uses T3s in full service as the T3D-M. From 1967 onwards, vehicles supplied to Yugoslavia differed from the standard type T3 by having different pantographs and trucks. In addition, trailer cars were used, as in East Germany. Uncommonly, the network used narrow-profile vehicles, two of which could be found in Czechoslovakia and one in the Soviet Union. At the end of the 1960s, Romania ordered RA cars as part of an agreement in the Comecon; the first vehicles came in 1970 to the city of Galaţi and had different electrical equipment from the Czechoslovak vehicles, to use the network's 750 V DC voltage. Since the car boxes were built too wide for use elsewhere, they remain in Galaţi. Only 50 units were delivered. Romania opted for the narrower Tatra T4, which had more success, being still used in Bucharest as of 2019. A few more of the same type were manufactured in 1997. Four Tatra T3RF were the last T3 trams built, they were made for Samara and Izhevsk. In 2002 the two others were modernized.
In most Czech cities and in some others such as Bratislava, Moscow and Odessa, Tatra-T3 trams became common. As a result and maintenance workers became experienced at servicing them; this was one reason for modifying existing trams rather than replacing them with newer stock. Modernization includes: Restoration of the car body Digital/Electronic destination sign installation Audio information system Installation of new traction motors Thyristor-controlled motor traction system Refurbishing of the interior, which varies by city and transport authority Pantograph replacement More radical modernization includes insertion of a low-floor section. 14,113 trams were produced and delivered to: Fleet numbers Most – Litvínov: 204, 205, 210, 211, 214, 222–225, 227–234, 236, 238, 246, 247, 249, 250, 259, 261, 266 Most – Litvínov: 235, 237, 240–245, 248, 251–254, 257, 260, 264, 269, 271, 274–284, 300–313 Most – Litvínov: 201–203, 206–209, 212, 213, 215–221, 226, 239, 255, 256, 258, 262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 270, 280 Prague (car bodi
Sirio is a low-floor tram built by AnsaldoBreda, an Italian manufacturer of trains and light-rail vehicles. It can be ordered with a variety of track gauges. Azienda Trasporti Milanesi, the city transport company of Milan, has bought 93 Sirios. In 2002, the first carriages were delivered; the ATM has 58 seven section Sirios with a length of 35.35 metres. The ATM has 35 five section Sirietto with a length of 25.15 metres. Both types of Sirios have a width of 2.40 metres and have been built for the unusual track gauge of 1,445 mm. The maximum speed is 70 km/h. Part of the 7500 will be numbered in the 7600 series because of minor modifications, it is not known how many Sirio will be built. All Sirios in Milan sport a dark green livery; the city of Gothenburg, ordered 40 one-directional Sirio trams which were to be put into service on the Gothenburg tram network during 2005 and onwards. The trams functioned poorly when put into traffic. Among reported problems were excessive track damage caused by the trams, malfunctioning air conditioners inside the trams, poor ride quality.
The City of Gothenburg therefore withheld a large part of the payment for a delivered tram until operational. On December 3, 2009, the city authorities exercised their option for a further 25 trams of the same design at a cost of €61 million. In February 2013, 38 out of the total 40 trams delivered in the first series were taken out of service due to extensive corrosion on the chassis. Repairing the rusted chassis and moldy passenger floors is expected to be completed by 2017, at a cost of an extra €10 million for the Gothenburg council, according to the revised contract, though Ansaldobreda bears the majority of the cost for these deficiencies. Of the 65 trams purchased, only about 35–40 are usable. Due to further delays on the part of Ansaldobreda with corrosion repairs and substandard quality in completed works, the council of Gothenburg cancelled the contract for corrosion repairs in November 2015. None of the three repaired trams that Ansaldobreda delivered, was in working order and might be scrapped.
The investigation launched into the matter found, that the trams were jerry-built, that Ansaldobreda did not have the will or the competence to do anything about the problems. It was discovered, that the badly built trams have resulted in extensive track damage that will be costly to repair, adding to the "fiasco" of the Gothenburg Ansaldobreda tram affair. In August 2017 an arbitration outside the courts awarded Gothenburg municipality 12 million euro in damages; the municipality was to compensate Ansaldobreda for a breach of contract as the municipality had annulled the contract on the grounds of late delivery of faulty trams, while Ansaldobreda was to compensate the municipality for their extra expenses and the inability of the trams deliver the promised logistic capacity. Athens, Greece: Athens Tram S. A. operates a fleet of 35 bi-directional Sirio vehicles, styled by Pininfarina. Bergamo, Italy: Bergamo–Albino light rail14 bi directional Florence, Italy: 17 bi-directional. Naples, Italy: 22 bi-directional.
Samsun, Turkey: 16 trams Kayseri. Turkey Sassari, Italy: 4 st bi-directional for Metrosassari. 950mm track gauge. Zhuhai, China: Zhuhai Tram Line 1, opening November 2014, trams built by CRRC Dalian. Beijing, China: Xijiao line, trams built by CRRC Dalian. Urbos CROTRAM Citadis Combino Ansaldobreda Sirio official page Ansaldobreda Sirio type 7100 pictures Ansaldobreda Sirio type 7500 pictures Florence tramway project official site
Trams in Rijeka
Tram traffic in Rijeka was introduced in 1899. The first electric tram appeared on the streets of Rijeka on November 7, 1899 and thus marked the beginnings of organised public transport in the town. By a single-track line, four kilometres long it carried passengers from the bridge on Rječina to the Railway Station; each of the eight existing trams could take twenty-eight passengers. In 1907, the tram started to run from Školjić to the place where today’s shipyard "3. Maj" is, while three years it went all the way to Kantrida. During the Second World War it was the only means of public transport in the town while after the War new buses were acquired and they took over the public transport in the town. Tram tracks that were in a poor condition became a danger for the traffic safety so that on June 15, 1952 the Rijeka tram had to be retired
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Hitachi Rail Italy
Hitachi Rail Italy S.p. A. is a rail transport engineering company based in Italy whose main products are the design and manufacturing of railway and mass transit vehicles. AnsaldoBreda S.p. A. A subsidiary of Finmeccanica, the company was sold in 2015 to Hitachi Rail along with the 40% share of Ansaldo STS that Finmeccanica owned. After the deal was finalized, the current name was adapted in November 2015 to reflect the new ownership. In 1853, the company Gio. Ansaldo & C. was registered in Genoa as a manufacturer of steam locomotives, rail rolling stock and steam engines. The company was supported by the Minister of Finance, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who aimed to reduce the State of Savoy's dependence on imported trains and rolling stock. Ansaldo entered the age of the steam locomotive in 1854 with its model FS113 known as Sampierdarena. In 1886, Ernesto Breda founded Ing. Ernesto Breda and C. the company which became Società Italiana Ernesto Breda in 1899. In 1908 SIEB's thousandth locomotive was built, a model FS 685 with serial number 600 now preserved in the Leonardo da Vinci Museum of Science and Technology in Milan.
It used. Breda entered the electric locomotive era in 1936 with the production of the FS Class ETR 200 series electric multiple unit. In 1939 this type set the land speed record for rail vehicles at 203 km/h. Although only 18 trains of this type were constructed they remained in service for a long time until they were withdrawn from service in 1993. In 1976 the FS ETR 400 entered service. Fiat Ferroviaria manufactured the body and bogies, whilst Ansaldo produced the power unit, it was the first train in the world featuring active body tilting to enter commercial service and was capable of speeds of up to 250 km/h. AnsaldoBreda was formed in 2001 by the merger of Ansaldo Trasporti and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie, was part of the Finmeccanica group, it has production sites at four locations in Italy: Naples, Reggio Calabria and Pistoia. The TREVI Consortium, of which Ansaldo and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie were members, introduced the high speed FS ETR 500 series in 1989. AnsaldoBreda won the contract for 82 new IC4 trains for the Danish national operator DSB.
However, the introduction of the units was plagued by problems, whilst the trains were scheduled to come into service in 2003, the final unit was delivered in 2013. Following more train failures, DSB announced the fleet would be phased out from 2024; the first high-speed trains to run on Turkish rails were two ETR 500 train sets leased from Trenitalia of Italy and were used for testing the completed part of the high-speed railway network between Eskişehir and Ankara on April 23, 2007. During the tests, ETR 500 Y2 achieved the current rail speed record in Turkey; the train was capable of exceeding 300 km/h. It reached 362 km/h in the Monte Bibele tunnel between Florence and Bologna in 2009, setting a speed record for trains in a tunnel. Another high speed train Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train was developed in a consortium with Bombardier Transportation; the first ETR1000 was christened Mennea in honour of the Italian athlete Pietro Mennea who had died five days earlier. Besides the construction of locomotives, AnsaldoBreda manufactures railway cars and trains for commuter rail, high-speed rail, main lines.
Finmeccanica and Hitachi announced on 2 November 2015 the'closing of transactions' covering the acquisition by Hitachi of AnsaldoBreda and Finmeccanica’s 40% stake in Ansaldo STS. Under the agreements signed on 24 February 2015, following a dividend distribution announced on 6 March, the purchase price for Finmeccanica’s stake in Ansaldo STS has been set at €9.50 per share, amounting to a total of €761m. The total net consideration to be paid for AnsaldoBreda as a going concern, including property assets, amounts to around €30m; as a part of the deal Finmeccanica would keep the responsibility for some residual contracts. On 2 November 2015 AnsaldoBreda was changed its name to Hitachi Rail Italy. Since acquired by Hitachi, production of some British Rail Class 802 has been shifted to Hitachi Rail Italy's Pistoia plant due to Hitachi Rail's Newton Aycliffe, England plant being at capacity. Elettrotreno ETR 200 for Fortaleza Metro running in the Linha Sul AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Copenhagen Metro.
Diesel multiple unit IC4 for DSB AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Athens Tram. high-speed ETR 500 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. High-speed Frecciarossa 1000 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Locomotive E.402 locomotive E.403 multiple unit Treno Servizio Regionale for LeNORD. Multiple unit Treno ad alta frequentazione for Ferrovie Nord Milano. Multiple unit Caravaggio for Trenitalia and FNM. three-car articulated units ETR 211 Metrostar for Circumvesuviana. The Circumvesuviana operate a fleet of twenty-six "Metrostar". Meneghino for Milan Metro. Leonardo for Milan Metro. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Milan Metro and Brescia Metro. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Tramvie Elettriche Bergamasche of Bergamo. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Rete tranviaria di Firenze of Florence. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Naples tramway network of Naples and for Sassari metro-tramway. Multiple unit TAF Z2M for ONCF; the ONCF operates a fleet of 24 trains. Electric multiple unit NSB Class 72 for Norwegian State Railways.
The NSB operates a fleet of 36 trains. Multiple unit SL95 for Oslo Tramway. Sporveien Trikken operates a fleet of articulated trams. Over the years, AnsaldoBreda has updated the equipment to meet the requirements and demands of the operator in Norway. Multiple unit AnsaldoBreda series S7000 operates on the Line 10 Madrid Metro; the Madrid Metro operates a fleet of 37 trains
Trams in Pula
The city of Pula had an electric tram system in the early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After World War I, under Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was dismantled in 1934; the trial run was completed on March 24, 1904 and regular traffic started the next day. The tracks started at the rail station. One branch traversed along the coast and Arsenal to St. Policarp where there was the depot and today there is the cement factory; the second branch passed by Marina Casino and across the center of the city along the Arena, again to the railroad station. On a branch from Arena to Šiana forest was built. There was a plan to expand the tracks to Vodnjan; the width of the tracks was 1435 millimeters. After World War I, the tram system was challenged by bus lines and so on June 16, 1934 the tram line was closed and public transportation was taken over by the "Gattoni" bus company. "O NAMA-eng | Pulapromet".
Retrieved 2017-06-08. Istria on the Internet - Tramways
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an