Current reality tree (theory of constraints)
One of the thinking processes in the theory of constraints, a current reality tree is a way of analyzing many systems or organizational problems at once. By identifying root causes common to most or all of the problems, a CRT can aid focused improvement of the system. A current reality tree is a directed graph. A CRT is a focusing procedure formulated by Eliyahu Goldratt, developer of the theory of constraints; this process is intended to help leaders gain understanding of cause and effect in a situation they want to improve. It treats multiple problems in a system as symptoms arising from one or a few ultimate root causes or systemic core problems, it describes, in a visual diagram, the main perceived symptoms of a problem scenario and the apparent root causes or core conflict. The benefit of building a CRT is that it identifies the connections or dependencies between perceived symptoms and root causes explicitly. If core problems are identified and tackled well, multiple undesirable effects in the system will disappear.
Leaders may focus on solving the few core problems which would cause the biggest positive systemic changes. A CRT is a statement of the symptoms that arise from it, it maps out a sequence of effect from the core problem to the symptoms. Most of the symptoms will arise from a core conflict. Removing the core problem may well lead to removing each of the symptoms as well. Operationally working backwards from the apparent undesirable effects or symptoms to uncover or discover the underlying core cause. A CRT begins with a list of problems, known as undesirable effects These are assumed to be symptoms of a deeper common cause. To take a somewhat frivolous example, a car owner may have the following UDEs: the car's engine will not start the air conditioning is not working the radio sounds distortedThe CRT depicts a chain of cause-and-effect reasoning in graphical form, where ellipses or circles represent an "and"; the graphic is constructed by: attempting to link any two UDEs using cause-and-effect reasoning.
For example, "if the engine needs fuel in order to run and fuel is not getting to the engine the car's engine will not start." Elaborating the reasoning to ensure it is sound and plausible. For example, "if the air intake is full of water air conditioning is not working." Elaboration gets added as in-between step. Linking each of the remaining UDEs to the existing tree by repeating the previous steps; this approach tends to converge on a single root cause. In the illustrated case, the root cause of the above UDEs is seen as being a faulty handbrake. Theory of constraints Thinking processes Why-because analysis Influence diagrams approach
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some of these agencies exist for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities. Many of these agencies engage in community awareness and prevention programs to help the public avoid and report emergencies effectively; the availability of emergency services depends heavily on location, may in some cases rely on the recipient giving payment or holding suitable insurance or other surety for receiving the service. There are three primary emergency services that can be summoned directly by the public: Police — law enforcement, criminal investigation, maintenance of public order. Fire — firefighting, hazardous materials response, technical rescue. EMS — emergency medical services and technical rescueEmergency services have one or more dedicated emergency telephone numbers reserved for critical emergency calls.
In some countries, one number is used for all the emergency services. In some countries, each emergency service has its own emergency number; these services can be provided by one of the core services or by a separate government or private body. Emergency management — incident management and coordination. Tactical teams — hostage rescue and counter-terrorism operations and high-risk arrests. Hazardous Devices Team/Public Safety Bomb Disposal Public Safety Dive Teams/Maritime Units Canine Units — drug detection, explosive detection, cadaver detection and accelerant detection and rescue, evidence search, suspect apprehension, handler protection. Aviation Units — law enforcement, emergency medical services and technical rescue, emergency management functions. Fire fighting Units Hazardous Materials — hazardous materials mitigation Search and Rescue Wildland firefighting Military These groups and organizations respond to emergencies and provide other safety-related services either as a part of their on-the-job duties, as part of the main mission of their business or concern, or as part of their hobbies.
Public utilities — safeguarding gas and water, which are all hazardous if infrastructure fails Public Works — assessing and repairing damage to buildings and bridges. Emergency road service — provide repair or recovery for disabled or crashed vehicles Civilian Traffic Officers — such as operated by the Highways Agency in the UK to facilitate clearup and traffic flow at road traffic collisions Emergency social services Community emergency response teams — help organize facilities such as rest centers during large emergencies Disaster relief — such as services provided by the Red Cross and Salvation Army Famine relief teams Amateur radio communications groups — provide communications support during emergencies Poison Control — providing specialist support for poisoning Animal control — can assist or lead response to emergencies involving animals Voluntary medical services — medical & first aid support. Providers of these services include: St. John Ambulance / Red Cross / Order of Malta Ambulance Corps.
Some locations have emergency services dedicated to them, whilst this does not preclude employees using their skills outside this area, they are focused on the safety or security of a given geographical place. Lifeguards — charged with reacting to emergencies within their own given remit area a pool, beach or open water area Park rangers — looking after many emergencies within their given area, including fire and security issues Ski patrol — provides emergency medical care and rescue services within their area, such as a ski resort or backcountry. Effective emergency service management requires agencies from many different services to work together and to have open lines of communication. Most services do, or should, have procedures and liaisons in place to ensure this, although absence of these can be detrimental to good working. There can sometimes be tension between services for a number of other reasons, including professional versus voluntary crew members, or based on area or division.
To aid effective communications, different services may share common practices and protocol for certain large-scale emergencies. In the UK used shared protocols include CHALET and ETHANE while in the US, the Department of Homeland Security has called for nationwide implementation of the National Incident Management System, of which the Incident Command System is a part. Smart Emergency Response System prototype was built in the SmartAmerica Challenge 2013-2014, a United States government initiative. SERS was created by a team of nine organizations; the project was featured at the White House in June 2014 and called an exemplary achievement by Todd Park. The SmartAmerica initiative challenges the participants to build cyber-physical systems as a glimpse of the future to save lives, create jobs, foster businesses, improve the economy. SERS saves lives; the system provides the survivors and the emergency personnel with information to locate and assist each other during a disaster. SERS allows organization to submit help requests to a MATLAB-based mission center connecting first responders, search-and-rescue dogs, a 6-feet-tall humanoid, robots and autonomous aircraft and ground vehicles.
The command and control center optimizes the available resources to serve every incoming requests and generates an acti
CRT Group is an intermodal transport company in Australia. It was founded in 1954 as a taxi truck company in Sydney. In 1981 it became known as the CRT Group, by the time of its acquisition by QR National in June 2005, was in the top 10 logistics companies in Australia with a turnover of $80 million, moving over 600,000 tonnes of freight a year; the company specialises in the movement of food products and plastics. CRT Group operated a number of terminals, with those at Yennora in Sydney and Altona in Melbourne provided with their own railway sidings. Owned X100 and X200 class rail tractors X101, X107, X118, X208, X209 and X216 were used to shunt, as well as larger 73 class shunters 7322, 7333 and 7334 with X209, 7322 and 7334 painted in a blue and off white scheme with CRT Group logos. CRT Group introduced the first CargoSprinter to Australia in February 2002. Built by Windhoff in Germany this Diesel Multiple Unit consists of two driving and power units, each fitted with a full width cab and two Volvo truck engines for propulsion, which operate in a push pull mode, with up to seven trailers in between.
The radio communication system in the CargoSprinter is based around a computer running the Linux operating system, with application software written using C, Phoenix and Pascal. Original specification CargoSprinter's used USB connections between electronics modules, second generation machines used TCP/IP across a LAN. After a number of promotional trips, the CargoSprinter operated a tri-weekly service from Melbourne to Wodonga in 2003, followed by a port shuttle from the Port of Melbourne to Altona from 1 September that year; the company owned over 2000 low profile 30 feet silver shipping containers that were used on their own services. Linehaul of freight between CRT Group terminals was contracted to outside railway operators. In the early 2000s Freight Australia was contracted to move freight between Sydney; the contract contained a clause that if Freight Australia was acquired by a competitor of CRT Group, 10,000 hp of locomotive power was to be transferred to CRT Group. As a result, when Freight Australia was acquired by Pacific National in 2004, X53, X54, G516 and G534 were transferred to CRT.
After this date linehaul of CRT freight passed to QR National along with the four Freight Australia locomotives, who operated Melbourne to Brisbane services for the company. In June 2005, QR National acquired CRT Group. A revised corporate image was unveiled in August 2008. In August 2014, Qube Logistics entered an agreement to purchase the business from Aurizon, with the transaction expected to be completed in October 2014
Chinese remainder theorem
The Chinese remainder theorem is a theorem of number theory, which states that if one knows the remainders of the Euclidean division of an integer n by several integers one can determine uniquely the remainder of the division of n by the product of these integers, under the condition that the divisors are pairwise coprime. The earliest known statement of the theorem is by the Chinese mathematician Sunzi in Sunzi Suanjing in the 3rd century AD; the Chinese remainder theorem is used for computing with large integers, as it allows replacing a computation for which one knows a bound on the size of the result by several similar computations on small integers. The Chinese remainder theorem is true over every principal ideal domain, it has been generalized with a formulation involving ideals. The earliest known statement of the theorem, as a problem with specific numbers, appears in the 3rd-century book Sunzi Suanjing by the Chinese mathematician Sunzi: There are certain things whose number is unknown.
If we count them by threes, we have two left over. How many things are there? Sunzi's work contains neither a full algorithm. What amounts to an algorithm for solving this problem was described by Aryabhata. Special cases of the Chinese remainder theorem were known to Brahmagupta, appear in Fibonacci's Liber Abaci; the result was generalized with a complete solution called Dayanshu in Qin Jiushao's 1247 Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections. The notion of congruences was first introduced and used by Gauss in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae of 1801. Gauss illustrates the Chinese remainder theorem on a problem involving calendars, namely, "to find the years that have a certain period number with respect to the solar and lunar cycle and the Roman indiction." Gauss introduces a procedure for solving the problem, used by Euler but was in fact an ancient method that had appeared several times. Let n1... ni... nk be integers greater than 1, which are called moduli or divisors. Let us denote by N the product of the ni.
The Chinese remainder theorem asserts that if the ni are pairwise coprime, if a1... ak are integers such that 0 ≤ ai < ni for every i there is one and only one integer x, such that 0 ≤ x < N and the remainder of the Euclidean division of x by ni is ai for every i. This may be restated as follows in term of congruences: If the ni are pairwise coprime, if a1... ak are any integers there exists an integer x such that x ≡ a 1 ⋮ x ≡ a k, any two such x are congruent modulo N. In abstract algebra, the theorem is restated as: if the ni are pairwise coprime, the map x mod N ↦ defines a ring isomorphism Z / N Z ≅ Z / n 1 Z × ⋯ × Z / n k Z between the ring of integers modulo N and the direct product of the rings of integers modulo the ni; this means that for doing a sequence of arithmetic operations in Z / N Z, one may do the same computation independently in each Z / n i Z and get the result by applying the isomorphism. This may be much faster than the direct computation if the number of operations are large.
This is used, under the name multi-modular computation, for linear algebra over the integers or the rational numbers. The theorem can be restated in the language of combinatorics as the fact that the infinite arithmetic progressions of integers form a Helly family; the existence and the uniqueness of the solution may be proven independently. However, the first proof of existence, given below, uses this uniqueness. Suppose that x and y are both solutions to all the congruences; as x and y give the same remainder, when divided by ni, their difference x − y is a multiple of each ni. As the ni are pairwise coprime, their product N divides x − y, thus x and y are congruent modulo N. If x and y are supposed to be non negative and less than N their difference may be a multiple of N only if x = y; the map x ↦ maps congruence classes modulo N
A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and power supply; the display device in modern monitors is a thin film transistor liquid crystal display with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube. Monitors are connected to the computer via VGA, Digital Visual Interface, HDMI, DisplayPort, low-voltage differential signaling or other proprietary connectors and signals. Computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality; the common aspect ratio of televisions, computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9. Modern computer monitors are interchangeable with conventional television sets. However, as computer monitors do not include components such as a television tuner and speakers, it may not be possible to use a computer monitor as a television without external components.
Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the'monitor'; as early monitors were only capable of displaying a limited amount of information and were transient, they were considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program's operation; as technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right. Computer monitors were known as visual display units, but this term had fallen out of use by the 1990s. Multiple technologies have been used for computer monitors.
Until the 21st century most used cathode ray tubes but they have been superseded by LCD monitors. The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes. Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis; the display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of large text and limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use; some of the earliest home computers were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality.
Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter, capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350. By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could display 1024 x 768 pixels were available and affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees. CRTs still offer some image quality advantages over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious; the dynamic range of early LCD panels was poor, although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.
There are multiple technologies. Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT; the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color. As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines. TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD, now the dominant technology used for computer monitors; the first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.
The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LC
Chongqing Rail Transit
The Chongqing Rail Transit is the rapid transit system in the city of Chongqing, China. In operation since 2005, it serves the transportation needs of the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs; as of December 2018, CRT consisted with a total track length of 311.9 km. Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are high-capacity monorails. To keep up with urban growth, construction is under way on Lines 9 and S5, in addition to extensions to Lines 1, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line. A network of 18 lines is planned; the Chongqing Rail Transit is a unique transit system in China because of the geography of Chongqing being a densely-populated but mountainous city, with multiple river valleys. Two lines use heavy-monorail technology, leveraging the ability to negotiate steep grades and tight curves and rapid transit capacity, they are capable of transporting 32,000 passengers per hour per direction. At 98 km, the system's two monorail lines form the longest monorail system in the world, with the 56.1 km Line 3 being the world's longest single monorail line if the 11.0 km Airport branch is excluded.
The length and the capacity of its monorail network both make it the world's busiest monorail system, with a total of 94 million and 250 million rides in 2015 on Line 2 and Line 3, respectively. The latter ridership statistic for Line 3 makes it the world's busiest single monorail line; the extreme difference in elevation between the river valleys and the hilly plateaus of Chongqing pose a unique challenge in designing alignments for conventional rail transit lines. The network has the world's highest metro-only bridge, the Caijia Rail Transit Bridge for Line 6, spanning the Jialing River valley, with the bridge deck being 100 m above the water. Hongtudi station is the deepest subway station in China and the second-deepest station in the world, after the Kiev Metro's Arsenalna, with Line 10's platforms being more than 94 m below the surface. Liyuchi station on Line 10, is the second-deepest station in China, being 76 m below the surface; the Chongqing Rail Transit is in the process of constructing a number of extremely-long metro-only suspension bridges.
The Gaojiahuayuan Rail Transit Bridge carries the western arc of the Loop line over the Jialing River across a 577 m bridge with a main span of 340 m. The 1,650 m long Egongyan Rail Transit Bridge will carry the southern arc of the Loop line across the Yangtze River using a 600 m long suspension main span, making it the longest metro-only bridge by main span in the world; the Nanjimen Bridge will carry Line 10 trains across a 1,225 m cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 480 m, making it the longest metro-only cable-stayed bridge by main span in the world, surpassing the Vancouver Skybridge in Canada. The Chongqing Metro has numerous double-deck bridges carrying vehicle and metro traffic, such as the Chaotianmen Bridge, the world's longest arch bridge; the Loop Line is a rapid transit loop line. The northeastern section was opened on December 28, 2018; when the line is completed, it will run through two important railway stations: Chongqing North Railway Station, Chongqing West Railway Station.
Line 1 runs 16.4 km from Chaotianmen, in the central west, to Shapingba and to Jiandingpo with a length of 38.9 km. It has 23 stations, including interchange stations with Line 2, at Jiaochangkou in Jeifangbei CBD and Daping, with Line 3, at Lianglukou, near Chongqing Rail Station, in the Caiyuanba section of central Yuzhong, it is the second in Western China. The passenger capacity is 36,000 passengers per hour in each way; the line serves as the system's backbone connecting the densest areas including the main Central Business Districts of Jiefangbei, Lianglukou and Shapingba. It is the first conventional subway, running in a deep-bored tunnel below Yuzhong and Shapingba Districts. In 1992, the Chongqing government signed a Build-Operate-Transfer agreement with a Hong Kong company and provided the land for the project, but work ceased in 1997 because of legal issues. Work resumed from Chaotianmen to Shapingba on 9 June 2009, a limited opening occurred on 28 July 2011. Thales provided an operations control centre for the line.
Line 2, a monorail line, has 25 stations. It begins as a subway under downtown Jiefangbei runs west along the southern bank of Jialing River on an elevated line, turns south into the southwestern inner suburbs, looping back east, to terminate at Yudong, in Ba'nan District, it runs elevated, but a 2.2 km section is underground, including three of its 18 stations in the Jiefangbei CBD and central Daping areas in the extremely-dense area of Yuzhong District. Line 2 runs through four administrative districts in the central city. In 2010, Line 2 served 45 million passengers, it runs through Daping CBD and Yangjiaping CBD in Jiulongpo District and Chongqing Zoo at Zoo Station. Most trains have four cars, six-car trains began to operate in September 2012. Line 2 is the first rapid transit line to open in the Interior West of China, in 2005. In 2013, six-car trains are being implemented because of overcrowding and increasing demand. Line 3 is the busiest monorail in the world, it runs from the Jialing Rivers.
The initial segment, from Lianglukou to Yuanyang, opened on 29 September 2011, with a n
2012 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season
The 2012 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 64th F. I. M. Road Racing World Championship season. Casey Stoner started the season as the defending World Champion, while Honda was the defending Manufacturers' Champion. Moto2 champion Stefan Bradl joined the MotoGP grid with LCR Honda and 125cc champion Nicolás Terol entered Moto2, racing for Aspar. In the premier MotoGP class, the championship battle revolved around Yamaha rider Jorge Lorenzo and Honda pairing Dani Pedrosa and defending champion Stoner. Lorenzo won four of the first six races to be held in the campaign to open up an advantage over Stoner, before he was taken out of the Dutch TT on the first lap by Álvaro Bautista. In the next race, Stoner crashed out of the German Grand Prix on the final lap and allowed Pedrosa to take his first win of the season. Stoner struggled in the next few races – despite a victory at the United States Grand Prix – with his championship challenge ended by a qualifying crash at Indianapolis. After ankle surgery, he returned to the series and won his final race of his career at his home race, the Australian Grand Prix, for the sixth successive season.
Pedrosa went on a run of five victories in six races, with the streak being interrupted by a first-lap crash at Misano, where he was taken out by Héctor Barberá. Lorenzo finished second to Pedrosa on each occasion that he had won, he took advantage of Pedrosa's accident to win at Misano. Lorenzo won the title with a second-place finish to Stoner in Australia, after Pedrosa had crashed out of the lead early on. In the other classes, Marc Márquez won the Moto2 championship title after a season-long battle with fellow Spanish rider Pol Espargaró, he took his last victory in the class at the Valencian Grand Prix, the last event of the season, despite starting from 33rd on the grid. This performance, which included overtaking 20 bikes on the first lap alone, meant the biggest comeback in the sport's history. Márquez's result was enough to give Suter the constructors' title for the class; the inaugural Moto3 world championship title went to German rider Sandro Cortese, following his fourth victory of the season at the Malaysian Grand Prix, which gave him an unassailable points lead over his two title rivals Luis Salom and Maverick Viñales in the championship race.
Cortese became the first rider to win any Grand Prix title for the Austrian manufacturer KTM. KTM won the constructors' championship at the Australian Grand Prix, doing so after Cortese won the race; the MotoGP class saw the introduction of engines with 1,000 cc in capacity, with a limit of 4 cylinders and a maximum 81 mm cylinder bore. The 2012 season saw the introduction of four-stroke bikes in the new Moto3 class. In 2012 the MotoGP class saw the introduction of Claiming Rule Teams to allow for participation by independent teams with lower budgets. CRTs were given twelve engines per rider, six more than the other teams and more fuel – 24 litres instead of 21 litres – but were subject to a factory team buying, or "claiming", their engines for €15,000, or €20,000 with the transmission; the sport's governing body received applications from sixteen new teams looking to join the MotoGP class. In June 2011, the FIM announced that six teams from Moto2 – Interwetten Paddock, Forward Racing, Marc VDS, Kiefer Racing, Speed Master and BQR-Blusens – had been granted entries to the 2012 grid.
However, Interwetten Paddock, Marc VDS, Kiefer Racing were absent from the revised grid released by FIM in January 2012. The following Grands Prix were scheduled to take place in 2012:The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme released an 18-race provisional calendar on 14 September 2011. Another provisional calendar was released three months with the Qatar Grand Prix moved forward by a week. ‡ = Night race † = MotoGP class only †† = Saturday race Only the MotoGP class raced during the United States Grand Prix because of a Californian law on air pollution, preventing the Moto3 and Moto2 classes from racing. The Czech Republic and Indianapolis Grand Prix swapped places. ‡ = Night race † = MotoGP class only †† = Saturday race A provisional entry list was released by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme on 13 January 2012. Notes ‡ — Gresini Honda nominated to run Michele Pirro on a Honda-powered FTR chassis under CRT regulations. Andrea Dovizioso left Repsol Honda Team to join Monster Yamaha Tech 3.
Colin Edwards moved from Monster Yamaha Tech 3 to NGM Mobile Forward Racing. Stefan Bradl moved up from Moto2, joining LCR Honda MotoGP. Héctor Barberá still rode a Ducati. 2011 FIM Superstock 1000 Cup runner-up Danilo Petrucci debuted in the MotoGP category with Came IodaRacing Project. Randy de Puniet exchanged with Barberá. Álvaro Bautista, who lost his place at the retiring Suzuki MotoGP team, joined San Carlo Honda Gresini. Iván Silva rode for Avintia Blusens. Aleix Espargaró stepped up from Pons Racing in Moto2 to Power Electronics Aspar. Michele Pirro was confirmed by San Carlo Honda Gresini, promoted from Moto2 to MotoGP. Mattia Pasini debuted from Moto2 with Speed Master. Avintia Blusens promoted Yonny Hernández from Moto2 to MotoGP. James Ellison returned to MotoGP from the British Superbike Championship, riding for Paul Bird Motorsport. Hiroshi Aoyama was move